- Количество слайдов: 81
Is Declaration of Independence on their side? THE PROGRESSIVE ERA 1881 -1921 SEE ALSO: PART 2 FROM GRASS ROOTS TO THE REFORMS OF THE ROOSEVELT, TAFT, AND WILSON ADMINISTRATIONS “They can debate the merits, meanwhile I am going to make the dirt fly” “The checks and balances theory Is now a problem, not a solution”
PROGRESSIVISM’S UNEASY ALLIANCE/COALITION (SEE BOTTOM PAGE 724 BOTTOM) Social control and Evangelical Protestantism Rational measures for human improvement Religious in nature. Scientific/Empirical? ? Duty of Christians to purge the Experts can make government and world of poverty, inequality and economic greed. Moral crusades such as prohibition and ending prostitution. industry more efficient. Preservation of nature and natural resources. Social Justice. Social control. What does Social Justice vs. Social Control mean? Modern day “uneasy alliance”/Coalition: Liberal Catholics who must accept fellow liberals’ views such as open abortions and the idea that evolutionary theory rejects a God.
THE MUCKRAKERS (TEDDY ROOSEVELT’S TERM) WRITERS WHO EXPOSED SOCIAL AND POLITICAL EVILS. (test)(EXAM) Cosmopolitan magazine’s DAVID GRAHAM PHILIPS wrote The Treason of the Senate to suggest that Republicans were mouthpieces for big business (LIKE TODAY’S PROGRESSIVES WHO WANT CAMPAIGN FINANCE LAWS) Theodore Roosevelt called him a MUCKRAKER b/c he “Rakes the mud of society but never looks up” SEE HOMEWORK
GOALS AND BELIEFS OF PROGRESSIVISM No single set of principles Clean up political corruption Clean up people’s Moral behavior. . see Lysistrata next slide Limit the Power of The Wealthy Clean up The ghettos
NO SET OF PRINCIPLES: Believed in LEGAL POSITIVISM: There is NO NATURAL LAW Law is just a human construct; its protections don’t come from the “CREATOR” Therefore Law, like the Constitution is never permanent; always changeable. Like Moral Relativism
NO SINGLE SET OF PRINCIPLES 1. Progressives question Washington, Madison and Jefferson and the other Framers of the Constitution who wanted limited government: PROGRESSIVES Would Dec. of Ind. be on their ***The idea of evolution was new with Charles Darwin and Progressives side? Roosevelt and Wilson thought that human nature was continually ***improving/evolving and therefore more power in the hands of the President and the Central Govt. was not just okay, but necessary. feel the Constitution needs to “Evolve” VS. CONSERVATIVES Would **To the founders, all government must assume humans will always Constitution’s be self-interested; that human nature does not change limitations on 1. Adam Smith’s “Invisible Hand” coupled with the checks and government balances of competition. be on their side? 2. John Locke’s “Night Watchman” theory of government.
THE ACCEPTANCE OF MORE GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT BECAME THE NORM Had happened first in OTTO VON BISMARCK’S GERMANY (1871)
…NO SINGLE SET OF PRINCIPLES. . B) Progressives thought the Founders/Framers were overly obsessed with “THE TYRANNY OF THE MAJORITY” which may have had its’ equivalent with Jean Jacques Rousseau’s THE GENERAL WILL Our System of JUDICIAL REVIEW prevents Tyranny of Majority/ General Will
PLAY BELOW: CRASH COURSE PROGRESSIVISM (START AT 8: 20) (12: 00 -END IS JIM CROW) https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=i 0 Q 4 z. PR 4 G 7 M
PROGRESSIVES’ “NO SET OF PRINCIPLES” 2. Teddy Roosevelt (R)and Woodrow Wilson(D) will attempt to circumvent checks and balances established in the Constitution for the 3 Branches of Government. (see: Baron d’ Montesquieu) Wilson particularly liked the British Parliamentary system where the majority party selects a Prime Minister (Executive) and this PM and his party can more quickly do what the people want. SEE NEXT SLIDE: EXCERPT ON TYPES OF GOVT. & RELATIVE SPEED/EFFICIENCY
GOVERNMENTS THAT “GET THINGS DONE”: I DICTATORSHIPS ARE THE QUICKEST SEE VIDEO below FATAL ATTRACTION OF ADOLF HITLER: Else Wendel comment about Hitler “Really went to town” in correcting the problems the Depression brought to Germany. https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=0 hxffu. L 9 -j. Q II PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACIES QUICKer than U. S. A. -Only after process of COALITION BUILDING to get 51% -Sometimes requiring siding with questionable allies. III U. S. A. SYSTEM OF CHECKS AND BALANCES IS SLOWEST 2 political parties that are often immovable!
