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Islam: the First Global Civilization Chapter 6 Islam: the First Global Civilization Chapter 6

Rise & Spread of Islam: Chapter Summary 7 th century CE (600’s): Followers of Rise & Spread of Islam: Chapter Summary 7 th century CE (600’s): Followers of Muhammad surged from Arabian peninsula Created first global civilization by incorporating elements of Greece, Persia, and Egypt Provided links for exchange between “civilized” centers United in belief of Muhammad’s message Divided by cultural and political rivalries Strong until 14 th century (1300’s)

Pre-Islamic Arabian World Arabian peninsula inhabited by Bedouins Larger agricultural/commercial areas flourished in south Pre-Islamic Arabian World Arabian peninsula inhabited by Bedouins Larger agricultural/commercial areas flourished in south by coast Social organization: Mobile, kin-related clans→larger tribal units Shaykhs=leaders—elected, typically wealthy Free warriors and slaves Interclan rivalry weakened Bedouin society

Pre-Islamic Arabian World Cities developed Trading system linked Med. to east Asia Mecca: Most Pre-Islamic Arabian World Cities developed Trading system linked Med. to east Asia Mecca: Most important city Founded by Umayyad clan Site of religious shrine Ka’ba Medina Second most important city Agricultural oasis and commercial center

Pre-Islamic Arabian World Status of women Didn’t wear veils Not secluded Able to have Pre-Islamic Arabian World Status of women Didn’t wear veils Not secluded Able to have multiple marriage partners Men remained superior Property control, inheritance, and divorce Did drudge labor More restricted in urban areas

Pre-Islamic Arabian World Culture not highly developed due to isolation and environment Focused on Pre-Islamic Arabian World Culture not highly developed due to isolation and environment Focused on orally transmitted poetry Religion=blend of animism and polytheism Some tribes recognized Allah (supreme deity) but largely ignored Main focus=spirits and nature Religion and ethics NOT connected

Life of Muhammad Born approx. 570 CE Orphan, raised by father’s family Became merchant Life of Muhammad Born approx. 570 CE Orphan, raised by father’s family Became merchant Allowed him to observe society undermining clan unity Encountered monotheism Dissatisfied with his life so went into hills to meditate In 610, he started having his revelations Later written down in Arabic and collected as Qur’an Formed basis of Islam Died in 632 Unity threatened but reunited in 633 under Umayyad empire

Arabs and Islam provided way to unite Arabs System of ethics capable of healing Arabs and Islam provided way to unite Arabs System of ethics capable of healing social rifts Strong and wealthy responsible for taking care of weak and poor Distinct, indigenous monotheism that supplanted and ended clan feuds Umma=community of the faithful Transcended old tribal clan boundaries All believers equal before Allah All faced last judgment by stern but compassionate God Profits teachings and Qur’an is basis for laws regulating the Muslim faithful

Universal Elements of Islam Monotheism Legal codes Egalitarianism Strong sense of community Five Pillars Universal Elements of Islam Monotheism Legal codes Egalitarianism Strong sense of community Five Pillars Acceptance of Islam Prayer 5 x per day Fasting during month of Ramadan Paying zakat for charity Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)

Empire of the Umayyads After Muhammad’s death, campaigns began outside of Arabia Religious zeal Empire of the Umayyads After Muhammad’s death, campaigns began outside of Arabia Religious zeal and weak opponents allowed for victories in Mesopotamia, north Africa, and Persia New empire=Umayyad Ruled by warrior elite From 640’s, gained naval supremacy in eastern Med. Extended conquest to southern Europe (stopped at Poitiers in 732) Byzantines did hold back conquest in Asia Minor and Balkan terrorties

Motivation for Arab Conquest Sense of common cause Rich booty and tribute gained often Motivation for Arab Conquest Sense of common cause Rich booty and tribute gained often were more of a motivation than spreading the faith Later, converts were exempt from taxes and shared spoils of victory

Problem of Succession When Muhammad died, he had not established a procedure for selecting Problem of Succession When Muhammad died, he had not established a procedure for selecting a new leader After a troubled process, Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph The murder of the third caliph, Uthman, caused a succession struggle Earliest followers supported Ali, Muhammad’s son-inlaw (Shi’a) Still support the right of his descendents after his murder in 661 Umayyads were Sunnis Permanent division within Islam between the Sunnis and Shi’as to this day

“People of the Book” First conquered people were Jews and Christians Later included Zoroastrians “People of the Book” First conquered people were Jews and Christians Later included Zoroastrians and Hindus All termed Dhimmis Had to pay taxes but allowed to retain own religion and social organization

Family and Gender Roles in the Umayyad Age Initially, favorable status of women Muhammad Family and Gender Roles in the Umayyad Age Initially, favorable status of women Muhammad and Qur’an stressed moral and ethical dimensions of marriage Adultery by BOTH partners denounced Men allowed to have four wives but had to treat them all equally Strengthened women’s legal rights in inheritance and divorce Both sexes equal before Allah Strong status did not endure

Umayyad Decline of Umayyad Luxury from spoils of war made military weak Also had Umayyad Decline of Umayyad Luxury from spoils of war made military weak Also had retreat from Islamic virtues which led to revolts Abbasid clan took over and created Islamic empire

Islamic (Abbasid) Empire Series of fundamental changes Increased bureaucratic expansion Absolutism Constant presence of Islamic (Abbasid) Empire Series of fundamental changes Increased bureaucratic expansion Absolutism Constant presence of royal executioner symbolized absolute power of rulers over people Luxurious living Moved capital from Damascus to Baghdad Once in power, turned against Shi’a and supported less tolerant Sunnis

Islamic (Abbasid) Empire First flowering of Islamic learning Artistic contributions first in mosque and Islamic (Abbasid) Empire First flowering of Islamic learning Artistic contributions first in mosque and palace construction Learning flourished in: Religion Law Philosophical discourse Science Math

Global Connections First global civilization Incorporated many linguistic and ethnic groups into one culture Global Connections First global civilization Incorporated many linguistic and ethnic groups into one culture Created Islam Absorbed precedents from earlier civilizations in: Religion Politics Art Science Innovative thinking influenced Europe, Africa & Asia

Grand Mosque of Damascus (present day) Built by Umayyad empire Grand Mosque of Damascus (present day) Built by Umayyad empire

Dome of the Rock Temple Mount Jerusalem, Israel Dome of the Rock Temple Mount Jerusalem, Israel

Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey (Turks conquered in 1453) Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey (Turks conquered in 1453)

Next time…. Chapter 7: Abbasid Decline & Spread of Islam to South & Southeast Next time…. Chapter 7: Abbasid Decline & Spread of Islam to South & Southeast Asia Chapter 8: African Civilizations & Spread of Islam