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ISLAM: From God or Man? 1
the ‘holy books’ of Islam The “Quran” (Koran) Islamic Bible -collection of revelations supposedly given by Allah to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel) and preserved as the Islamic scripture. -Absolute, infallible, and eternal to Muslims 2
the ‘holy books’ of Islam The ‘hadith’ - a set of books that are a record of the things Muhammad said and did - Note: The ‘hadith” is a point of division in the Muslim world + The Sunni Muslims accept it all + The Shiite Muslims accept most (they reject those recorded by Muhammad’s second wife) Ø Note: The hadith is significant because it establishes principles of activity that can be (are) practiced today 3
Islamic Law The “Sharia” - All aspects of a Muslim's life are governed by Sharia law comes from a combination of sources including the Qur'an (the Muslim holy book), the Hadith (sayings and conduct of the prophet Muhammad) and fatwas (the rulings of Islamic scholars). 4
Women and Islam v One of the most debasing traits of the Mohammedan religion is its degradation of womanhood. Women were looked upon merely as the slaves or playthings of men. Modern Turkey has remedied this condition, and in 1930 gave women the right to be electors and to be elected at municipal elections. But outside Turkey, women are held in small respect in the Mohammedan world. v The life of women in Islam cannot be understood apart from reflecting on the Qur’an first, and then hadiths (traditions), fatwahs and laws that have been created due to the influence of the Qur’an. 5
Did Muhammad believe that women are inferior to men? The Qu’ran equates one man’s testimony with that of two women (see Qu’ran 2: 282)
Did Muhammad believe that women are inferior to men? The Quran says that it takes the witness of two women to equal the witness of one man: Get witnesses out of your own men. And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women, such as you agree for witnesses, so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other can remind her. -SURAH 2: 282 Muhammad explained the reason for this teaching this way: The Prophet said, "Isn't the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man? " The women said, "Yes. " He said, "This is because of the deficiency of a woman's mind. " Women also received a smaller share of inheritance than men. Allah commands you as regards your children's (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females. -SURAH 4: 11 7
From the Qu’ran The subordinate position of women in society: Sura 2: 228 states, "Women have such honorable rights as obligations, but their men have a degree above them. " l “The women ought also to behave towards their husbands in like manner as their husbands should behave toward them, according to what is just; but the men ought to have a superiority over them. God is mighty and wise. " l The superiority is expressed in another fashion toward their wives. "Men are the managers of the affairs of women for that God has preferred in bounty one of them over another, and for that they have expended of their property. Righteous women are therefore obedient, guarding the secret for God’s guarding. And those you fear may be rebellious admonish; banish them to their couches, and beat them. If they then obey you, look not for any way against them. " (Sura 4: 34) l Moreover, the Qur’an declares that God "created for you, of yourselves, spouses, that you might repose in them. " (Sura 30: 20) l 8
From the Qur'an… Muhammad’s attitude toward his wives is rather interesting. He regarded his wives as "mothers" of the believing. (Sura 33: 6) Ø But the prophet’s wives needed to be an example in their lifestyle. Allah is supposed to have said to the wives through Muhammad that if they desire adornments in this life, then Muhammad could divorce them. They were given the choice of living with Muhammad on his terms or being divorced. If his wives should commit a "flagrant indecency, for her the chastisement shall be doubled. " (Sura 33: 30) Ø 9
From the Hadith writings… Then he passed by the women and said, "O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell -fire were you (women). " They asked, "Why is it so, O Allah's Apostle ? " He replied, "You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you. " The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is deficient in our intelligence and religion? " He said, "Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man? " They replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her intelligence. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses? " The women replied in the affirmative. He said, "This is the deficiency in her religion. " 10
From the Hadith writings… After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "O people! Give alms. " Then he went towards the women and said. "O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women). " The women asked, "O Allah's Apostle! What is the reason for it? " He replied, "O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray. " 11
From the Bible… Ephesians 5: 22 -31 22 Wives, [be in subjection] unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. 23 For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the church, [being] himself the saviour of the body. 24 But as the church is subject to Christ, so [let] the wives also [be] to their husbands in everything. 25 Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself up for it; 26 that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word, 27 that he might present the church to himself a glorious [church], not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 28 Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He that loveth his own wife loveth himself: 29 for no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourisheth and cherisheth it, even as Christ also the church; 30 because we are members of his body. 31 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh. 12
From the Bible… 1 Peter 3: 7 7 Ye husbands, in like manner, dwell with [your wives] according to knowledge, giving honor unto the woman, as unto the weaker vessel, as being also jointheirs of the grace of life; Ø A Christian husband must live with his wife according to knowledge. Being head of the family means responsibility to look out for the good of the wife, not that he selfishly gets his own way. He must give her the proper respect recognizing that she is weaker physically, but not mentally or spiritually. He must realize that his headship does not mean that the woman is inferior to him, but rather that they are joint heirs of eternal life (Galatians 3: 28). Women have a dignity in Christianity that they did not have in the pagan world or even in Judaism. The husband must treat her in tender loving kindness and be concerned about her spiritual and physical welfare. 13
Mohammed, marriage, and slaves… • Mohammed married at 25, a woman 15 years his senior. After Mohammed was expelled from Mecca, an admirer brought his six-year-old daughter for Mohammed to marry.
