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ITIL Introduction Linpei Zhang April, 2006
What’s ITIL? ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) is a framework of best practices approaches intended to facilitate the delivery of high quality information technology services. - Wikipedia
Okay, what exactly is ITIL? • A series of publications • Best Practices for IT Service Management – Processes – Guidelines – Checklists • Worldwide Industry standard • Management Philosophy
Brief History of ITIL • The Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency of United Kingdom first published elements of ITIL in 1989. • The intention is to improve the management of IT services in UK Central Government • Contributed to by expert IT practitioners around the world. • The UK Office of Government Commerce was established in 2000 and incorporates the CCTA. • The OGC now owns ITIL and is responsible for its maintenance and further development
Putting them into context
ITIL is the industry standard • Widely accepted in Europe, Asia and Australia – 170, 000 ITIL certified professionals worldwide – Over 10, 000 companies adopted ITIL worldwide • Started to gain momentum in United States – Over 2000 people attended it. SMF USA Conference in Chicago, 2005, the ITIL “trade show”, representing over 700 companies – More than 1000 IT Professionals got ITIL certifications every month since 2005
Who’s Using ITIL • Corporate – – – – Procter & Gamble Capital One Boeing British Petroleum DHL Microsoft IBM HP • Government – UK Government Communications Headquarters – IRS – US Army – Virginia – Oklahoma City
ITIL Tools • Over 100 Vendors • Well know tools supporting ITIL – HP Openview Service Desk – Remedy Strategic Service Suite – CA Unicenter Service Desk – Peregrine Service Center
Frameworks Based on ITIL • HP ITSM Reference Model – “a model that combines ITIL and industry-standard best practices with years of HP knowledge and experience. ” • Microsoft Operations Framework (MOF) – “Applying the principles of ITIL to the Microsoft technology platform, MOF provides a foundation to help IT organizations meet the challenges”
Other useful frameworks focus on IT efficiency • COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) • CMM (Capability Maturity Model) • Six Sigma • Balanced Scorecard
International Industry Standards • BS 15000 – Published by BSI (British Standards Institution) in 2000 as national standard for UK • ISO 20000 – Published by ISO (International Organization for Standardization) on 12/15/2005 – The first International standard for IT Service Management. It’s based on and has superseded BS 15000. • Both standards are based heavily upon ITIL
ITIL Philosophy • • • Service Quality Process Measurement Cost Proactive
ITIL Philosophy One - Service • IT Service Management (ITSM) means managing IT as a service business. • Deploy and manage resources to a discrete set of defined services • Thinking ourselves as Service Providers
What kinds of services are we providing? • Application Services – – – – Easy. Pay. Net Tele. Net DAS AOS FLT EEE … • Construction Services • Support Services – Network Support Service – Application Maintenance Service – Database Maintenance Service – Infrastructure Maintenance Service • Management Services – Statistics and report – Communication and Training – Consulting
Behave like Service Providers • Align IT services to the customer and business needs. Find out what the customer needs and make those services available • Partner with the customer to create new ways of doing business. Create new competitive advantages. • Increase the quality of the existing services by organizing around services and working to make those service efficient
Realize the promise “We care about our Customer!” • Documenting, negotiating and agreeing Customer and business quality targets and responsibilities in Service Level Agreements (SLAs) • Regular assessment of Customer opinions in Customer Feedback and Customer Satisfaction Surveys • IT personnel regularly taking the ‘Customer journey’ and sampling the ‘Customer experience’ • IT personnel taking the Customer and Business perspective and always trying to keep Customer interactions as simple and enjoyable as possible
Expected Results • Alignment – Better match IT capability and costs to business needs • Efficiency – Extend existing resources • Reliability – Ensure consistent performance • Agility – Response to business and technology-driven changes
ITIL Philosophy Two - Quality • Quality is the “degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements” as in ISO 9000 • Service Quality is “about ensuring customers get what they want” as in Managing Service Quality • Quality is a interactive term. It’s all about satisfying and exceeding Customer Expectations.
What does that mean? • High quality of the product cannot be achieved without understanding what customer wants (requirements) • Quality cannot be measured without asking the customer’s opinions • High quality service cannot be delivered without thinking in customer’s perspective
How Customer Evaluate Service Quality? • Did the service satisfy my expectation? • Can I get the same service next time? • Is the service provided by a reasonable cost?
A High Quality (Pleasant) Dining Service • • • Parking Reception desk Waiter/Waitress Take order Food delivery Food Feedback Billing Farewell Question: How to improve the quality of our IT Services? How can you contribute? The quality of the dinning service is based on the quality of ALL the services above!
