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ISSID 2013 Conference Interest and Deprivation Types of Epistemic Curiosity – Data from Three ISSID 2013 Conference Interest and Deprivation Types of Epistemic Curiosity – Data from Three German Samples Jordan Litman Institute for Human and Machine Cognition, USA Patrick Mussel Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg, Germany

The Nature and Measurement of Individual Differences in Epistemic Curiosity (EC) Epistemic curiosity (EC) The Nature and Measurement of Individual Differences in Epistemic Curiosity (EC) Epistemic curiosity (EC) is the desire for new knowledge expected to either: Stimulate affectively positive states of intellectual interest (I-type) or Relieve negative affective states of feeling deprived of knowledge (D-type).

The Nature and Measurement of Individual Differences in Epistemic Curiosity (EC) The I/D Distinction The Nature and Measurement of Individual Differences in Epistemic Curiosity (EC) The I/D Distinction in EC – correlated but meaningfully different traits I-type D-type Optimally Activated When individuals have little or no prior knowledge (novelty seeking). When individuals have some prior knowledge or feel close to solving a problem. Subjective Experience Less intense, “learning is fun” (weaker, but pure positive affect) Uncomfortably intense “need to know” (stronger, but involves some initial negative affect. Learning Goals To enjoy a new discovery To accurately solve problems, complete knowledge-sets, and improve the understanding of something. Expected Reward The anticipated enjoyment of thinking about new ideas. The anticipated relief from dispelling an unknown (the “Ah-ha!” moment).

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales The I/D Distinction The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales The I/D Distinction in EC – correlated but meaningfully different traits n Individual differences in tendencies to experience and express I- and D-type EC are found to differentially predict: n Effort expended in seeing out new knowledge n Academic goal-setting and learning n Job-related motivation and performance n Orientation towards seeking novelty vs. solving problems

The Nature and Measurement of Individual Differences in Epistemic Curiosity (EC) The I/D Distinction The Nature and Measurement of Individual Differences in Epistemic Curiosity (EC) The I/D Distinction in EC – correlated but meaningfully different traits n The 2 -factor I/D EC model comprises 5 I -type and 5 D-type self-report items. n Validated in large samples of American and Chinese respondents suggesting cross-cultural stability of the model. n However, no research had been conducted to investigate the validity of the I/D EC model in Germany or other Western non-English-speaking cultures. Diagram of the I/D EC Model (from Litman, 2008) Sample Items I-type: I enjoy exploring new ideas. D-type: I can spend hours on a single problem because I just can’t rest without knowing the answer.

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Research Plans and The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Research Plans and Goals n The present studies examined the validity 10 -item 2 -factor I/D EC model using German translations of the scales in three German samples in keeping with I/D EC theory. n Study 1 and 2 examined the dimensionality of I-type and D-type EC scales. n Studies 1&2 also evaluated convergent and discriminant validity of the I/D scales based on relationships to other measures of tendencies to seek cognitive stimulation as well as measures of the Big Five traits. n Study 3 examined relationships between the I- and D-type EC measures and seeking cognitive stimulation and also setting different learning and problem solving goals.

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Major Hypotheses n The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Major Hypotheses n We expected to find further validation of the 2 -factor, 10 -item I/D model previously found in American and Chinese samples for our translated I- and D -type EC scale items in our German samples. n We anticipated positive relations for both I/D scales with tendencies to seek cognitive stimulation including Openness (especially for I-type EC) and divergence from the other Big Five scales. n The I-type EC scale was predicted to be more associated with the intrinsic joy of seeking out new ideas and with scales that assessed positive affectivity. n The D-type EC scale was predicted to be more associated with persistence, problem solving, and to be generally unrelated to measures of positive affect.

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Methods & Procedures: The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Methods & Procedures: Instruments Administered Studies Instruments 1 2 3 German translations of the I/D EC scales ü ü ü Need For Cognition scale ü ü ü CEI Scale and Exploration & Absorption sub scales ü NEO-PI-R –Big Five inventory ü HEXACO –Big Five inventory ü TIE scale and subscales ü ü NEO-PI-R “ideas” facet of Openness ü Preliminary WRC scale & Develop Ideas and Solve Problems subscales ü Goal Orientation Learning scale ü WPI Challenge and Enjoyment Scales ü

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Methods & Procedures: The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Methods & Procedures: Factor Analytic Strategies n Data analytic strategy for I- and D-type EC items and assessment of model fit… n We conducted CFA’s of the covariance matrix of the EC items using ML estimation. n We compared the hypothesized 2 -factor I/D EC model to a 1 -factor EC model (as well as other models – see Litman & Mussel, 2013 for details) to determine whether the I/D distinction was structurally valid.