WOMEN & ISLAM v Muhammad was given a “special revelation” to have some 13 wives (other Muslim men can have only 4) v His favorite wife was Aisha: she was six when they were engaged, and nine when the marriage was consummated 15
Webster’s dictionary defines pedophilia as: sexual perversion in which children are the preferred sexual object.
Mohammed, marriage, and slaves… • Muslim tradition claims that Mohammed (for obvious reasons) did not consummate the marriage until this young girl was nine. He then began adding wife after wife to his harem—all with Allah’s full consent.
While a few individuals in the Old Testament possessed multiple wives, God’s original plan of one-woman and one-man did not change. God did not condone this behavior. Paul made this clear in his writings (1 Corinthians 7; 1 Timothy 3: 2, etc. ).
What was Mohammed’s defense for polygamy? • “God let me do it and revealed it to me through Gabriel” was defense enough for him!
Note the endorsement for Mohammed in the Qu’ran • “Prophet! We [God] have made lawful for you the wives to whom you have granted dowries and the slave girls whom God has given you as booty; … This privilege is your alone, being granted to no other believer…. [We grant you this privilege] so that none may blame you. You may…take to your bed any of them you please. ” (Qu’ran 33: 50 -51).
This is a religion that allows and promotes concubinage. “Save with their wives and slave girls; for these are lawful for them” (Qu’ran 70: 30; see also 23: 5)
Mohammed advised men who were tempted to marry “other women… two, three, or four of them” (Qu’ran 4: 3). • Note that 2 is the minimum number Mohammed suggested—not one!
Muslim Marriages The Quran permits a man to have 1, 2, 3, or 4 wives – AND --Sharia Law also permits “mutaa” ---- “pleasure marriages --also called “temporary marriages” According to Sharia Law, unmarried women may enter into pleasure marriages with men (married or not) for periods as brief as a few minutes. 23
From the Bible… Gen. 2: 18; 21 -24… 18 And Jehovah God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him. 21 And Jehovah God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof: 22 and the rib, which Jehovah God had taken from the man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. 23 And the man said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. 24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. 24
From the Bible… Matthew 19: 4 -6… 4 And he answered and said, Have ye not read, that he who made [them] from the beginning made them male and female, 5 and said, For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh? 6 So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. 25
“Marriage is honorable among all, and the bed undefiled; but fornicators and adulterers God will judge. ” Hebrews 13: 4
Muslim Divorce v A Muslim man can divorce his wife in a matter of minutes. v “Muslims have taken to divorcing their wives by mail, over the phone and even through mobile phone text messages. ” v The WSJ recently reported than many Muslim wives were not answering their cell phones if they felt the call could be from their husband v The man repeats the word "Talaq" (divorce) three times and leaves. v The divorce rate is slightly lower than that of the United States v #1 reason for divorce? v Living with in-laws and other relatives 28
From the Bible… v Matthew 19: 7 -10 7 They say unto him, Why then did Moses command to give a bill of divorcement, and to put [her] away? 8 He saith unto them, Moses for your hardness of heart suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it hath not been so. 9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery: and he that marrieth her when she is put away committeth adultery. 10 The disciples say unto him, If the case of the man is so with his wife, it is not expedient to marry. 29
Everywhere Sharia law supersedes national laws Muslim men are permitted four wives…and slaves.
Slavery occurred both with men and women. During Mohammed’s life massive slave trading routes were established into northern Africa as Muslims took unsuspecting caravans captive.
External public pressure caused slavery to be declared illegal in Saudi Arabia in 1965, and the Sudan in 1991… however the practice continues in northern Africa (and is quietly practiced in many places in the middle east).
“Do not force your slave girls into prostitution in order that you may enrich yourselves…” Qu’ran 24: 33 “… if they [slave girls] wish to preserve their chastity. ”
Mohammed continues: “If anyone [i. e. , any slave owner] compels them [forces chastitychoosing slave girls to be prostitutes], God will be forgiving and merciful to them” Qu’ran 24: 33.
How did Mohammed get to this point regarding women and how has it persisted?
When Mohammed was still alive and looting caravans he made promises of women and girls to the men who fought with him. This resulted in the conversion of many.
Some of the men began to complain that if they were killed while robbing they would not get to enjoy the promised sex. Unashamed, Mohammed made a claim that is still recited by millions today—they would receive virgins in heaven.
Mohammed turned heaven into a brothel. Loyal Muslim men who paid the price of martyrdom would find a host of virgins—called houris—who would forever satisfy their sexual cravings (Qu’ran 38: 51; 44: 54; 55: 55 -74; 56: 22, 34 -36).