Continuously Improve Service Quality Where are we now? Current process & procedures Current challenges & problems Where do we want to be? What are the priorities? How do we bridge the gap? How do we get where we want to be? Informed planning Experienced execution Are we improving? Did we get to where we wanted to be? Strict control Status communication How do we keep the momentum going
How to get there - Quality Improvement Model Deming Circle (PDCA) • Plan: Plan ahead for change. Analyze and predict the results. • Do: Execute the plan, taking small steps in controlled circumstances. • Check: Study the results • Act: Take action to standardize or improve the process
ITIL Philosophy Three - Process “A process is a specific ordering of work activities across time and space, with a beginning and an end, and clearly defined inputs and outputs: a structure for action. . Taking a process approach implies adopting the customer’s point of view. Processes are the structure by which an organization does what is necessary to produce value for its customers. ” - Thomas Davenport, “Process Innovation”
Characteristics of Processes • Definability: It must have clearly defined input and output • Order: It must consists of activities that are ordered by time and space • Customer: There must be a recipient of the process’ outcome • Value-adding: The transformation taking place within the process must add value to the recipient
Result vs. Process • Result Oriented Management – Results can map to Activities – Results are measurable and worth measuring – Only applicable for low risk task • Process Oriented Management – Define a process to achieve the result – Break down the overall result into smaller intermediate results – More control and lower risk
Why we need Process to provide high quality service? • Service – Intangible: Customer Experience – Interactive: One-time, Cannot be stored • Process can help – Consistent performance – Reduce risk – Repeatable: Customer experience can be repeated next time
But, what does process mean to me? Give • Understand the whole picture • Know what to do in any circumstances • Clearly defined Roles/Responsibilities • Measurable performance • Save time and efforts Take • May change way we used to carry out our tasks • Take away some flexibilities
ITIL Philosophy Four - Measurement If you cannot measure it, you cannot manage it If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it If you cannot measure it, you probably don’t care about it If you cannot influence it, you don’t need to measure it
What do we mean “Measure” here? • Check in PDCA • Evaluate if we are in the right direction? Goal Are we in the right direction? Start Point
Why “Best Effort” is not good enough? • “Best Effort”, “Some Progress”, “Improved Performance”… are not measurable. • “Performance is improved 10%”, “Time to Market decreased from 100 days to 50 days”, “Customer Satisfaction Rate improves 23 percents”. Those are good measurements. • All the measurements must be quantitative!
What to measure? • Goal (Where do we want to go? What are we want to achieve? ) • CSF – Critical Success Factors: Determinate factors to achieve the goal • KPI - Key Performance Indicators: Compare the CSF with standards, Quantities measurements
Example: Measure Availability
KPI for Availability • MTTR (Mean Time to Repair): Average Down Time including Detect Time and Resolve Time. • MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures): Average Normal Operation Time • MTBSI (Mean Time Between System Incidents): Average time between two incidents • Availability Ratio: MTBF/MTBSI*100%
Not too little, not too much • Measurement has costs – – Tools Time Report Analysis • Too many measurements only ends up with No measurement • Only measure the KEY performance indicators
ITIL Philosophy Five - Cost Everything comes with a cost – Equipment Cost – Software Cost – Organization Cost – Accommodation Cost – Transfer Cost – Cost Accounting
How Cost are related to us? • • Budget Salary/Bonus Reimbursement Training Cost Tools Hiring It’s everywhere in our working life! (Personal life too)
Cost Awareness – Thinking as the Management • Budget – Can we make the ends meet? • New Project – ROI (Return Of Investment) = Profit / Investiment • New Software/Hardware/Tool – TOS (Total Ownership Cost): Cost in its lifetime
Hidden costs • Management cost – Statistics and Report – Communication and Training • Support cost – Installation/Upgrade – Incident Support – Performance Tuning
Efficient IT Service • Quality – – – Capacity Availability Performance Support Disaster Recovery • Cost – Investment – Spending • Customer Requirement – Can quality and cost satisfy the business needs?
ITIL Philosophy Six - Proactive • Common feelings about work – I am too busy – Work is chasing me. I am stressed out – I don’t have time to do the meaningful things. – Those issues are so bugging. They kept coming back!
Breaking things down • Reactive activities – Handle customer complains – Handle production outage – Last minute purchase – Deal with disasters • Preventative activities – Create contingency plan – Setup knowledge database – Setup Production Monitors – Capacity Planning – Create Disaster Recovery Plan
First thing first • The more you work on Preventative Activities, the less you need to work on Reactive Activities • Take the control back! – Preventative activities are under your control while Reactive Activities control you.