PART 1 - GRASS ROOTS PROGRESSIVISM Objectives What is “Grass Roots” Progressivism and how is it different than the national Progressive Programs of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson? Why southern Progressives didn’t do anything about racial discrimination in the South? (Why blacks’ rights are not part of reform. )(TEST)
. . NO SINGLE SET OF PRINCIPLES. . 1. Roosevelt sides with STEWARDSHIP THEORY: The Executive(President) as Steward of the People 2. T. R. suggests the President do whatever is not prohibited specifically VS. 9 TH AND 10 TH AMENDMENTS say just the opposite “Any powers not listed to govt. are reserved for States or the People”
…. NO SINGLE SET OF PRINCIPLES. . 2. “LEADERSHIP MUST LODGE SOMEWHERE”: from Woodrow Wilson’s speech at Columbia University (1907) Because the President is only one who speaks for the people as a whole (“at large”), he must get more political power. Like Plato, supported “Philosopher Kings”: (A brilliant few who rule. ) Helped create: A. Income Tax (16 TH amendment) so could stop using Liquor taxes and Import taxes. B. Federal Reserve: To mitigate booms and busts! SEE MONETARY POLICY
. . NO SINGLE SET OF PRINCIPLES. . 3. Both Roosevelt and Wilson’s parties thought T & WW would “play along”, but both fought against corruption within own parties. Teddy Roosevelt had been made Vice President in 1900 to get him out of New York Republican politics and ostensibly into a meaningless job as V. P. 1901: William Mc. Kinley is assassinated and T. R. becomes President. (TEST)(EXAM) How might how they became President explain their Progressive attitudes? ? ? Irony: Wilson will later become President when T. R. splits from Republicans in 1912 allowing Wilson to beat the divided Republicans.
DEFINITION OF PROGRESSIVISM Progressivism: mainly a 1. IN SOUTH for Whites only (civil rights pushed to the side) [TEST]) 2. Mainly create and benefit middle class. 3. In response to post-Civil War modernization. (TEST) Prior to Civil War people living in rural areas would have family/peers to OFFER CHARITY and SHAME THEM into behavior (stop drinking too much etc. . ) (SEE CONFUCIANISM). Post Civil War they moved to the cities and their old networks and social safety nets no longer applied. PROGRESSIVES would offer both and much more.
. . PROGRESSIVISM. . 4. Started SMALL SCALE (“GRASS ROOTS”)… . . then use the Federal Government to change things on a large scale. ) Problem with Large Scale is DIMINISHING RETURNS. Example of Failure: PROHIBITION INCOME TAXES eventually discouraging work (see next slide Laffer Curve) Large scale govt. programs Small scale settlement houses
ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF DIMINISHING RETURNS: PAYING FOR THE GOVT. PROGRAMS THE LAFFER CURVE: Raising the % on taxes increases government revenue up to a point and then inflows decline despite higher % rates. “CRASH COURSE” SHOWS FAILURE OF PROHIBITION AS EG. OF LARGE SCALE FAILURE
DEFINITION OF PROGRESSIVISM. . Generally optimistic about improving Socio-economic conditions(TEST)(EXAM) Against INDIVIDUALISM/OBJECTIVISM (see Ayn Rand “Atlas Shrugged”) Would prefer Hillary Clinton’s book: IT TAKES A VILLAGE Over Donald Trump’s book: THE ART OF THE DEAL
THE FEMALE DOMINION (WALD/ADDAMS PG 722) Settlement House Movement (like Covenant House) Jane Addams: Hull House(TEST) 1881 - day nursery, dispensary for medicine, boardinghouse. Jane Addams’ settlement houses give educated women a way to contribute to society despite limited opportunities for women. (TEST)(EXAM) Lillian Wald: Henry Street Settlement House
COMPARE SETTLEMENT HOUSES TO MODERN COVENANT HOUSE Question: When going from small Scale to large scale, who is better able To function: A private charity or a Government organization? https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=dlzl. LE 9 IZFc ARVIN VOHRA on govt. vs. private charity https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Weocon_ Thb. M John Stossel on private/govt. charity
…SETTLEMENT HOUSES: Nurses cared for poor in their neighborhoods. Built playgrounds. For school lunch programs. DID NOT ADVOCATE for redistributing wealth to urban poor. (TEST)
THE FEMALE DOMINION Florence Kelley: helped direct support of the settlement house movement behind state and federal legislation Published the first scientific study of urban poverty in America. See modern scientific study in HOMEWORK article: THE POVERTY CURE: GET MARRIED Expands the social welfare function of the state Social Work Public Health nursing **Home economics : teaching the basics of cooking and HYGIENE! Similar to teaching basics of FINANCIAL LITERACY today?