So how do you get around an obvious problem… The Qu’ran describes the houris as “a rare creation…we have made them ever virgins” (Surah 56: 34 -36).
How Do Muslims Dress? Girls/women - “Muslim women should wear a dress which covers their body in a proper manner, avoiding high jumpers, decollete and transparent materials which show parts of their body. ” - They should not try to resemble men in dress and coiffure and avoid all that is characteristic of glamour girls. - Further, when they celebrate the service of worship, they should cover their head. - Their gowns should never be higher than the middle of the tibia, preferably down to the ankles l 40
Many “Pagans” were converted to Islam on the promise of sexual fulfillment. As a result Muslim men did not want their own wives and daughters to become objects of so much increased sexual desire. So Muslim men began covering and even hiding their women. These concerns were then made law by Mohammed in the Qu’ran.
"O Prophet! Say to your wives and your daughters and the women of the faithful to draw their outergarments (jilbabs) close around themselves; that is better that they will be recognized and not annoyed. And God is ever Forgiving, Gentle. "Qur'an Surah/Chapter Al-Ahzab Ayah/Verse 59
"And say to the faithful women to lower their gazes, and to guard their private parts, and not to display their beauty except what is apparent of it, and to extend their headcoverings (khimars) to cover their bosoms (jaybs), ” Qu’ran Surah Nur Chapter: The Light. Verse 31
burqa or chadari or chaddor 46
Does this sound like equality? v The Qu'ran requires women to remain veiled (33: 59) and to remain strictly segregated from male society. v A woman is to be seen “as Satan” when a man is sexually tempted. 47
The widespread practice of “circumcising” females in the Muslim faith is done to prevent women from feeling pleasure. This is affirmed in a hadith by Mohammed himself. It is also one of the first practices legalized by Sharia Law.
Women Many differences within the Muslim world based on culture & tribal background. “Under Muslim law: - Muslim women have the right to inherit, to buy and sell, to control their own property. - The woman is responsible for rearing her children, but she may work or obtain education if she wishes. - Her earnings are her own to do with as she chooses, as it is the duty of the Muslim man to provide all the necessities for his family. 49
Women l As far as religious obligations, a woman is to be considered not much different than a man in regards to her responsibilities towards Allah. - She must perform the five daily prayers. - She must fast during the holy month of Ramadan - She must feed the poor or give alms and she must perform pilgrimage to the “Holy Ka'ba in Mecca” 50
Conclusion The contrast between how women are viewed in Christianity versus the Islamic religion are dramatic. 51
On the Treatment of Women Islam Teaches. . . Men have authority over women. (Koran 2: 228) In the home: • "Men have authority over women because Allah has made the one superior to the others, and because they spend their wealth to maintain them. " (Koran 4: 34) • "Mothers shall suckle their children two years completely, for such as desire to fulfill the suckling. . But if the couple desire by mutual consent and consultation to wean, then it is no fault in them. " (Koran 2: 233) • Women who disobey their husband will go to hell. (Koran 66: 10). • "Thou mayest decline for the present whom thou wilt of them, and thou mayest take to thy bed her whom thou wilt, and whomsoever thou shalt long for of those thou shalt have before neglected; and this shall not be a crime in thee. Thus will it be easier to give them the desire of their eyes. . . and to satisfy them with what thou shalt accord to each of them. " (Koran 33: 51) In society: • Women do not have equal right to their inheritance (Koran 4: 11 -12) Women receive half of the male share for an equivalent degree of kinship. Women who disobey should be beaten: • "Good women are obedient. . As for those from whom you fear disobedience, admonish them and send them to beds apart and beat them. Then if they obey you, take no further action against them. " (Koran 4: 34) Christianity Teaches. . . Spiritually, there is neither male nor female in Christ Jesus. (Galatians 3: 28) In the home, Scripture outlines the divinely established order: • Husbands are responsible to lead their family in a Godly fashion. (1 Timothy 3: 4, 5, 12; Titus 1: 6) • The husband is to love his wife: "Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave himself up for her. . . So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself; for no one ever hated his own flesh, but nourishes and cherishes it, just as Christ also does the church. . . " (Ephesians 5: 28, 29; cp. Colossians 3: 19; 1 Peter 3: 7) • Wives are exhorted to submit to their husband as they do to the Lord: "Wives, submit yourselves to your own husbands, as it is fit in the Lord. " (Colossians 3: 18; cp. 1 Corinthians 11: 3, 8, 9; Ephesians 5: 22 -24, 33; 1 Timothy 2: 11, 12; Titus 2: 3 -5; 1 Peter 3: 1, 2, 5, 6). As is fitting in the Lord means in accordance with God's will, or to be pleasing to God has ordained for the husband to be the head of the house and the wife to be in subjection to her husband (Ephesians 5: 21 -28). This in no way implies inferiority of women to men. A woman who knows her husband loves her - having 52 her best interests in mind - has no problem submitting to him.