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Methods & Procedures The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Methods & Procedures : Factor Analytic Strategies n To assess model fit we considered… n Size of χ² (n. s. or smaller values are desirable) n MFI >. 90, CFI and NNFI >. 95 n RMSEA <. 06 n PFI >. 50 are acceptable (higher values are desirable) n ECVI, no consensus on cut off, but lower values indicate superior fit

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major Findings CFA’s of hypothesized 2 -factor model vs. 1 -factor model and assessment of fit. GFI 1 -factor 2 -factors χ2 (df) 190. 356(35)** 164. 087(35)** 75. 898(34)** 38. 462(34) n. s. CFI . 861. 805 . 963. 993 NNFI . 822. 749 . 951. 991 MFI . 822. 713 . 948. 988 RMSEA [95% CI] . 106[. 092 -. 121]. 139[. 118 -. 161] . 056[. 039 -. 073]. 026[. 000 -. 060] PFI . 696. 623 . 728. 727 ECVI [95% CI] . 588[. 486 -. 709] 1. 09[. 983 -1. 324] . 302[. 297 -. 377]. 437[. 000 -. 542] **p<. 001; sample 1 = top, N=395; sample 2 = bottom, N =191) Strong fit indices and high loadings for hypothesized model in both samples (sample 1 = left, N=395; sample 2 = right, N =191)

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major Findings Convergent and Discriminative Validity –zero and partial r’s Study 1 (N=395) Scale Zero-order r Partial r I-type D-type CEI total . 64 . 58 . 47 . 36 CEI-Exploration . 68 . 46 . 57 . 15 CEI-Absorption . 33 . 49 . 09 . 38 NFC . 72 . 58 . 31 Openness* . 23 . 09 . 23 -. 06 Neuroticism* -. 19 -. 05 -. 19 . 05 Extraversion* . 31 . 15 . 25 -. 02 Agreeableness* . 14 . 00 . 17 -. 08 Conscientiousness* . 29 . 31 . 10 . 22 I-type and D-type r =. 56 Positive zero-order relationships with measures of tendencies to seek cognitive stimulation show convergence vs. divergence. Unique relationships (partial r’s) to measures of novelty seeking vs. persistence and positive vs. negative affectivity show discrimination Bold = p<. 05 Blue = significantly stronger for I-type; Red = significantly stronger for D-type, p<. 05 *Median r with facet and total scales

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major Findings Convergent and Discriminative Validity –zero and partial r’s Study 2 (N=191) Scale Zero-order r Partial r I-type D-type TIE total . 52 . 41 . 40 . 19 TIE-Reading . 16 . 05 . 15 -. 03 TIE-Contemplate . 61 . 51 . 47 . 28 TIE-Curious . 42 . 39 . 28 . 22 NFC . 62 . 67 . 44 . 52 Openness . 49 . 27 . 42 . 03 Conscientiousness . 29 . 42 . 10 . 33 Extraversion . 45 . 22 . 41 -. 01 Agreeableness . 04 -. 15 . 14 -. 19 Neuroticism -. 12 . 04 -. 17 . 12 Positive zero-order relationships with measures of tendencies to seek cognitive stimulation show convergence vs. divergence. I-type and D-type r =. 51 Unique relationships (partial r’s) to measures of novelty seeking vs. persistence and positive vs. negative affectivity show discrimination Bold = p<. 05 Blue = significantly stronger for I-type; Red = significantly stronger for D-type, p<. 05

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Results and Major Findings Convergent and Discriminative Validity –zero and partial r’s Study 3 (N=249) Scale Zero-order r Partial r I-type D-type TIE . 56 . 36 . 49 . 20 TIE-Reading . 29 . 12 . 27 . 01 TIE-Contemplate . 55 . 47 . 31 TIE-Curious . 51 . 35 . 44 . 20 NFC . 57 . 58 . 47 . 49 WRC total . 64 . 66 . 59 WRC-Solve Problems . 50 . 67 . 36 . 60 WRC-Develop Ideas . 68 . 51 . 61 . 38 WPI-Challenge . 58 . 61 . 48 . 52 WPI-Enjoy . 51 . 33 . 44 . 17 Openness-Ideas . 64 . 39 . 57 . 21 Goal Orient. -Learning . 63 . 55 . 41 Positive zero-order relationships with measures of tendencies to seek cognitive stimulation show convergence vs. divergence. Unique relationships (partial r’s) to measures of novelty seeking vs. persistence and positive vs. negative affectivity show discrimination Bold = p<. 05 Blue = significantly stronger for I-type; Red = significantly stronger for D-type, p<. 05 I-type and D-type r =. 37

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Discussion and Conclusions The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Discussion and Conclusions n Very strong evidence in support of hypothesized 2 factor model – further supports the model overall as well as cross-culturally n Strong evidence of convergence based on common tendencies to seek cognitive stimulation. n Also generally strong evidence of differences in affective experience, approach to learning, degree of associated effort, and formation of learning goals in keeping with I/D EC theory.

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Limitations, Caveats, and The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Limitations, Caveats, and Future Research Aims n More research is needed to further clarify similarities and differences between the constructs, including an expansion of the I/D model with new items and new experimental measures (research underway…) n Further exploration into universality of the I/D EC model (research already underway with translations in Italy, Buenos Aires, Israel, Russia, the Netherlands, and Iran) n New work on the development of I- and D-type EC in young children and adolescents n New research being conducted on relationships to using and seeking knowledge and solving problems (e. g. , in causal reasoning by open source intelligence analysts) n New research underway on relationship to facial expressions as markers of affective states associated with each EC trait.

The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Want more information? The Present Study – Developing and Validating German I/D EC Scales Want more information? Whether generally interested and wish to explore further… or Quite intrigued with specific questions you need answered… (Or perhaps both - these different experiences are correlated, after all ) Please email [email protected] com for reprints, details, etc. Thank you for your time!