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ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Instructor: Bernard Blair E-mail: bblair@nvcc. ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Instructor: Bernard Blair E-mail: [email protected] edu Website: www. nvcc. edu/home/bblair Time & Classroom: Mondays CT 219 6: 00 pm - 8: 50 pm Office Hours: By appointment Office Tel. : 202 -737 -1043 (absences and emergencies) Home Tel. : 703 -750 -3183 6: 00 p. m. – 8: 00 p. m. Fax: 202 -737 -0917 (let me know in advance) Prerequisite: ITE 100 and students must read and write at a College level

ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction The Architecture of Computer Hardware ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction The Architecture of Computer Hardware and Systems Software: An Information Technology Approach 3 rd Edition, Irv Englander

ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Course Description: This course is ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Course Description: This course is designed to provide Students with an understanding of microcomputer architecture, including hardware and system software. The major hardware components/operating system functions will be discussed. Work Load: Participation 10% Homework 25% Class Paper 10% Mid Term Exam 15% Pop Quizzes 15% Final Exam 25% Total 100%

ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Grading Based on 1000 pts ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Grading Based on 1000 pts A 90%+ B 80%-89% C 70%-79% D 60%-69% F 0% - 59%

ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Attendance: Regular attendance is required ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Attendance: Regular attendance is required and contributes to the participation grade. It is the student’s responsibility to attend class regularly, and whenever classes are missed, to get the notes/assignments from another student. No make up exams without prior arrangements. All make-up exams and late homework will be subject to a grade penalty. Quizzes will not be made up. Last Withdrawal Date: March 16 is last date to change to audit/withdraw without grade penalty.

ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Students are expected to follow ITE 221: PC Hardware and OS Architecture - Introduction Students are expected to follow Information Technology Student/Patron Ethics Agreement as posted in computer areas and academic integrity standards as set down in the Student Handbook. Ensure you are familiar with what constitutes academic dishonesty and especially plagiarism. Plagiarism policy: students engaging in this practice will receive no credit for plagiarized work and may be asked to withdraw from the class, in addition to any other disciplinary measures the college may impose.

CHAPTER 1: Computer Systems The Architecture of Computer Hardware and Systems Software: An Information CHAPTER 1: Computer Systems The Architecture of Computer Hardware and Systems Software: An Information Technology Approach 3 rd Edition, Irv Englander oll! ’s R et L

Typical Computer Ad § § Is the computer fast enough to run necessary programs? Typical Computer Ad § § Is the computer fast enough to run necessary programs? Is the computer cost-effective? Will it be obsolete in 6 months? Can we really answer these questions in an informed way? Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -8

Why Study Computer Architecture? § User § Understand system capabilities and limitations § Make Why Study Computer Architecture? § User § Understand system capabilities and limitations § Make informed decisions § Improve communications with information technology professionals § Systems Analyst § Conduct surveys, determine feasibility and define and document user requirements § Specify computer systems to meet application requirements § Programmer § Create efficient application software for specific processing needs Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -9

Why Study Computer Architecture? § System Administrator / Manager § Install, configure, maintain, and Why Study Computer Architecture? § System Administrator / Manager § Install, configure, maintain, and upgrade computer systems § Maximize system availability § Optimize system performance § Ensure system security § Web Designer § § Optimize customer accessibility to Web services System administration of Web servers Select appropriate data formats Design efficient Web pages Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -10

Input-Process-Output Model (IPO) • Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards • Processing: CPU executes Input-Process-Output Model (IPO) • Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards • Processing: CPU executes the computer program • Output: monitor, printer, fax machine • Storage: hard drive, optical media, diskettes, magnetic tape Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -11

Architecture Components § Hardware § Processes data by executing instructions § Provides input and Architecture Components § Hardware § Processes data by executing instructions § Provides input and output § Software § Instructions executed by the system § Data § Fundamental representation of facts and observations § Communications § Sharing data and processing among different systems Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -12

