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IPAWS (Integrated Public Alert & Warning System) Sandia National Laboratories Ronald F. Glaser, PE IPAWS (Integrated Public Alert & Warning System) Sandia National Laboratories Ronald F. Glaser, PE 505 -844 -1075, [email protected] gov Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC 04 -94 AL 85000.

Outline • What is IPAWS? - administered by FEMA • Programmatic drivers / Sandia’s Outline • What is IPAWS? - administered by FEMA • Programmatic drivers / Sandia’s role • Conceptual roadmap - iterative development and deployment • Hurricane ‘ 07 (Spiral 0, WARN 2) – What did we do? – What did we learn? • Coordination/Interoperability - vision • The IPAWS end system - grid features • Summary - POCs and web sites

What is IPAWS? – Department of Homeland Security program begun in 2004 to improve What is IPAWS? – Department of Homeland Security program begun in 2004 to improve public alert & warning in partnership with NOAA*, the FCC*, & other public/private stakeholders. – Evolving “system of systems” • Emergency Alert System (EAS) upgrades • National Warning System (NAWAS) enhancements • New pilots and systems: – Digital EAS (DEAS) program with APTS* and others – Web Alert and Relay Network (WARN) pilot with Sandia and others – Geo-Targeted Alerting System (GTAS) program with NOAA and others “DHS should establish an integrated public alert and warning system in coordination with all relevant departments and agencies. ” - Hurricane Katrina Lessons Learned Report (2006) * NOAA = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FCC = Federal Communications Commission APTS = Association of Public Television Stations

IPAWS is the Nation’s next-generation emergency warning capability IPAWS will work with public and IPAWS is the Nation’s next-generation emergency warning capability IPAWS will work with public and private sectors to integrate warning systems to effectively communicate alerts via TV, radio, telephone, internet/computer, cell phone, and other personal communications devices. The IPAWS will allow: q The President (or designated Federal officials) to communicate to the American people before, during, and after a crisis q The President and authorized Federal government officials to gain situational awareness from State and local emergency operations centers q Effective communications to State and territory agencies, Governors, tribal councils, and other alert and warning stakeholders q State and local emergency managers to send messages to residents during non-Federal emergencies IPAWS supports FEMA’s goal to reduce losses to life and property from all hazards by providing reliable and accurate information before, during and after an emergency

The end vision of IPAWS is to deliver coordinated messages over more channels to The end vision of IPAWS is to deliver coordinated messages over more channels to more people, anywhere, anytime. State Agencies Territories and Tribes Private Sector Governors Local Agencies International Governments President & other officials Federal Agencies Responder and Resource Communities Public INTERNET LANDLINE PHONES

IPAWS Drivers • Hurricane Katrina – Lack of communications and situational awareness paralyzed command IPAWS Drivers • Hurricane Katrina – Lack of communications and situational awareness paralyzed command control. – Lack of targeted alerts and warnings. • Current alert and warning systems don’t reach sufficient proportion of the population – Audio-only alerts, distributed via television and radio. – 1 -12% of population, depending on time of day. • Executive Order 13407: – Ensure that under all conditions the President can rapidly and effectively address and warn the public over a broad range of communications devices and under any emergency condition. – DHS goal for IPAWS is to provide the capability to alert 85% of the listening population within 10 minutes.

Sandia’s Role • Design, set up, and operate pilot alert program for 2007 hurricane Sandia’s Role • Design, set up, and operate pilot alert program for 2007 hurricane season – Initial capability deployed 1 August 2007 – Ended 31 December 2007 • Develop and pilot new architecture for next hurricane season – Understand needs/requirements of users – Develop secure architecture for sending messages (internal/public) – Develop standards (OASIS*) – Qualify vendors for IPAWS interoperability – Multiple year effort to develop architecture and roll it out nationally * Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards

Conceptual IPAWS Spiral deployment timeline and national coverage IPAWS Deployment Spiral 0 Aug ‘ Conceptual IPAWS Spiral deployment timeline and national coverage IPAWS Deployment Spiral 0 Aug ‘ 07 Spiral 1 IOC Jun ‘ 08 Spiral 1 Dec ‘ 08 Spiral 2 Dec ‘ 09 Spiral 3 Dec ‘ 10 WARN CRG infrastructure (vendor-neutral, basic security & message routing services) Sandia-driven pilots CRG infrastructure (vendor-neutral, full security & message routing services) Vendor-driven national roll-out

IPAWS Pilot Capability for Hurricane Season ‘ 07 TV & Radio EAS ENDEC Text IPAWS Pilot Capability for Hurricane Season ‘ 07 TV & Radio EAS ENDEC Text Collaboration CAP Alert Generation EAS Interface (WSI Comm Proc) WARN Servers EAS Interface (WSI RF Ctrl) State/Local/Tribal FEMA Ops FEMA Regions Tone Alert Radios Sirens, etc. Alert and Warning IP Network (CAP/XML) Satellite TV NOAA Satellite Radio DHNS ETN Phone Calls Opt-In SMS RSS Web Pop Ups Text Messages Cell Broadcast Broker RBDS Radio Display Life & Property (22 + Amber) Cell Phone Carrier Video to TV, Cell Phones & Internet

