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Issue 2 The Obstacles To Black Americans Gaining Civil Rights In The USA Up Issue 2 The Obstacles To Black Americans Gaining Civil Rights In The USA Up To 1941: Factor 1: Legal Impediments and the ‘Separate But Equal’ Decision of the Supreme Court Factor 2: Lack of Political Influence Factor 3: The Activities of the Ku Klux Klan Factor 4: Divisions in the Black Community Factor 5: Popular Prejudice In The North AIMS OF ESSAY: To Be Able To Discuss What Prevented African. American's Achieving Equal Rights To Whites

Aims Paragraph 2: 1. To Understand That Fear And Violence Were Used To Control Aims Paragraph 2: 1. To Understand That Fear And Violence Were Used To Control Black People In America. 2. To Learn How & Why The KKK Were Able To Use This Fear And Violence. Have The Background Knowledge & Argument To Write Your Second Paragraph For Essay Two On The Obstacles stopping AA Achieving Their Civil Rights

PLAN FOR PARAGRAPH KKK 1. Start with an Opening Argument e. g. state there PLAN FOR PARAGRAPH KKK 1. Start with an Opening Argument e. g. state there is a link between the isolated factor & the question 2. Put in Knowledge – detail the ‘job’ the KKK gave themselves & how they did it 3. Put in Analysis – explain how these terror tactics worked 4. Knowledge – discuss other acts the illegal organisation committed 5. Analysis – explain why they were rarely arrested 6. Evaluation – make an judgement, how important was this factor compared to the Jim Crow Laws? Read Through Paragraph 3 On Handout

The History of the KKK The first branch of the Ku Klux Klan was The History of the KKK The first branch of the Ku Klux Klan was established in Tennessee in May, 1866 Most of the leaders were former members of the Confederate Army – this explains why they were draped in white sheets as they posed as the spirits of the Confederate dead returning to protect white communities from freed Black people… • During this time, the Klan withheld their identities by wearing masks Not The Same Outfit As The KKK We Think About Today

The Objectives of the Early KKK Specifically, it attempted to stop former slaves from The Objectives of the Early KKK Specifically, it attempted to stop former slaves from getting an: • education, • economic advancement, • voting rights, • and the right to bear arms The Klan went into decline in the 1870 s after being declared a terrorist organisation. Federal troops were used against them and numerous prosecutions were brought against Klansmen by the Federal Government.

The KKK – Born Again In The 1920 s The Ku Klux Klan was The KKK – Born Again In The 1920 s The Ku Klux Klan was reformed in 1915 by William J. Simmons, a preacher influenced the film of the book, Birth of a Nation, directed by D. W. Griffith The film glorified the KKK as the saviours of white society. The first film ever to make over $10 million and be shown in the White House!.

What did the KKK Believe In? • All members had to be native-born Americans, What did the KKK Believe In? • All members had to be native-born Americans, White, Protestant, Male, 16 years of age or older • NO Black Americans, Roman Catholics or Jews were allowed to be in the Klan • They did not believe in Civil Rights and thought Black Americans were inferior • They wanted to promote ‘White Supremacy’ through fear and intimidation • They justified their actions by saying they were protecting the ‘American way of life’ • … these were popular messages in a country where immigration was a serious issue and where many blacks were flooding into northern cities

What Did The Ku Klux Klan Do? They often burned crosses on hillsides and What Did The Ku Klux Klan Do? They often burned crosses on hillsides and near the homes of people they wished to frighten Masked Klansmen marched through the streets of towns and cities carrying posters threatening various persons with punishment and warning others to leave town If the victims would not do what the Klan wanted them to do, they would be kidnapped, whipped, mutilated or murdered They LYNCHED many Black Americans

Lynching is the illegal execution of an accused person by a mob From 1918 Lynching is the illegal execution of an accused person by a mob From 1918 to 1927, 416 blacks were killed, mostly in the south Victims were tortured, mutilated, dragged, burned or hung Of the tens of thousands of lynchers and onlookers, only 4 have been sentenced for the crime of lynching Photographs of these events frequently show the perpetrators laughing and smiling Children often attended these public lynchings White people who tried to improve the lives of blacks were also intimidated Fear was thus an important weapon in keeping black citizens from demanding better treatment.