WHAT PART DOES “DESIRE FOR MEANING” PLAY IN THESE WOMEN’S WORK ETHIC? SEE PAGE 726 “THERE IS NOTHING AFTER DISEASE…. MORE FATAL TO LIFE THAN NO OUTLET FOR ACTIVE FACULTIES”
CITY MACHINES IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA City machines viewed assisting the people as a cost in the business of preserving political power/(BUY VOTES? ) Assists people by: Passes welfare legislation beneficial to working class and immigrant constituency(TEST) Pass factory safety regulations and worker compensation plans- makes government responsive to social needs.
…. CITY MACHINES IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA… Machines later begin to champion cultural pluralism, oppose prohibition and immigration restrictions. Pictured: Tammany Hall’s “Big Tim” Sullivan
“GOOD GOVERNMENT” In cities: Challenges machine politics Wisconsin’s Robert La. Follette: Governor 1901 -1906 and Senator 1906 -1925 Tougher corporate tax rates. (TODAY 35%) RR commission designed to regulate freight charges. Used University of Wisconsin faculty TO COMBINE GOVT. ACTION AND ACADEMIC THEORY- called “The Wisconsin Idea”. (TEST)(EXAM) (Aka: Get schools involved on behalf of Progressive Politics) This one reason Education establishment mostly Progressive today. Modern response to this: 2015 passage of RIGHT TO WORK laws on next slide
BELOW: UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN’S SITE http: //www. wisc. edu/wisconsin-idea/
A modern counter To “Wisconsin Idea” “Right to work” means work but not have to join the Union
The Liberal/Progressive response to “Right To Work” states.
SEE BELOW: WASHINGTON POST ARTICLE ON LIBERAL ACADEMIA http: //www. washingtonpost. com/wpdyn/articles/A 8427 -2005 Mar 28. html
“GOOD GOVERNMENT” Gives people an expanded role in government including: (TEST) 1. Initiative: citizens can introduce a subject for legislation. (TEST) 2. Referendum: submission of a law to a direct popular vote. Often over issues modern politicians call THE THIRD RAIL : School taxes, abortion and Trash-to-Steam power plants etc… 3. Recall: allows for popular vote to remove an official from office. Similar to Impeachment except the PEOPLE do it directly! 4. 17 th Amendment: Direct election of U. S. Senators (no longer chosen by state legislature) This went against the founders idea to make HOUSE directly answerable to people and SENATE more aloof (next slide).
