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INVOLVEMENT OF NATIONAL WEATHER CENTER in ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MEASUREMENT (ARM) PROGRAM of U. S. INVOLVEMENT OF NATIONAL WEATHER CENTER in ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MEASUREMENT (ARM) PROGRAM of U. S. Department of Energy 1991 -2010 Kimpel Retirement Symposium June 18, 2010

HISTORICAL MILESTONES ARM genesis in late 1980 s NAS/NRC Report Site Scientist was late HISTORICAL MILESTONES ARM genesis in late 1980 s NAS/NRC Report Site Scientist was late inclusion in ARM planning Early 1991 -- unsuccessful U. S. ARM “Site” RFP Mid 1991 -- ARM discussions with Universities (including a visit to J. Kimpel) August 1991 -- (1) ARM selects SGP as U. S. site; (2) revised Site Scientist RFP; (3) ARM leaders hold information meeting near OKC Airport October 1991 -- (1) NWC Proposal submitted; (2) Interview by ARM leaders in Washington DC (including J. Kimpel); (3) NWC Proposal chosen 1992 -- SGP Site Scientist Program initiated (February) and SGP Site inaugurated (October, including R. Van Horn, OU President) 1992 -2000 -- involved in many Campaigns (SCM, VORTEX, GCIP, UAV, ARESE, Water Vapor, Aerosol, Cloud) Mid 2000 -- ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) established “out of” Site Scientist Program (R. Peppler) 2000 -2006 -- continued involvement in Campaigns (ARESE II, Water Vapor, RS 90, IHOP, Aerosol)

HISTORICAL MILESTONES (cont) 2006 -- unofficial Site Scientist for ARM Mobile Facility deployment in HISTORICAL MILESTONES (cont) 2006 -- unofficial Site Scientist for ARM Mobile Facility deployment in Niger 2006 -2010 -- continued involvement in Campaigns (e. g. , CLASIC, RACORO, VORTEX 2) By 2010 -- around $21 M invested in SGP observational platforms and infrastructure 2010 -2011 -- additional $12 M (ARRA) being invested in SGP observational platforms (especially RADARS!) 2010 -- (1) Proposal submitted for “Sahel Cloud and Aerosol Interaction Campaign” in Niger (involving Z. Segele, D. Turner); (2) possibility of permanent Climate Observatory in Niger (B. Moore) ARM SGP = WORLD’S LEADING CLIMATE OBSERVATORY and part of OKLAHOMA = WORLD’S LEADING ATMOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY

SGP ARM CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY SGP ARM CLIMATE RESEARCH FACILITY

PROGRAM STRUCTURE, PERSONNEL, AND FUNDING SGP SITE SCIENTIST TEAM = $ 8, 732, 000 PROGRAM STRUCTURE, PERSONNEL, AND FUNDING SGP SITE SCIENTIST TEAM = $ 8, 732, 000 a. Scientific Support for Site Operations J. Schneider, M. Splitt, R. Peppler, C. Bahrmann, D. Bond, J. Harris, D. Hartsock b. Research Using Site Data Y. Kogan, Z. Kogan, D. Stensrud, P. Lamb, Q. Liu (Ph. D. ), Q. Xu, C-R. Chen (Ph. D. ), C. Duchon, E. Kassianov, S. Richardson, M. Ovtchinnikov (Ph. D. ), R. Peppler, M. Khairoutchinov, J. Schneider, D. Mechem, L. Leslie, Z. Segele, D. Portis, E. White (Ph. D. in progress), D. Hartsock c. Educational Outreach K. Crawford, R. Mc. Pherson, A. Melvin, M. Shafer DATA QUALITY OFFICE = $5, 404, 000 R. Peppler, K. Sonntag, A. Dean, K. Kehoe, J. Monroe, A. Theisen INSTRUMENTORSHIPS = $355, 000 S. Richardson, J. Schneider, J. Harris, D. Hartsock WEST AFRICA = $123, 000 I. Lele, Z. Segele, P. Lamb, H. Hamidou TOTAL PERSONNEL = 35+ TOTAL FUNDING = 14, 614, 000

BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR ARM Citations to date = 74 (ISI) for: D. STENSRUD BACKGROUND INFORMATION FOR ARM Citations to date = 74 (ISI) for: D. STENSRUD

RAINFALL CONTROL ON SGP SURFACE ALBEDO from: C. DUCHON RAINFALL CONTROL ON SGP SURFACE ALBEDO from: C. DUCHON

DAILY ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE BUDGET MAY-JUNE 2006 (Very Dry) versus 2007 (Very Wet) Increasing daily DAILY ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE BUDGET MAY-JUNE 2006 (Very Dry) versus 2007 (Very Wet) Increasing daily P (mm d-1 except for PE /P) Increasing daily P Strong contrast between dry 2006/wet 2007 for numbers of days in least/most wet P categories General consistency between dry 2006 and wet 2007 for same daily P category PE /P tends to decrease with increasing daily P except for 2 < P < 4 mm E considerably higher in wet 2007 for daily P < 8 mm and PE /P higher in wet 2007 for daily P < 4 mm HA (not HD) is convergent contributor to MFD for daily P < 4 mm and (wet 2007) 4 < P < 8 mm (CLASIC!) d. PW depletion is important moisture source in dry 2006 for daily 2 < P < 4 HD is dominant convergent contributor to MFD for daily P > 8 mm IF/A generally substantially greater in wet 2007 for daily P < 8 mm

