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Introduction To Wireless Sensor Networks By : Prof. Manoj Kavedia SHMIT-Unr-3 www. kavedia. Sir. Yolasite. Com
Introduction n Wireless Sensor Networks are networks that consists of sensors which are distributed in an ad hoc manner. These sensors work with each other to sense some physical phenomenon and then the information gathered is processed to get relevant results. Wireless sensor networks consists of protocols and algorithms with self-organizing capabilities.
Wireless Sensor Networks A wireless sensor network is a collection of nodes organized into a cooperative network. Each node consists of processing capability may contain multiple types of memory have an RF transceiver, have a power source (e. g. , batteries and solar accommodate various sensors. cells), and
Example- Smart Fluid Level Detection Capacitive sensor fluid level Contact less transmission of power and readings § Integrates several technologies: - Radio transmissions - Sensor technology - Magnetic inductance for power 8 -bit processor - Computer used for calibration § Impossible without the computer § Meaningless without the electronics Inductive coil for RF ID activation & power CPU and reading coil in the table. Reports the level of fluid in the glass, alerts servers when close to empty Page 5
Wireless Sensor Networks
Communication Network A communication network is composed of nodes, each of which has computing power and can transmit and receive messages communication links, wireless or cabled. over
Basic Network Topologies n Star Topology n Ring Topology n Bus Topology n Tree Topology n Fully Connected Networks n Mesh Networks
Star Topology All nodes of the star topology are connected to a single hub node. The hub requires greater message handling, routing, and decision-making capabilities than the other nodes. If a communication link is cut, it only affects one node. However, if the hub is incapacitated the network is destroyed.
Ring Topology In the ring topology all nodes perform the same function and there is no leader node. Messages generally travel around the ring in a single direction. However, if the ring is cut, all communication is lost.
Bus Topology In the bus topology, messages are broadcast on the bus to all nodes. Each node checks the destination address in the message header, and messages addressed to it. processes the
Tree Topology In Tree Topology there will be a root node and the root node has two branches. Each branch may again contains branches and so on.
Fully-connected Network In a fully connected Network when additional nodes are added, the number of links increases exponentially.
Mesh Network Mesh networks are regularly distributed networks that generally allow transmission only to a node’s nearest neighbors. The nodes in these networks are generally identical. Mesh nets can be good models for large-scale networks of wireless sensors that are distributed over a geographic region.
Communication Network continue … A single network may consist of several interconnected subnets of different topologies. Networks are further classified as Local Area Networks (LAN), e. g. inside one building, or Wide Area Networks (WAN), e. g. between buildings.
Wireless Sensor Networks A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants, at different locations.
Wireless Sensor Networks continue … The development of wireless sensor networks was originally motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance. However, wireless sensor networks are now used in many civilian application areas, including environment and habitat monitoring, healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control.
Sensor Node n Networks of typically small, battery-powered, wireless devices. • On-board processing, • Communication, and • Sensing capabilities. Sensors Storage Processor Radio WSN device schematics P O W E R
Sensor Node continue … In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is typically equipped with a radio transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy source, usually a battery. Sensors Storage Processor Radio WSN device schematics P O W E R
What are motes? n n n Motes mainly consist of three parts: Mote basically consists of a low cost and power computer. The computer monitors one or more sensors. Sensors may be for temperature, light, sound, position, acceleration, vibration, stress, weight, pressure, humidity, etc. The computer connects to the outside world with a radio link. 21 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Mica 2 Motes n n n These motes sold by Crossbow were originally developed at the University of California Berkeley. The MICA 2 motes are based on the ATmega 128 L AVR microprocessor. The motes run using Tiny. OS as the operating system. MICA 2 MOTE Ref: http: //www. xbow. com/Products/Produc t_pdf_files/Wireless_pdf/MICA 2_Datasheet. pdf Mica 2 mote is one of the most popular and commercially available sensors which are marketed by Cross. Bow Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks 22 technologies.
Telosb Motes n n n Telosb motes have USB programming capability An IEEE 802. 15. 4 compliant, high data rate radio with integrated antenna, a low -power MCU There also equipped with extended memory and an optional sensor suite 23 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
What are motes? n n n Motes mainly consist of three parts: Mote basically consists of a low cost and power computer. The computer monitors one or more sensors. Sensors may be for temperature, light, sound, position, acceleration, vibration, stress, weight, pressure, humidity, etc. The computer connects to the outside world with a radio link. 24 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Mica 2 Motes n n n These motes sold by Crossbow were originally developed at the University of California Berkeley. The MICA 2 motes are based on the ATmega 128 L AVR microprocessor. The motes run using Tiny. OS as the operating system. MICA 2 MOTE Ref: http: //www. xbow. com/Products/Produc t_pdf_files/Wireless_pdf/MICA 2_Datasheet. pdf Mica 2 mote is one of the most popular and commercially available sensors which are marketed by Cross. Bow Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks 25 technologies.