HOW/WHY SELECTION OF THE SENATE DONE: How: 1. They would serve 6 year terms. (EVEN LONGER THAN PRESIDENT!) Would RATIFY ALL TREATIES AND SUPREME COURT PICKS of President. 2. Selected by State Legislatures (SIMILAR TO PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY) Why: 1. To Remain Aloof -to not let “Familiarity Breed Contempt” 2. To be able to think long term(see above Treaties and SC picks)
SOUTHERN PROGRESSIVES’ MORAL/ECONOMIC WRONGS: (TEST ESSAY) Progressive laws for whites only. IN their skewed view, disenfranchisement of African-American voters would make whites upwardly mobile. (TEST)(EXAM) A ZERO SUM view of economics vs. GROWTH OF WEALTH concept. IF SCHADENFREUDE : MORALLY WRONG AND HURTS WHITES ALSO! 1. IF POOR LEFT POOR; GOVERNMENT HAS TO CARE FOR THEM AND TAXES WILL RISE ON EVERYONE. (JULIANA BUSH 2015)
IF SOUTHERNERS HAD CHOSEN MORAL RIGHT: IF MAGNANIMITY: POSITIVE RESULTS 1. GIVING THE POOR THE CHANCE TO BENEFIT WILL BE THE POSITIVE INVERSE OF TRICKLE DOWN THEORY OF ECONOMICS (JOE CAMPO 2015) 2. LOWER CLASSES IF ALLOWED TO MAKE MONEY WILL SPEND IT AT BUSINESSES OF THOSE OF SLIGHTLY HIGHER INCOME LEVELS AND SO ON…. 3. IF LOWER CLASS NEIGHBORHOODS CAN IMPROVE, THEY WILL CAUSE IMPROVEMENT OF NEARBY NEIGHBORHOODS. 4. If poor African Americans allowed to improve, TAXES WOULD BE LOWERED
PROGRESSIVISM IN THE SOUTH… Prohibition was widely supported in the South. Assumed that prohibition would reduce African-American crime. SEE ALSO ARTICLE ON GUN CONTROL LAWS SPECIFICALLY AIMED AT AFRICAN AMERICANS. So, Racist views included in: ABORTION, PROHIBITION AND GUN LAWS. ABORTION RIGHTS and PROHIBITION were protections for women also. DO WOMEN and MINORITIES STILL NEED MORE PROTECTIONS IN 2015?
WARM-UP: GIVE REASONS WHY THERE SHOULD BE MORE PROGRESSIVE LAWS PASSED TO PROTECT AGAINST DISCRIMINATION Are there more progressive laws needed to be passed? : I For Women 1. Sexual assault 2. Federally funded abortions and no limits on when or how. infringe on taxpayers’ beliefs? 3. Federally funded contraception (even requiring LITTLE SISTERS OF THE POOR to provide them) Like a VENN DIAGRAM the question is where do the rights of some people end if they infringe on the rights of others? 4. Title IX (at universities and the workplace such as FIREMEN) infringe on rights of men’s programs that are cut?
. . MORE PROGRESSIVE LAWS NEEDED? . . . II For Workers III For LGBT Example: minimum wage increases 1. laws preventing religious businesspeople from refusing service or cakes. (see Obama’s comment that they “CLING TO THEIR GUNS AND RELIGION”) 2. Separate bathrooms?
. . DO WE NEED MORE PROTECTIONS. . ? IV African Americans V The Handicapped VI Example: Enforcing Gerrymander laws in the South. Examples-more access… “HATE CRIMES” legislation.
REACTION AGAINST THE SOUTH: IDA WELLS Ida Wells wrote: ON LYNCHINGS to expose them to the world. (TEST)
What political statement Is this trying to make?
AMERICAN INTELLECTUALS CHALLENGE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM Sociologist Lester Frank Ward: Challenges Social Darwinism 1. Rose from poverty. 2. Accepted evolution, but said men’s minds could control evolution and protect the weak through cooperation. (cooperation replaces competition) -Nature’s progress was un-planned, but human progress involves human intervention that serves human purpose. (mind over nature) Progressives generally opposed Social Darwinism b/c mankind had the power to reason(TEST)(EXAM)
FOR NEXT SLIDES ON CORPORATE “PERSONS” SEE BELOW NPR ARTICLE http: //www. npr. org/2014/07/28/335288388/wh en-did-companies-become-people-excavatingthe-legal-evolution
AMERICAN INTELLECTUALS CHALLENGE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM Oliver Wendell Holmes: 1 ST PROGRESSIVE ON SUPREME COURT(test) (text pg. 732) I Opposes the distorted view of the 14 th Amendment: ( page 732)which said any law that regulated business was interpreted as an attack on their property without “due process of law” “Notorious” Supreme Court Justice Stephen Field had earlier ruled that Corporations are persons and therefore have the rights/due process of persons. Modern cases on whether Corporations are “persons”: CITIZENS UNITED LITTLE SISTERS OF THE POOR II Wants the courts to respect legislation passed by majority. (paradoxically Conservatives today also want Courts to respect majority legislation on some issues) What words on this page could influence ones’ view of the opinion that Corporations are persons?