This image is from a POSTCARD, which said on the back, This image is from a POSTCARD, which said on the back, "This is the barbecue we had last night. My picture is to the left with a cross over it. Your son, Joe. "

An Example of Southern Justice • • • The murder of Emmett Till in An Example of Southern Justice • • • The murder of Emmett Till in Mississippi in 1955 while visiting his uncle Moses He did not understand how extreme segregation in the south was For saying ‘Bye Baby’ to a white store owner he was kidnapped, tortured and brutally murdered Two men were arrested for the murder and their trial began in front of an all white jury in September 1955 (Remember black people could not serve on juries) The jury considered the evidence for only half an hour before returning a not guilty verdict The jury foreman explained how he felt ‘the prosecution had failed to prove that the body really was that of Emmett Till’ • Emmett was 14 years old!!!

Strange Fruit – Billie Holliday Southern trees bear strange fruit, Blood on the leaves Strange Fruit – Billie Holliday Southern trees bear strange fruit, Blood on the leaves and blood at the root, Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze, Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees. Pastoral scene of the gallant south, The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth, Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh, Then the sudden smell of burning flesh. Here is fruit for the crows to pluck, For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck, For the sun to rot, for the trees to drop, Here is a strange and bitter crop. HOMEWORK

Support in High Places • Furthermore the Klan had powerful friends such as policemen, Support in High Places • Furthermore the Klan had powerful friends such as policemen, judges and politicians who ensured that very few cases were ever brought to trial in the first place • In 1922, the Dyer anti-lynching bill was defeated in the US Senate – this enabled the practice of lynching to continue • In 1925 President Coolidge approved a KKK paraded down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington D. C, showing their power and influence at that time

Why Did People Support the KKK? • After WWI unemployment was growing and many Why Did People Support the KKK? • After WWI unemployment was growing and many Black Americans were moving north to compete with poor Whites for houses and jobs • New immigrants were still flooding into the USA • Many poor Whites saw the Klan as their protectors • They had important friends in local politics, the state government, the judiciary and in the local police. It was a secret organisation so it is difficult to know how many members they had. In 1924 it is estimated that they had 3 million members

Group 1: Ensure You Can Explain The Answers To These Questions Q 1. Why Group 1: Ensure You Can Explain The Answers To These Questions Q 1. Why did the KKK wear white sheets? Q 2. Why & when were they reborn? Q 3. What did the KKK believe in? Q 4. What methods did they use? Q 5. Why did their actions stop people campaigning for change? Q 6. What was the Emmett Till case about? Why were they rarely arrested? Q 7. What happened to their membership in the 1930 s?

FACTOR ONE OPENING ARGUMENT The KKK were another obstacle to blacks achieving civil rights FACTOR ONE OPENING ARGUMENT The KKK were another obstacle to blacks achieving civil rights before 1941 as they believed in ‘white supremacy’ and used severe methods to deny blacks equal rights

ISOLATIONISM KNOWLEDGE 1 ARGUMENT 1 • The KKK re-emerged in 1915 & acted like ISOLATIONISM KNOWLEDGE 1 ARGUMENT 1 • The KKK re-emerged in 1915 & acted like a police force to enforce the Jim Crow Laws using brutal methods such as: • These terror tactics were used to ensure Blacks in the South did not campaign for better treatment because… • Kidnap • Torcher • Murder • Scared for their lives Developed Analysis: link to question

ISOLATIONISM KNOWLEDGE 2 ARGUMENT 2 • They were an illegal organisation but very rarely ISOLATIONISM KNOWLEDGE 2 ARGUMENT 2 • They were an illegal organisation but very rarely arrested for the: • This shows that they had a strong influence on influential people such as the police; courts & lawyers many of whom were secret members • Assaults • Murders • Burning down of schools/Churches Developed Analysis: link to question

ISOLATIONISM EVALUATION: Overall the Klan were an important obstacle for black civil rights as ISOLATIONISM EVALUATION: Overall the Klan were an important obstacle for black civil rights as their violence and powerful members made it incredibly difficult for anyone to oppose them. However, they were perhaps less important than the Jim Crow laws because their membership dramatically declined in the 1930 s.

PLAN FOR PARAGRAPH KKK 1. Start with an Opening Argument e. g. state there PLAN FOR PARAGRAPH KKK 1. Start with an Opening Argument e. g. state there is a link between the isolated factor & the question 2. Put in Knowledge – detail the ‘job’ the KKK gave themselves & how they did it 3. Put in Analysis – explain how these terror tactics worked 4. Knowledge – discuss other acts the illegal organisation committed 5. Analysis – explain why they were rarely arrested 6. Evaluation – make an judgement, how important was this factor compared to the Jim Crow Laws? Read Through Paragraph 3 On Handout