TESTING OF LES MODEL VERSUS SGP OBSERVATIONS Example of a simulation of stratocumulus in TESTING OF LES MODEL VERSUS SGP OBSERVATIONS Example of a simulation of stratocumulus in a synoptic system over the SGP on 8 April 2006. The goal is to verify LES model and obtain datasets for parameterization and retrieval development from: Y. KOGAN

TESTING OF WRF MODEL VERSUS SGP OBSERVATIONS PARAMETER Column Water Vapor VARYING Microphysics Schemes TESTING OF WRF MODEL VERSUS SGP OBSERVATIONS PARAMETER Column Water Vapor VARYING Microphysics Schemes (panels) and Data Assimilation Schemes (lines) Fig. 1. Probability distributions of correlations between observed (CMBE) and simulated precipitable water vapor for 8 WRF microphysics simulations with (colors) and without (black) data assimilation for May 27 -31, 2001, warm-season heavy precipitation event over the ACRF SGP. Correlations were computed for the inner nested domain within 27 x 27 km (solid lines) and 105 x 105 km (dashed lines) boxes surrounding the SGP CF. CNTRL denotes no data assimilation, OBNUD is for rawinsonde observation nudging, SFDDA indicates surface analysis nudging, and 3 DVAR and 4 DVAR are for three-dimensional and four-dimensional variational data assimilation, respectively. Because the simulated PWV values for the Lin et al. microphysics scheme are indistinguishable for the CNTRL and SFDDA experiments, the CNTRL curve does not appear in the upper left panel. from: Z. SEGELE

ARM DATA QUALITY OFFICE Created in July 2000 after the ARM Infrastructure Review of ARM DATA QUALITY OFFICE Created in July 2000 after the ARM Infrastructure Review of 1999 to bring consistency to data quality treatment across all ARM Climate Research Facilities Develops tools and procedures to perform data quality inspection and assessment of 5000 measurements from 350 data streams, processing 500 MB of data each hour and creates 3000 plots per day Uses automated flagging and data plotting to facilitate the inspection of data and identification of sensor problems Summarizes results in weekly assessment reports sent to key ARM personnel and initiates problem reports to document, track and resolve detected problems Part of the ARM Climate Research Facility Infrastructure; works daily with Site Operators, Instrument Mentors, Site Scientists, and Data System Developers – 3. 75 FTE plus 4 undergraduate data analysts and 1 undergraduate programmer R. A. Peppler and 25 co-authors, 2008: An overview of ARM Program Climate Research Facility data quality assurance. The Open Atmospheric Science Journal, 2, 192 -216. http: //www. bentham. org/open/toascj/openaccess 2. htm from: R. PEPPLER

Simplified MMCR daily metric to alert DQ Office and Instrument Mentor of potential problems Simplified MMCR daily metric to alert DQ Office and Instrument Mentor of potential problems Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) efforts Fluctuating metric triggers alert from: R. PEPPLER

ARM MOBILE FACILITY NIAMEY AIRPORT before 2006 rainy season ARM MOBILE FACILITY NIAMEY AIRPORT before 2006 rainy season

ARM MOBILE FACILITY NIAMEY AIRPORT after 2006 rainy season ARM MOBILE FACILITY NIAMEY AIRPORT after 2006 rainy season

SAHELIANS STUDYING SAHELIAN CLOUDS IN NATIONAL WEATHER CENTER Dr. Zewdu Segele (Ethiopia) Hama Hamidou SAHELIANS STUDYING SAHELIAN CLOUDS IN NATIONAL WEATHER CENTER Dr. Zewdu Segele (Ethiopia) Hama Hamidou (Niger)

NIAMEY RAINY SEASON CLOUD AND AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS FOR 2006 Fig. 2. Characteristics of June-September NIAMEY RAINY SEASON CLOUD AND AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS FOR 2006 Fig. 2. Characteristics of June-September (JJAS) 2006 rainy season over Niamey. (a) Season-Average W-band ARM Cloud Radar (WACR) reflectivity (d. BZ) for all storms (top) and for organized storms that lasted more than 3 hrs (bottom). (b) Season-average cirrus cloud reflectivity (d. BZ, top) and average Total Liquid Water (cm, bottom) for days covered with same cirrus clouds (green) and days without any cirrus (red). (c) Composites reflectivity (d. BZ) for light (top row) and heavy (bottom row) rainfall rates and their corresponding Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) concentration (number per cubic centimeter, third row) for days with light (red) and heavy (green) rain rates. For (a), (c), the 0 hour coincides with storm center. For (b), the time axis extends over 24 hrs from 0000 -2400 UTC of cirrus/no-cirrus day. from: Z. SEGELE

FUTURE IS ROOTED IN PAST FUTURE SGP -- Imminent SGP enhancement optimal cloud definition FUTURE IS ROOTED IN PAST FUTURE SGP -- Imminent SGP enhancement optimal cloud definition valuable resource for severe weather research via ARM-NSSL partnership … including involvement of Dave Turner West Africa -- Sahel Cloud and Aerosol Interaction Campaign for 1524 months ? ? permanent Climate Observing Facility in Niger ? ? PAST Mid 1991 -- ARM discussions with Universities (including a visit to J. Kimpel) October 1991 -- Interview by ARM leaders in Washington DC (including J. Kimpel)

FUTURE IS ROOTED IN PAST “… which will be part of our honoring of FUTURE IS ROOTED IN PAST “… which will be part of our honoring of Jeff Kimpel’s three decades of leadership and very much more… all of us will be honoring Jeff for years to come by our science; our teaching and learning, and our service… Jeff’s lifetime of leadership and accomplishment will be everlasting”. Berrien