Hurricane Season ’ 07 WARN 2 (Spiral 0) Overview • IPAWS WARN 2 deployed Hurricane Season ’ 07 WARN 2 (Spiral 0) Overview • IPAWS WARN 2 deployed commercial alert and warning services in Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi – Operational from Aug 1 - Dec 31, 2007 – Covered 3 state EOCs and 133/213 counties/parishes • Sandia’s role: – System design, integration, and testing – Coordination with state and local Emergency Operation Centers – Commercial vendor selection and oversight • Deployed emergency notification capabilities: – Messaging framework for Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages to Emergency Alert System (EAS) – Emergency Telephone Notification (ETN) – Deaf and Hard-Of-Hearing Notification System (DHNS) – Subscription-based public alerts (Opt-In)

Spiral 0 Overview Emergency Operations Centers Sirens Web Alert and Relay Network Audio G Spiral 0 Overview Emergency Operations Centers Sirens Web Alert and Relay Network Audio G ON WSI RF Adapter t er s Al age ss Me Public Pub lic Sig Optn-U In p T/L LA #s ne CAP Message Text Messag e o Ph b We tion ac ter In rt Ale ges ssa Me Email CAP Mess age eo o Vide Email Audio Deaf. Link (DHNS) Emergency Telephone Notification (ETN) Audio ENDEC WSI EAS Adapter LP 1 Voice XML Message Vid AS L ASL Geographic Telephone Directory

Capabilities deployed across Louisiana, Mississippi, & Alabama • Web Alert and Relay Network (WARN) Capabilities deployed across Louisiana, Mississippi, & Alabama • Web Alert and Relay Network (WARN) Opt-in Software – Allows emergency personnel to generate and control warnings via web interface – Provides multiple alerts and warnings to people who opt to receive notifications • Emergency Telephone Notification (ETN) – Hardware to provide basic telephone notification (20, 000 calls in 10 minutes) – Vender agreements – Database resource • Enhanced ETN (E-ETN) – Additional hardware to increase call capacity to 60, 000 ETN calls in 10 minutes – Adds redundancy servers to minimize the chance of an outage due to technical failure • Deaf and Hard of Hearing Notification System (DHNS) – American Sign Language translation of emergency messages to hearing impaired – Vendor agreement to post videos on the internet

Demographics Population with a Sensory Disability State Total Population Counties/Parishes Number Percent Alabama 4, Demographics Population with a Sensory Disability State Total Population Counties/Parishes Number Percent Alabama 4, 227, 433 67 248, 457 5. 9% Louisiana 3, 889, 925 64 213, 824 5. 5% Mississippi 2, 639, 235 82 178, 504 6. 8% Nation-wide 273, 835, 465 - 11, 829, 958 4. 3% Rank (out of 50 U. S. States) Percent Who Speak English Less Than “Very Well” Margin of Error Alabama 43 1. 9% +/-0. 1 Louisiana 37 2. 6% +/-0. 1 Mississippi 49 1. 3% +/-0. 1 Nation-wide - 8. 7% +/-0. 1 State US Census Bureau, 2006 & 2007 estimates

Spiral 0 Results Spiral 0 Results

Spiral 0 Successes • Emergency Telephone Notification (ETN) used by Mississippi Governor for Hurricane Spiral 0 Successes • Emergency Telephone Notification (ETN) used by Mississippi Governor for Hurricane Dean • Opt-In demonstrated for Secretary Chertoff, AL governor, and AL congressional delegation • ETN tested with over 250, 000 calls • Over 700 American Sign Language (ASL) alerts generated • Sandia/Vendors trained EOC personnel in 133 counties/parishes • Sandia developed working relationship with state EOCs and 10 county/parish EOCs

Spiral 0 Lessons Learned • Vendor independence is necessary for state/local buy-in • Efficient, Spiral 0 Lessons Learned • Vendor independence is necessary for state/local buy-in • Efficient, convenient, and continuous training needs to be available for EOC personnel • Technology and staffing can be an issue at the county and parish level • Funding concerns and sustainment plans need to be addressed for an effective alert and warning capability • Emergency Telephone Notification (ETN) is highly desirable but a cellular calling capability is also needed • Understanding existing infrastructure (Telephone Network, Internet, etc. ) is important to system design • Public education and awareness are critical for success • Deaf & blind public participation requires direct outreach