Some Proactive Activities Suggested by ITIL • Problem Management: Study the trend of the incidents. Dig out and fix the fundamental problem. • Configuration Management: Keep track of important things and their relationships • Capacity Management: Project the workload. Plan the capacity ahead of time • And a lot more….
What’s actually in ITIL? • • Goals/Benefits Processes Guidelines Check lists Critical Success Factors Key Performance Indicators Implementation tips
Service Lifecycle • • • Design: Requirements Define: Service Level Agreement Delivery: Construct, Test, Release Support: Incident, Problem, Change Measure: Service Level Report Improve: Service Improvement Plan
Core ITIL Processes
Service Delivery • Face the Customer. Satisfy Customer requirements • Business driven • Strategic level processes • Forward-looking, planning, proactive activities • Do the right things
Service Delivery Processes • Service Level Management: Define a service catalog; Identify, negotiate, monitor and review service level agreements (SLAs) • Financial Management: Review budgeting, charging and IT accounting; analysis of running costs and charging policies • Availability Management: Review of reliability, availability, resilience, maintainability and serviceability; plan, monitor and report availability
Service Delivery Processes – Cont. • Capacity Management: Review of application sizing, workload, performance, demand resource management; Modeling; Define the Capacity Management Database and the Capacity Plan • IT Service Continuity Management: Review the Business Continuity, risk analysis and risk management; define assets, threats, vulnerabilities; develop, test and maintain the IT Service Continuity Plan and IT recovery options
Put Into Context
Service Support • Face the User. Response to user requests • Event driven • Operational level processes • Reactive/Responsive activities • Do things right
Service Support Processes • Service Desk: Single point of contact between users and IT Service Management. Handle incidents and requests; Customer surveys • Incident Management: Restore a normal service operation as quickly as possible when an incident happens; Minimize business impact and ensure the best possible of service quality; • Problem Management: Resolve the root cause of incidents; Prevent recurrence of incidents related to errors within the IT infrastructure
Service Support Processes – Cont. • Configuration Management: Track all the individual configuration items (CI) in a system including software, hardware, network and documents. Track their versions, status and relationships • Change Management: Ensure that standardized methods and procedures are used for efficient handling of all Changes. Minimize the impact of change related incidents • Release Management: Distribute software and hardware, including license controls across the entire IT infrastructure
Put into context
Benefits of ITIL to IT Department
How can ITIL help us? • Big picture view • Common language • Clear definition of roles, goals, responsibilities and interfaces • Measurable performance • Guidelines/Checklist
Development • Currently Involved Processes – All the processes in Service Delivery and Service Support • Benefits – Effective and efficient delivery – Better understanding of our responsibilities – Learn from best practices – Proactively task planning – Fair performance evaluation based on all tasks – Better project planning – More efficient communication with other teams
QA/RATE • Currently Involved Processes – Change Management – Release Management – Capacity Management • Benefits – Better understanding of ALL the aspects of Quality – Extend roles and responsibilities with more proactive participations in other Quality related processes
Release Management • Currently Involved Processes – Change Management – Release Management • Benefits – Better understanding of all the aspects of Change and Release – Leverage Best Practices to establish a more efficient release process – Extend responsibilities in full cycle of Change Management and Release Management
Infrastructure • Currently Involved Processes – Capacity Management – Availability Management – IT Service Continuity Management – Configuration Management – Incident Management – Problem Management – Change Management – Release Management • Benefits – Better understanding of the big picture – Clearer understanding of the tasks – More efficient interfaces with other team – Leverage best practices to provide better services
Support • Currently Involved Processes – Incident Management – Problem Management – Configuration Management • Benefits – Establish an more efficient incident management process based on the best practices – Better understand the value of work – Measurable performance – More efficient communications with other teams
Implement ITIL • Full of Challenges – A complete culture and organizational change: change how people work and how work are organized – Wide impact: internal and external – Extensive and complicate materials – Without current benchmarks, it’s hard to measure ROI – Time consuming and resource intensive
Face the challenge • Management commitment • Pick a ITIL Project owner • Focus on people: training and early involvement in redefining the processes • Take baby steps. One process, then another • Don’t reinvent the wheel: build upon existing processes • Produce quick-wins • Bring in experts • Tools: Cannot solely count on it, cannot live without
Critical Success Factors
Interesting! Now what? • Read more about ITIL – Publication – Articles – Success Stories • Get certified in ITIL • Apply the best practices to improve your everyday work • Support department adoption of ITIL!