Hardware Component § Input/Output devices § Storage Devices § CPU § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit Hardware Component § Input/Output devices § Storage Devices § CPU § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit § CU: control unit § Interface unit § Memory § Short-term storage for CPU calculations Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -13

Typical Personal Computer System Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -14 Typical Personal Computer System Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -14

CPU: Central Processing Unit § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit § Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical CPU: Central Processing Unit § ALU: arithmetic/logic unit § Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations § CU: control unit § Controls processing of instructions § Controls movement of data within the CPU § Interface unit § Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components § Bus: bundle of wires that carry signals and power between different components Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -15

Memory § Also known as primary storage, working storage, and RAM (random access memory) Memory § Also known as primary storage, working storage, and RAM (random access memory) § Consists of bits, each of which hold a value of either 0 or 1 (8 bits = 1 byte) § Holds both instructions and data of a computer program (stored program concept) Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -16

Software Component § Applications § Operating System § API: application program interface § File Software Component § Applications § Operating System § API: application program interface § File management § I/O § Kernel p p Memory management Resource scheduling Program communication Security § Network Module Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -17

Communications Component § Hardware § Communication channels p p Physical connections between computer systems Communications Component § Hardware § Communication channels p p Physical connections between computer systems Examples: wire cable, phone lines, fiber optic cable, infrared light, radio waves § Interface hardware p p Handles communication between the computer and the communication channel Modem or network interface card (NIC) § Software § Network protocols: HTTP, TCP/IP, ATAPI Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -18

Computer Systems All computer systems, no matter how complex, consists of the following: § Computer Systems All computer systems, no matter how complex, consists of the following: § At least one CPU § Memory to hold programs and data § I/O devices § Long-term storage Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -19

Protocols § Common ground rules of communication between computers, I/O devices, and many software Protocols § Common ground rules of communication between computers, I/O devices, and many software programs § Examples § HTTP: between Web servers and Web browsers § TCP/IP: between computers on the Internet and local area networks § ATAPI: between a CPU and CD-ROMs Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -20

Standards § Created to ensure universal compatibility of data formats and protocols § May Standards § Created to ensure universal compatibility of data formats and protocols § May be created by committee or may become a de facto standard through popular use § Examples: § § Computer languages: Java, SQL, C, Java. Script Display standards: Postscript, MPEG-2, JPEG, GIF Character set standards: ASCII, Unicode, EBCDIC Video standards: VGA, XGA, RGB Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -21

Early History § 1642: Blaise Pascal invents a calculating machine § 1801: Joseph Marie Early History § 1642: Blaise Pascal invents a calculating machine § 1801: Joseph Marie Jacquard invents a loom that uses punch cards § 1800’s: § Charles Babbage attempts to build an analytical engine (mechanical computer) § Augusta Ada Byron develops many of the fundamental concepts of programming § George Boole invents Boolean logic. Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -22

Modern Computer Development § 1937: Mark I is built (Aiken, Harvard University, IBM). § Modern Computer Development § 1937: Mark I is built (Aiken, Harvard University, IBM). § First electronic computer using relays. § 1939: ABC is built § First fully electronic digital computer. Used vacuum tubes. § 1943 -46: ENIAC (Mauchly, Eckert, University of Pennsylvania). § First general purpose digital computer. § 1945: Von Neumann architecture proposed. § Still the standard for present day computers. § 1947: Creation of transistor § (Bardeen, Shockley, Brattain, Bell Labs). § 1951: UNIVAC. § First commercially available computer. Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -23

Modern Computer Development Though we can go on and on, notice that our chronology Modern Computer Development Though we can go on and on, notice that our chronology stops at 1951! Why might that be? Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1 -24

Early Computers Babbage’s Analytical Engine Chapter 1 Computer Systems ENIAC 1 -25 Early Computers Babbage’s Analytical Engine Chapter 1 Computer Systems ENIAC 1 -25