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES AS SOCIAL DARWINIST: "Three generations of imbeciles are enough". Buck v. Bell, 274 U. S. 200 (1927), is a decision of the United States Supreme Court, written by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. , in which the Court ruled that a state statute permitting compulsory sterilization of the unfit, including theintellectually disabled, "for the protection and health of the state" did not violate the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. The decision was largely seen as an endorsement of negative eugenics—the attempt to improve the human race by eliminating "defectives" from the gene pool. The Supreme Court has never expressly overruled Buck v. Bell. However, in the last 50 years, both federal and state courts have severely criticized and questioned the legal reasoning underlying the decision. (See cases collected in Jeffrey F. Ghent, "Validity of statutes authorizing asexualization or sterilization of criminals or mental defectives, " 53 A. L. R. 3 d 960. )
INTELLECTUALS CHALLENGE CONVENTIONAL WISDOM. . Louis Brandeis: state’s attorney. used statistical, sociological and economic data to support his decisions and NOT JUST LEGAL REASONING(TEST) (ELIMINATE FROM TEST? ) “Brandeis Brief” becomes a common strategy for lawyers defending the constitutionality of progressive legislation.
PROGRESS THROUGH “SOCIAL CONTROL” One wing of Progressivism involves curing societal ills and promoting moral development and improving personal behavior Efforts to accomplish this include: 1. Prohibition SEE: Modern “SIN TAXES”/PROBLEM: HIGHLY REGRESSIVE!! (nearly all taxes are Regressive, but these more so) 2. Efforts to end prostitution 3. Censorship of FILM INDUSTRY. (G, PG, R and X RATINGS) DID NOT ADVOCATE FOR CONTRACEPTION(TEST)
SEE WEBSITE BELOW FOR 63 PLACES CALLED “HELL’S HALF ACRE”: SOME BEING DENS OF VICE http: //www. atlasobscura. com/articles/adevilishly-detailed-map-of-the-most-hellishplaces-inamerica? utm_source=Atlas+Obscura&utm_ca mpaign=e 8 fc 4106 ab. Newsletter_4_28_20164_27_2016&utm_medi um=email&utm_term=0_62 ba 9246 c 0 e 8 fc 4106 ab 59899189&ct=t(Newsletter_4_28_20164_27_ 2016)&mc_cid=e 8 fc 4106 ab&mc_eid=0787 ff 57 96 Particularly those in Chicago and Philadelphia
MOVIE CENSORSHIP Reformers want entertainment to: Improve the commercial recreation of the urban poor. “Become an agency for civilization rather than the reverse”. NBC- National Board of Censorship reviewing 95% of American films by 1914
PROHIBITION: LED BY CARRIE NATION Her husband had drank himself to death!(TEST) Around 1900 - Some level of support in both political parties Women’s Christian Temperance Union Angered by alcohol’s effects on family life Could fuse public concerns with moral conduct(TEST)(EXAM) Anti-Saloon League Rural counties and small towns banned liquor within their limits. Took advantage of anti-urban, anti-immigrant prejudice. Strong support from Evangelical Christians.
SEE CLIPS ON HBO SHOW BOARDWALK EMPIRE AND MOVIE THE UNTOUCHABLES
PROHIBITION World War I major impact(TEST) America turns anti-German: used by Prohibitionists Outlawing beer and whiskey would conserve grain for the war effort. Progressives See Prohibition as a way to improve society. Prohibition begins in 1920 with the 18 th Amendment. (16 th NOT PART![TEST]) BUSINESSMEN SUPPORTED IT BECAUSE INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKERS(TEST) and (EXAM) Volstead Act passed to enforce Prohibition SOME TOWNS ARE STILL “DRY”: OCEAN CITY, HADDONFIELD AND COLLINGSWOOD
ACTUAL EFFECTS OF PROHIBITION 1. The women joined the men in the S----E---(means same as” Talk Freely”) 2. The rest of the world still drank. (nearest border? ) 3. Crime syndicates benefitted from illicit $$$(La Cosa Nostra, mob, mafia) Like today’s Pablo Escobars of the world. 4. Violence in the cities (Like Camden today) SO, SHOULD WE LEGALIZE DRUGS? ? ? TO STOP THE VIOLENCE? But, if we legalize drugs… Neil Young’s THE NEEDLE AND THE DAMAGE DONE https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Hd 3 oqvn. D KQk
ENDING PROSTITUTION Movement born out of anti -immigrant *** and antiurban attitudes(TEST) Pictured : Rudolph Valentino…Mediterranean people were viewed as “Lovers”/ more promiscuous. ***Anti-immigrant NATIVISTS also aimed their Anti-alcohol and Education Views at these NEW IMMIGRANTS(TEST)
. . PROSTITUTION. . Reformers: Diverse group of male business and civic leaders, feminists, clergy, social workers Did not believe any woman would choose this as a profession(SEE: KARL MARX’S COMMUNIST MANIFESTO) where he suggests the wealthy can and do take advantage of poor women’s sexuality. Prostitution forced to become more discreet in “RED LIGHT DISTRICTS” See: 1. Bourbon Street New Orleans 2. 42 nd street New York See: Jim Croce’s YOU DON’T MESS AROUND WITH JIM https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=odk. IEDi 2 x 0 g 3. Remind of Russian sailors at Philadelphia Fish and co.
