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ITGS – Hardware Basic What computers do 1 Computers perform only 4 functions: • ITGS – Hardware Basic What computers do 1 Computers perform only 4 functions: • Receiving input • Process information • Produce output • Store information 1

ITGS – Hardware Basic What computers do 2 Hardware components specialized in each of ITGS – Hardware Basic What computers do 2 Hardware components specialized in each of these 4 functions: • Input devices • Output devices • A microprocessor, Processor, CPU • Memory - Storage devices 2

Computer The same computer different jobs. Outputs: Inputs: • Monitor • Mouse • Keyboard Computer The same computer different jobs. Outputs: Inputs: • Monitor • Mouse • Keyboard System unit • …. . • Printer • …. . Restaurant, Home, Hotel, Military, Space, Newspaper, Industry… 3

Computer Black box Outputs: Inputs: • Monitor • Mouse System unit • Keyboard • Computer Black box Outputs: Inputs: • Monitor • Mouse System unit • Keyboard • Printer • …. . Input/output: • Floppy • Fax • CD/DVD R/W • USB (FLASH MEMORY, …) • …. . 4

ITGS – Hardware Basic What computers do 3 Memory: • Primary storage RAM • ITGS – Hardware Basic What computers do 3 Memory: • Primary storage RAM • Secondary storage 5

ITGS – Hardware Basic Binary Number System 1 Number Systems: Number v. s digit ITGS – Hardware Basic Binary Number System 1 Number Systems: Number v. s digit • Decimal numbers • Binary numbers. • Conversion 6

ITGS – Hardware Basic Binary Number System 2 • Bits as Codes (ASCII) • ITGS – Hardware Basic Binary Number System 2 • Bits as Codes (ASCII) • Bits as Codes (number). • Bits as Instruction (programming) 7

ITGS – Hardware Basic ASCII v. s Unicode 1 Unique 8 -bit code: • ITGS – Hardware Basic ASCII v. s Unicode 1 Unique 8 -bit code: • 256 unique characters Unicode • A character set that uses 2 bytes 256*256=65636 = 64 K distinct codes. • Double byte character set called UNICODE. 8

ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: The Real Computer 1 The circuit board that contains ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: The Real Computer 1 The circuit board that contains a computer’s is called the motherboard. Two factors are important to a causal computer user: • compatibility • performance 9

ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Compatibility Not all software is compatible with every CPU; ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Compatibility Not all software is compatible with every CPU; software written for one processor will usually not work with another. Backward compatible – new one can run most software written for those older CPUs, but software written for the Power. PC family (Macintosh computes) won’t run on the Intel processors. 10

ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Performance 2 • Internal clock (gigahertz GHz). • The ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Performance 2 • Internal clock (gigahertz GHz). • The number of bits a CPU can process at one time – typically 32 or 64 – is sometimes called the CPU’s word size (some embedded and special-purpose computers still use 8 - and 16 -bit processors). 11

ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Performance 2 • More than 1 processor in computer. ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Performance 2 • More than 1 processor in computer. • Some of the largest servers have include up to 64 or 128 processors 12

ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Performance 3 • High-end server systems is simply to ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU: Performance 3 • High-end server systems is simply to add more machines to the mix; resource of multiple servers can be grouped together in a cluster. Google uses a cluster of more than 10 000 PCs to handle 200 millions search queries a day (if one machine shut down other servers can do that job). 13

ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU 1 CPU (Central processing unit, processor, microprocessor). CPU = ITGS – Hardware Basic CPU 1 CPU (Central processing unit, processor, microprocessor). CPU = ALU + CU + Interface + prefetch unit + bus/wires + RAM ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit CU Control unit 14

ITGS – Hardware Basic MEMORY 1 CPU can run one instruction and a few ITGS – Hardware Basic MEMORY 1 CPU can run one instruction and a few pieces of data at a time. The computer needs a place to store the rest of the program and data. RAM (Random access memory). • Primary storage • Computer memory • Store programs and data temporarily. 15

ITGS – Hardware Basic MEMORY 2 ROM (Read only memory) • ROM can find ITGS – Hardware Basic MEMORY 2 ROM (Read only memory) • ROM can find in to store start-up instructions and other critical information. • inside embedded processors (pocket calculators, …) SIMM (Single in-line memory modules) DIMM (Dual in-line memory modules) 16

ITGS – Hardware Basic MEMORY TURN ON SYSTEM 1 ROM (Read only memory) BIOS ITGS – Hardware Basic MEMORY TURN ON SYSTEM 1 ROM (Read only memory) BIOS (basic input/output system) ROM: CPU • BIOS Hard disk: • Data • Instructions (OS) RAM 17

ITGS – Hardware Basic BUSES, PORTS and PERIPHERALS 1 Bus Port Peripheral 18 ITGS – Hardware Basic BUSES, PORTS and PERIPHERALS 1 Bus Port Peripheral 18

ITGS - introduction Who owns information? v. Social & Ethical issues The difficulty about ITGS - introduction Who owns information? v. Social & Ethical issues The difficulty about persons who owns information about you. v each group example. v each student one example 19

ITGS - introduction High-tech crime? v. Social & Ethical issues The difficulty about protecting ITGS - introduction High-tech crime? v. Social & Ethical issues The difficulty about protecting Hightech crime. v each group example. v each student one example 20

ITGS - introduction Intellectual Property v. Social & Ethical issues The difficulty of defining ITGS - introduction Intellectual Property v. Social & Ethical issues The difficulty of defining and protecting intellectual property in an all-digital age v Education CD by my group. v each student one example 21

ITGS - introduction Failure of computer systems v. Social & Ethical issues The risk ITGS - introduction Failure of computer systems v. Social & Ethical issues The risk of failure of computer systems v communication problem. v billing errors v lost data 22

ITGS - introduction The abuse of information v. Social & Ethical issues The abuse ITGS - introduction The abuse of information v. Social & Ethical issues The abuse of information as a tool of political and economic power v information-rich people and countries v. s information-poor. 23

ITGS - introduction Windows: Jumbled the Words Put them in the correct order : ITGS - introduction Windows: Jumbled the Words Put them in the correct order : Start application v Programs v Application v Start button 24

Sources Computer confluence 25 Sources Computer confluence 25