- Количество слайдов: 40
Islam and the Early Caliphates
The Arabian Peninsula Pre-Islam • mostly nomadic tribes (Bedouins) • Tribes often fought • Worshipped a large variety of gods • Took pride in oral traditions/group loyalty • TRADERS (Muhammad was a merchant)
Abraham’s Genealogy HAGAR ABRAHAM Ishmael 12 Arabian Tribes SARAH Isaac Jacob 12 Tribes of Israel Esau
The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad
Mecca • Major trading/religious city • Located between Byzantine and Sassanid Empire • Importance of the Ka’ba
The Messenger • Muhammad (570 -632 C. E. ) • Troubled by the corruption and lawlessness of Mecca • Retreats and revelations • Famous text: Quran • Growing movement towards Allah/Yahweh as deity #1! • Followers were kicked out of town (the Hijra) • ~When I heard the Quran, my heart was softened and I wept…~
Quran, Koran, Qur’an • • Holy book of Islam Called for a creation of a new society (Umma) based on justice • Considered to be literally the word of God • There is not an actual image of God
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. The Shahada ZThe declaration of faith: There is no god except God, and Muhammad is His Messenger. 1
2. The Salat Z Prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon 2 * sunset * before going to bed Z Wash before praying. Z Face Mecca and use a prayer rug.
2. The Salat (continued) Z The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Z Pray in the mosque on Friday. ZPrayer soul. unifies body mind and 2
3. The Zakat Z Almsgiving (charitable donations). About 2. 5% of your wealth. Z 3
4. The Sawm Z Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Z No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 4
5. The Hajj Z The pilgrimage to Mecca. Z Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime. Z 2 -3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5
Pilgrims On The Road to And Camped Outside of Mecca P i l
Muslims in the World Today
Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1. Indonesia 230, 000 6. Iran 62, 000 2. Pakistan 134, 000 7. Egypt 59, 000 3. India 121, 000 8. Nigeria 53, 000 4. Bangladesh 114, 000 9. Algeria 31, 000 10. Morocco 29, 000 5. Turkey 66, 000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world.
The Spread of Islam Z Easy to learn and practice. Z No priesthood. Z Teaches equality. Z Follow one law; The Sharia Z Non-Muslims allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Z Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes. The Weakness of nearby empires (Byzantine & Persian) allowed conquest Z
The Dar al-Islam: The Unity found across Muslim areas supported by common practice The World of Islam 1 2 3 4 5
Arab Empire: Early Years Muhammad’s death caused division – who should lead? Z ZAbu Bakr elected (632 -634) as first Caliph- Ali passed over (will be the 3 rd Caliph). ZConquest important. ZFocused becomes VERY primarily on material and territorial gain.
Motives for Conquest Z United Z Distraction from internal fighting Z Promised a share of the booty Z AVOIDED mass conversions so they wouldn’t have to share their booty Z so they could tax subjects at higher rates Z
Sunni v. Shi’a/Shi’ite At issue: Who should lead the Muslim Umma? Z First 4 Caliphs = “The Rightly Guided” Caliphs, most agreed on these guys Z Ali killed & Husayn (Ali, the 4 th Caliph’s son) = killed in 680 by Umayyads (10, 000 soldiers v. 72 of Husayn’s followers). Some thought HE should be the next caliph. Z Killing of Husayn = the final split. Z Shi’a = “Party of Ali” (Muhammad’s relatives are rightful caliphs) Sunni = “The Majority” (caliph should be chosen by the umma) Z
Umayyads (661 -759) ZMu’awiya- Governor of Syria (responsible for deaths of Ali and Husayn) will become the Cailphate. Expansion (central Asia, N. W. India, N. Africa, Spain) Z Z Capital = Damascus (modern Syria) Z Arab conquest state Bureaucracy – Arab elite ruled over non-Arab, non-Muslim populations Z Segregated into garrison towns to prevent mixing Z
Umayyad Decline & Fall Social Hierarchy: 1. Muslim Arabs 2. Muslim non-Arabs ZREVOLT led by Abbasid family Non-Arab converts & Shi’ites joined Abbasids Z
From Arab to Islamic Empire: Abbasids (7501258) Z Centralized Z Capital = Baghdad. ZImitated ZNon-Arab Z Persian culture Converts fully integrated LOTS of conversions ZOpportunities positions for education/gov’t
Abbasid Economy & Culture Z Urban ZTrade & Hajj = constant and quick ideas exchange Z House of Wisdom in Baghdad = Center of Learning Library, Translation Institute (mostly Greek to Arabic), and Research Center. • ZAncient authors translated (especially Greeks like Aristotle!!!)
Abbasid Decline Z Overexpansion Z Caliphs hired personal armies of Turkic Central Asian (Mamluk) pastoralists(slave soldiers) Z Centralization breaks down Z Mamluk & Seljuk Turkic slave soldiers really run the gov’t (caliph = figurehead) Z Mongols – kill the last caliph in 1258
Chart Time! • Instructions: Make a Venn Diagram with 3 circles with at least three examples of how Islam spread by way of social, religious, and military factors (at least one of each).
People of the Book Considered to be Christians and Jews Z Z paid extra taxes, but tolerated non-Arab converts still had extra taxes Z Z few conversions
Family & Gender Roles Z Women’s status pretty good Islam teaches that all people’s souls are equal Z ZActive Z Z in commerce Pastoralist background! More patriarchal over time
• Madrassa schools