Prohibition leads to …
Laws against prostitution lead to…. . . and this. .
Laws against use of illicit drugs leads to this…
MODERN PROSTITUTION AND VIEWS ON LEGALIZATION: SAME AS LEGALIZED DRUGS? Today: Legalized prostitution in Nevada Warm-up: Will profligate “SEX, ALCOHOL, DRUGS AND ROCK AND ROLL” harm rich people or poor people more? This relates to the legal question of how free should people be to do things that harm themselves? Where is the dividing line between where certain behavior only hurts the person, and where the activity hurts others? Which innocent people are hurt if Prostitution is illegal/legal? Who is hurt if Marijuana busts puts 10 s of thousands in prison? Who is hurt if drug use is legal? / illegal? Who is hurt if someone not wearing seat belt?
PROGRESSIVES AND EDUCATION Elwood Cubberly: Changing Conceptions of Education (1909) “Our task is to break up these groups or settlements, to assimilate and amalgamate new immigrants as part of our American race, and to implant in their children, so far as can be done, the Anglo-Saxon conception of righteousness, law and order, and popular government. ”(TEST AND EXAM) “Earliest opportunity to catch the little Russian, the little Italian, the little German, Pole, Syrian, and the rest and begin to make good American citizens of them” 1890 - 4% of 14 -17 yr olds enrolled in school 1930 - 47% enrolled Different curricula for boys and girls
HISTORY OF WOMEN’S FIGHT FOR RIGHTS: REVIEW Warm-up: Would the girls in this class rather be lower middle class and out in the working world ? ? OR …. Rich, but always at home with the kids? A. ) The Ancient World 1. ATHENIAN WOMEN: A rich and cultured society…. but women no rights. 2. SPARTAN WOMEN: A poor and militarisic society… but women HAD RIGHTS! WAR DOES GIVE RIGHTS TO WOMEN!!
…HISTORY OF WOMEN’S FIGHT FOR RIGHTS. . B. ) The American and French Revolutions: Women played a part but…. 1. Women not included in Bill of Rights. 2. Abigail Adams kept pushing for Rights to no avail. 3. Women not included in Declaration of Rights of Man WAR DOES NOT GIVE RIGHTS TO WOMEN!
PROGRESSIVISM BY AND FOR WOMEN More middle class women are being educated By 1910, 40% of college students in the US are women Wives and daughters of influential and well-off men had access to funds to generate valuable support for progressive projects “Limousine Liberals”? Pictured: Ava Belmont (Vanderbilt’s grand-daughter-in-law) In 2016 have we reached a point where “Limousine Liberals”(well- educated Democrats) and “Elite Conservatives”(well-educated conservatives) can no longer guide the “working class” on how to live? …and vote?
PROGRESSIVISM BY AND FOR WOMEN Margret Sanger and birth control: text pages 745, 817&829 Her magazine Woman Rebel celebrates the female anatomy, right to sexual expression, and control over her body As a birth control advocate Sanger: Advances sexual freedom for middle class women. (T & E) Responds to misery of women who bore many children in poverty. (T & E) Defies the law by opening a birth control clinic and offering birth control with no physician present Sanger is met with opposition…
MARGARET SANGER QUOTES: From PLAN FOR PEACE April, 1932 Article 1. The purpose of the American Baby Code shall be to provide for a better distribution of babies… and to protect society against the propagation and increase of the unfit. Article 4. No woman shall have the legal right to bear a child, and no man shall have the right to become a father, without a permit… Article 6. No permit for parenthood shall be valid for more than one birth.