Coordination & Interoperability There are situations requiring cross enterprise messaging – Many current architectures Coordination & Interoperability There are situations requiring cross enterprise messaging – Many current architectures discuss message exchanges in terms of a single enterprise – Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) benefits from its ability to cross ownership boundaries • • • Federal Regional State Local Tribal – To be interoperable, crossing ownership boundaries must accommodate both: • Technical aspects: syntax, semantics • Policy aspects: access control, security, … – Interoperability among diverse participants requires a prearranged groundwork for communications and understanding supporting: • Different policy and security contexts • Incremental addition of services and participants • Resource multiplier when adding another stakeholder

The Vision • An Architecture for Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Coordination, Intelligence and Interoperability The Vision • An Architecture for Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Coordination, Intelligence and Interoperability – Situational Awareness – Customized Operational Pictures Based on Common Data • A Federal Cross-jurisdictional Routing Grid (CRG) – Interoperable Multi-Agency Enterprises – Federal/Regional/State/Local/Public • Choreographed Information Sharing – Data-Content Routing – Communities of Interest • Communications Surety – Security – Authentication – Robust Delivery • Nation Wide Scalability • Open Standards Based – Vendor Independent Plug-&-Play

IPAWS End State Vision Federal Agencies IPAWS Satellite Network Authentication Boundary IPAWS IP Network IPAWS End State Vision Federal Agencies IPAWS Satellite Network Authentication Boundary IPAWS IP Network Internet & Landline Services Authentication Boundary Local EOC Radio Authentication Boundary State EOC Mobile IPAWS Coordination Ctr Authentication Boundary Commercial Satellite Services Television Commercial Mobile Services

High-Level IPAWS System Presidential Alert Injection EAS ENDEC Services Text Collaboration CAP Alert Generation High-Level IPAWS System Presidential Alert Injection EAS ENDEC Services Text Collaboration CAP Alert Generation State (Local/Tribal) FEMA Ops FEMA Regions WARN Servers SPOR TV & Radio EAS Interface (Comm Proc) EAS Interface (RF Ctrl) SPOR Satellite TV SPOR Cross-jurisdictional Routing Grid SPOR Satellite Radio SPOR DHNS ETN Phone Calls Opt-In SMS RSS Web Pop Ups Text Messages NOAA SPOR Cell Broadcast Broker RBDS Radio Display Tone Alert Radios Sirens, etc. Life & Property (22 + Amber) Cell Phone Carrier SPOR = Secure Policy-oriented Object Router Video to TV, Cell Phones & Internet

The IPAWS Grid The Cross-jurisdictional Routing Grid (CRG): – Set of intersecting internet partitions The IPAWS Grid The Cross-jurisdictional Routing Grid (CRG): – Set of intersecting internet partitions – Defined by Communities of Interest (COIs) – Protected by Application Layer Routers/Firewalls called Secure Policy-oriented Object Routers (SPORs) – That enforce COI Policies and Rules – For Trans-enterprise Messaging – Based on Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) Emergency Data e. Xchange Language-Distribution Element (EDXLDE) and Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) Standards

IPAWS CRG Features • • • Authentication Non-repudiation Secure Scalable (to national level) Standards-based, IPAWS CRG Features • • • Authentication Non-repudiation Secure Scalable (to national level) Standards-based, vendor neutral Service Oriented Architecture (event-driven) Policy-oriented routing Geopolitical targeting Multi-channel (not just the internet) Hardened Secure Policy-orientated Object Routers (SPORs)

IPAWS Pilot Summary • Demonstrated electronic delivery of emergency alerts to the public utilizing IPAWS Pilot Summary • Demonstrated electronic delivery of emergency alerts to the public utilizing commercially-available services • Demonstrated some new capabilities to meet public alerting gaps in the current EAS system – Addressed alerting gaps through ETN, E-ETN, DHNS, Opt-In, and enhanced EAS and RF system capability. • E-ETN & DHNS capabilities can reach a more diverse population not well served by the current EAS functionality – E-ETN capability transmitted alerts in foreign languages, thereby aiding those who may have trouble understanding English – DHNS conveyed alerts to deaf, blind, and hard-of-hearing citizens • Demonstrated the promise of a national public/private emergency alert communication system – Ability to communicate emergency alerts quickly to an increased number of individuals during various times of the day • Many venues are needed to effectively alert and warn the public

Points of Contacts & Web Sites • IPAWS Project Manager – Ronald Glaser, rfglase@sandia. Points of Contacts & Web Sites • IPAWS Project Manager – Ronald Glaser, [email protected] gov • IPAWS Public Relations – Mike Janes, [email protected] gov • FEMA IPAWS Web Site – http: //www. fema. gov/emergency/ipaws/ • EM Forum on IPAWS – http: //www. emforum. org/vforum/lc 080116. htm • IPAWS Supplier Web Site – http: //public. ca. sandia. gov/IPAWSsuppliers/ • OASIS Web Site – http: //www. oasis-open. org/home/index. php