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J 0444 OPERATION MANAGEMENT t er P 15 Desain Lokasi Universitas Bina Nusantara

Chapter 9 Facility Location n Issues in Facility Location n Various Plant Location Methods

Competitive Imperatives Impacting Location n The need to produce close to the customer due to time-based competition, trade agreements, and shipping costs. n The need to locate near the appropriate labor pool to take advantage of low wage costs and/or high technical skills.

Issues in Facility Location Proximity to Customers n Business Climate n Total Costs n Infrastructure n Quality of Labor n Suppliers n Other Facilities n

Issues in Facility Location Free Trade Zones n Political Risk n Government Barriers n Trading Blocs n Environmental Regulation n Host Community n Competitive Advantage n

Plant Location Methodology: Factor Rating Method Example Two refineries sites (A and B) are assigned the following range of point values and respective points, where the more points the better for the site location. Sites Major factors for site location Pt. Range A 123 150 54 24 45 34 8 45 45 Total pts. 528 B 156 100 63 96 55 14 4 50 Best Site 20 is B 558

Plant Location Methodology: Transportation Method of Linear Programming n Transportation method of linear programming seeks to minimize costs of shipping n units to m destinations or its seeks to maximize profit of shipping n units to m destinations.

Plant Location Methodology: Center of Gravity Method The center of gravity method is used for locating single facilities that considers existing facilities, the distances between them, and the volumes of goods to be shipped between them. n This methodology involves formulas used to compute the coordinates of the two-dimensional point that meets the distance and volume criteria stated n

Plant Location Methodology: Center of Gravity Method Formulas Cx = X coordinate of center of gravity Cy = X coordinate of center of gravity dix = X coordinate of the ith location diy = Y coordinate of the ith location Vi = volume of goods moved to or from ith location

Example of Center of Gravity Method Center of gravity method example n – Several automobile showrooms are located according to the following grid which represents coordinate locations for each showroom. Y Q (790, 900) D (250, 580) A (100, 200) (0, 0) X Question: What is the best location for a new Z-Mobile warehouse/temporary storage facility considering only distances and quantities sold per month?

Plant Location Methodology: Example of Center of Gravity Method: Determining Existing Facility Coordinates To begin, you must identify the existing facilities on a twodimensional plane or grid and determine their coordinates. Y Q (790, 900) D (250, 580) A (100, 200) (0, 0) You must also have the volume information on the business activity at the existing facilities. X

Plant Location Methodology: Example of Center of Gravity Method: Determining the Coordinates of the New Facility You then compute the new coordinates using the formulas: Y Q D Z (790, 900) New location (250, 580) A (100, 200) (0, 0) X