Telosb Motes n n n Telosb motes have USB programming capability An IEEE 802. 15. 4 compliant, high data rate radio with integrated antenna, a low -power MCU There also equipped with extended memory and an optional sensor suite 26 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
TELOSB MOTE Ref: http: //www. eecs. berkeley. edu/~culler/eecs 194/labs/lab 1/telosb. JPG 27 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
One Example Sensor Board - MTS 310 28 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
One More Example of Sensor Board - MTS 400/420 n Besides the functions of MTS 300, it mainly adds GPS functionality ¢ Further Reading l http: //firebug. sourceforge. net/gps_tests. htm 29 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Hardware Setup Overview 30 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Programming Board (MIB 520) 31 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
One Proposed WSN Functional Layer Decomposition ¢ Ref: Fig. 1. 1 of J. Polastre Dissertation 32 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Architecture to Build WSN Applications n Ref: Fig. 2. 1 of J. Polastre Dissertation 33 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensor Node continue …
Sensor Node continue …
Sensor Network Antenna Server Interface electronics, radio and microcontroller Soil moisture probe Communications barrier Mote Sensor field Gateway Internet
Computer Revolution Original IBM PC (1981) MICAZ Mote (2005) 4. 77 MHz 4 MHz 16 -256 KB RAM 128 KB RAM 160 KB Floppies 512 KB Flash ~ $6 K (today) ~ $35 ~ 64 W ~14 m. W 25 lb, 19. 5 x 5. 5 x 16 inch 0. 5 oz, 2. 25 x 1. 25 x 0. 25 inch
Sensor Network Server Watershed Sensor field Gateway Internet
Network Model for WSN A wireless sensor network consists of hundreds or thousands of low cost nodes which could either have a fixed location or randomly deployed to monitor the environment. The flowing of data ends at special nodes called base stations (sometimes they are also referred to as sinks).
Network Model for WSN continue … A base station links the sensor network to another network (like a gateway) to disseminate the data sensed for further processing. Base stations have enhanced capabilities over simple sensor nodes since they must do complex data processing.
Network Model for WSN continue … This justifies the fact that bases stations have workstation/laptop class processors, and of course enough memory, energy, storage and computational power to perform their tasks well.
Future of WSN Smart Home / Smart Office n n n 42 Sensors controlling appliances and electrical devices in the house. Better lighting and heating in office buildings. The Pentagon building has used sensors extensively. Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Biomedical / Medical n n n Health Monitors • Glucose • Heart rate • Cancer detection Chronic Diseases • Artificial retina • Cochlear implants Hospital Sensors • Monitor vital signs • Record anomalies 43 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Military Remote deployment of sensors for tactical monitoring of enemy troop movements 44 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Industrial & Commercial n Numerous industrial and commercial applications: • • • Agricultural Crop Conditions Inventory Tracking In-Process Parts Tracking Automated Problem Reporting RFID – Theft Deterrent and Customer Tracing Plant Equipment Maintenance Monitoring 45 Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks
Traffic Management & Monitoring ¢ Future cars could use wireless sensors to: l l Handle Accidents Handle Thefts üSensors embedded in the roads to: –Monitor traffic flows –Provide real-time route Introduction to Wireless Sensor Networks updates 46
Usage of Sensor Networks Environmental Observation: Sensor networks can be used to monitor environmental changes. An example could be water pollution detection in a lake that is located near a factory that uses chemical substances. Sensor nodes could be randomly deployed in unknown and hostile areas and relay the exact origin of a pollutant. Other examples include forest fire detection, air pollution and rainfall observation in agriculture.
Usage of Sensor Networks continue … Military Monitoring: Military uses sensor networks for battlefield surveillance; sensors could monitor vehicular traffic, track the position of the enemy.
Usage of Sensor Networks continue … Building Monitoring: Sensors can also be used in large buildings or factories monitoring climate changes. Thermostats and temperature sensor nodes are deployed all over the building’s area. In addition, sensors could be used to monitor vibration that could damage the structure of a building.
Usage of Sensor Networks continue … Healthcare: Sensors can be used in biomedical applications to improve the quality of the provided care. Sensors are implanted in the human body to monitor medical problems like cancer and help patients maintain their health.