. . MARGARET SANGER QUOTES: From: BIRTH CONTROL REVIEW page 108 From: WOMEN, MORALITY AND BIRTH CONTROL 1922 Birth control must lead ultimately to a cleaner race. We should hire three or four colored ministers, preferably with social-service backgrounds, and with engaging personalities. The most successful educational approach to the Negro is through a religious appeal. We don’t want the word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population, and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members.
NONE OF THESE MARGARET SANGER STATEMENTS WILL BE FOUND IN THE TEXTBOOK! However, just below a paragraph (page 746 text)giving her credit for looking out for Women’s rights, there is one titled RACISM AND ACCOMODATION in which Social Darwinism and U. S. Senator Benjamin Tillman and author Thomas Dixon are rightly criticized for racist views Of African Americans. The textbook never connects her to the Racism she advocates. The textbook also never mentions that Benjamin Tillman was a Democrat.
WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE Women in World War I First time women mobilized directly into the armed forces Critical volunteer work Government takes steps to protect women workers Women in Industry Service (WIS) 8 hr day, equal pay, rest periods, no night work WAR DOES GIVE RIGHTS TO WOMEN!
ARTICLE BELOW IN “ATLAS OBSCURA” ABOUT DISCRIMINATION AGAINST WOMEN: http: //www. atlasobscura. com/articles/uspassport-historywomen? utm_source=Atlas+Obscura+Daily+N ewsletter&utm_campaign=6 b 9 c 4 d 04 f 2 Newsletter_3_29_2017&utm_medium=email& utm_term=0_f 36 db 9 c 480 -6 b 9 c 4 d 04 f 265782037&ct=t(Newsletter_3_29_2017)&mc_ cid=6 b 9 c 4 d 04 f 2&mc_eid=0787 ff 5796
WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE- NAWSA- National American Women’s Suffrage Association Shifts strategy from individual states to a constitutional amendment Carrie Chapman Catt: NAWSA supports war effort- patriotism(TEST) Lobbied Congress for constitutional amendment, and for state referendums (so, Pushed for Federal and State changes)(TEST) Moderate or Radical?
MODERATE VS. RADICAL PROTESTS Alice Paul: Quaker born in Mt. Laurel, New Jersey Brings new energy and radical tactics(TEST) to the movement. Openly critical of President Wilson. (MARGARET SANGER NOT CRITICAL[TEST] ) Broke away from NAWSA because they viewed her as too radical along with Lucy Burns, and the two of them formed the NATIONAL WOMEN’S PARTY. See movie: Iron Jawed Angels Moderate or Radical? Alice Paul
OTHER EXAMPLES OF RADICAL VIEW VERSUS MODERATE OR CONSERVATIVE VIEW: WHO WINS? Radical/Violent Moderates Who would say “Don’t let the perfect Be the enemy of the Good? ” 1. The Hare (Aesop’s Fables) 1. The Tortoise 2. Nero 2. The Christians 3. Jacobins (“Communism”) 3. Girondists (some reform) 4. Jefferson 4. George Washington. 5. W. E. B. Dubois 5. Booker T. Washington 6. Malcolm X 6. Martin Luther King JR. 7. Bill Ayers and Weather Underground 7. The “BE INS”
Lucy Burns See movie: IRON JAWED ANGELS
DAVID BOWIE’S: SUFFRAGETTE CITY Live https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Rhf. Mvh 6 E m 0 M
WILSON FINALLY SUPPORTS WOMEN’S SUFFRAGE Wilson finds NAWSA’s moderate stance more acceptable than Alice Paul’s radicals. MLK was correct about violent protest…. . IT DOES NOT WORK! Urges passage of the 19 th Amendment 1920 - 19 th Amendment ratified
QUESTION: WHY DO WOMEN DRINK AFTER PROHIBITION (NOT SO MUCH BEFORE) 1. Because there is an attraction to doing something that is forbidden? 2. Because SUFFRAGE happened the same year as prohibiton and included them for the first time; and drinking alcohol/smoking cigarettes is further inclusion with the men? **See next slide on how Smoking cigarettes was part of their “Inclusion” 3. Your own reason why women drank more after 1920? ? ?
Below: Virginia Slims commercials suggesting a connection between the early days of women’s inclusion to their complete independence of today. https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=KGm. EQw 0 -m 7 U https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=80 GYLwg. V x. Qs https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=c. Iq 3 nfl. Ejks
Women have “come a long way, baby”, But what is the last ceiling to rise above? The G---- C------!