Usage of Sensor Networks-Health Care
Why WSN-The Present. . According to forecasts, future of IT characterized by terms such as • • • Disappearing computer, Ubiquitous computing, Pervasive computing, Ambient intelligence, Post-PC era, Cyber-physical systems. Basic Technology – Embedded Systems – Communication technologies The future is embedded, embedded is the future Page 52
Embedded System. . n n n Embedded system: computing systems designed for a specific purpose. Embedded system = Processor + Communication device + Memory + I/O Embedded software is software integrated with physical processes Page 53
“(CPS-Cy-Phy)” Cyber Physical Systems are integrations of computation with physical processes. ” [Edward Lee, 2006] Page 54
Cyber Physical System n n Cyber – computation, communication, and control that are discrete, logical, and switched Physical – natural and human-made systems governed by the laws of physics and operating in continuous time Cyber-Physical Systems – systems in which the cyber and physical systems are tightly integrated at all scales and levels Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) are physical and engineered systems whose operations are monitored, coordinated, controlled and integrated by a computing and communication core. “CPS will transform how we interact with the physical world just like the Internet transformed how we interact with one another. ” Page 55
Why Cyber Physical System ? n n n CPS allow us to add capabilities to physical systems By merging computing and communication with physical processes, CPS brings many benefits: • Safer and more efficient systems • Reduce the cost of building and operating systems • Build complex systems that provide new capabilities Technological and Economic Drivers • The decreasing cost of computation, networking, and sensing • Computers and communication are ubiquitous, enables national or global scale CPSs • Social and economic forces require more efficient use of national infrastructure. Page 56
Wireless Everywhere Social Networking Voice Mobile TV Wireless Internet SMS Wi. Fi Email Yesterday- 15 years ago Millions of wireless devices You Tube Today Billions of wireless devices Page 57
Wireless Everywhere Cyber Physical Systems Internet of Things Environment New Devices People to People Energy Health Care People to machines Tomorrow +15 years Machines to Machines Trillions of Wireless devices Page 58
CPS-Distributed Architecture in GARUDA-Global Access to Resource Using Distributed Architecture India GARUDA is • India's first grid (Distributed) computing initiative, • Developed and deployed by C-DAC • with the financial support of Govt. Of India. It is an aggregation of resources comprising of • computational nodes, • mass storage and • scientific instruments distributed across the country. Page 59
GARUDA Application § Collaborative Classrooms § Climate Modeling § Computer Aided Engineering § Disaster Management § Medical and Health Care § Open Source Drug Discovery § Open System for Earth Quake Simulation Page 60
COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING Courtesy : www. garunda. in
Drug Discovery n n n Open Source Drug Discovery (OSDD) is a CSIR-led global initiative Funded by Govt of India Develop drugs for tropical infectious diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, etc The OSDD method tries to collaboratively aggregate the biological and genetic information available to scientists for use to hasten the discovery of drugs This will provide a unique opportunity for the entire community of scientists, doctors, technocrats, students and others with diverse expertise to contribute/work for a common cause Such drug discovery applications have several components requiring huge computation power and data storage Statistics An estimated 3, 70, 000 deaths due to TB occur each year. This amounts to over 1000 deaths a day or 2 TB deaths every 3 minutes Courtesy : www. osdd. net
OSDD Courtesy : www. garunda. in
Latest – in CPS in India – Space Technology §The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), informally called Mangalyaan, ("Mars-craft") is a Mars orbiter that was successfully launched into Earth orbit on 5 November 2013 by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). §The mission is a "technology demonstrator" project aiming to develop the technologies required for design, planning, management and operations of an interplanetary mission. §The Mars Orbiter Mission probe lifted-off from the First Launch Pad at Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, using a Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) rocket 5 November 2013. §The launch window was approximately 20 days long and started on 28 October. §The Mars Orbiter Mission is India's first interplanetary mission. §If successful, ISROwould become the fourth space agency to reach Mars, after the Soviet space program, NASA, and ESA(European Space Agency). Page 65
CPS Community Activities • High Confidence Medical Device Software and Systems (2005) (2007) (2011) • High Confidence Software Platform for Cyber Physical Systems • NSF: Workshop on Cyber Physical Systems • NSF: Automotive CPS (2008) (2011) • ARO: Security and Privacy of Cyber Physical System (2012) (2013)(Feb -2014) • NIST: Cyber Security for Cyber Physical Systems • National Workshop on Research on High-Confidence Transportation • Cyber Physical Systems: Automotive Aviation & Rail • New Research Directions in for Future Cyber Physical Energy Systems • CPS Week (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013)(Future- April 14 - 17, 2014) NSF (National Science Foundation) ARO(Association for Research in Otolaryngology) NIST(National Institute of Standards and Technology) Page 66
Presentation By Mr. Manoj Kavedia
Thanks for Listening Any Questions ?