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Introduction to Web Services 05 December 2003 Presented by: Christiana Christophi EPL 602: Advanced Introduction to Web Services 05 December 2003 Presented by: Christiana Christophi EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies

Outline What are Web Services? n Why Web Services? n Enabling Technologies? n What Outline What are Web Services? n Why Web Services? n Enabling Technologies? n What is Web Service Composition? n Main Issues concerning the composition? n EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 2

Web Evolution XML gy olo P/IP n TC ech T Connectivity FTP , E- Web Evolution XML gy olo P/IP n TC ech T Connectivity FTP , E- Inn mai l, G ova oph er tion HTML Presentation Programmability Web Pag es Browse the Web We b. S erv ices Program the Web EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 3

Service Oriented Architecture n Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) n n n n Type of Service Oriented Architecture n Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) n n n n Type of distributed system Services must cooperate to implement a single functionality. Enables remote objects and services (functions) invocation Provides tools for dynamic service discovery, placing emphasis on interoperability. Components publish their functionality in a centralised registry, and export a network-level API so that other services can programmatically access them Decouple business logic from presentation logic. Design an application as a set of services. Next generation applications dynamically resolve service needs. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 4

What are Web Services? n Definition from W 3 C “A Web service is What are Web Services? n Definition from W 3 C “A Web service is a software system identified by a URI, whose public interfaces and bindings are defined and described using XML. Its definition can be discovered by other software systems. These systems may then interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its definition, using XML based messages conveyed by Internet protocols”. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 5

What are Web Services? n Every component that n n n n works in What are Web Services? n Every component that n n n n works in a network, is modular, is self-descriptive, provides services independent of platform and application, conforms to an open set of standards and follows a common structure for description and invocation. presents an API for communication using established protocols. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 6

Why Web Services n Interoperability. n n Ubiquity. n n easily understood + free Why Web Services n Interoperability. n n Ubiquity. n n easily understood + free toolkits Industry Support. n n Any device which supports HTTP + XML can host and access WS. Effortless entry in this concept. n n Any WS can interact with any other WS. major vendors support surrounding technology. Platform, transport, language independence EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 7

Web Services Roles n Components n n Service Providers Service Brokers Service Requestors Operations Web Services Roles n Components n n Service Providers Service Brokers Service Requestors Operations n n n Publish / Unpublish Find Bind EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 8

EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 9 EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 9

Enabling technologies n They encapsulate a set of standards that allow the developers to Enabling technologies n They encapsulate a set of standards that allow the developers to implement distributed applications. n XML (e. Xtensible Markup Language) PHTML successor. Provides a neutral format for data. n SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol), n n n WSDL (Web Service Description Language) n n XML messaging protocol for basic service interoperability Common grammar for describing services UDDI (Universal Description Discovery and Integration) n infrastructure required to publish and discover services. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 10

SOAP n Uniform way of n n 1. 2. 3. passing XML-encoded data. simulates SOAP n Uniform way of n n 1. 2. 3. passing XML-encoded data. simulates RPCs over SMTP, FTP, TCP/IP, HTTP The requestor sends a msg to the service The service processes the msg. The service sends back a response. The requestor has no knowledge of how the service is implemented. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 11

SOAP Example (travel reservation) <? xml version='1. 0' ? > <env: Envelope xmlns: env= SOAP Example (travel reservation) uuid: 093 a 2 da 1 -q 345 -739 r-ba 5 d-pqff 98 fe 8 j 7 d 2001 -11 -29 T 13: 20: 00. 000 -05: 00 Åke Jógvan Øyvind New York Los Angeles 2001 -12 -14 late afternoon EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 12

SOAP - RPC n Must define an RPC protocol n n How will types SOAP - RPC n Must define an RPC protocol n n How will types be transported (in XML) and how application represents them. RPC parts (object id, operation name, parameters) SOAP assumes a type system based on XML-schema. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 13

SOAP Example - do. Google. Search <SOAP-ENV: Envelope xmlns: SOAP-ENV= http: //schemas. xmlsoap. org/soap/envelope/ SOAP Example - do. Google. Search 0000000000000000 my query 0 10 true false latin 1 latin 1 EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 14

SOAP Example - do. Google. Search. Result <SOAP-ENV: Envelope xmlns: SOAP-ENV= SOAP Example - do. Google. Search. Result false 3 0. 194871 12 k Category true

http: //hci. stanford. edu/cs 147/example/shrdlu/ < b> SHRDLU< /b> EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 15

WSDL n n IDL of Web Services in XML format. Uses these elements to WSDL n n IDL of Web Services in XML format. Uses these elements to define network services: n n Types: Container for data type definitions (e. g. XSD) Message: Definition of the communicated data Operation: Description of an action supported by the service Port Type: Set of operations supported by endpoints n n Req/resp, one-way, solicit-response, notification Binding: Concrete protocol & data format specification for a particular port type. Port: Single endpoint (Binding + network address) Service: Collection of related endpoints EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 16

" src="https://present5.com/presentation/1a309470f660a6fa2887d990739e5d4f/image-17.jpg" alt="Vocabulary " /> Vocabulary EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 17

Message EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 18

Interaction EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 19

UDDI n n n Global business registry (IBM, MS, ARIBA) Root under www. uddi. UDDI n n n Global business registry (IBM, MS, ARIBA) Root under www. uddi. org Relies on: n n TCP/IP, HTTPS XML, XML Schemas, WSDL SOAP Three types of information n White pages Yellow pages Green pages EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 20

UDDI information model Publisher. Assertion Info about relationship between 2 parties Business. Entity Info UDDI information model Publisher. Assertion Info about relationship between 2 parties Business. Entity Info about business that publishes Info about service encapsulates Business. Service Descriptive info about a service encapsulates binding. Template Technical info about a service end point Green pages t. Model Descriptions on specifications of services EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 21

t. Model Metadata about the service n Model for a type of service n t. Model Metadata about the service n Model for a type of service n Contains three fields n n Name of service Description of service Set of URL pointers to the WS specification. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 22

Web Service Composition n Definition: Technique of composing the functionalities of relatively simpler services Web Service Composition n Definition: Technique of composing the functionalities of relatively simpler services to produce a ‘meaningful’ arbitrarily complex application. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 23

WS composition - Classification n Proactive Composition & Reactive Composition n Proactive: offline composition WS composition - Classification n Proactive Composition & Reactive Composition n Proactive: offline composition of available services n n n When: services are stable and always running Example: ticket reservation service Reactive: dynamically creating a composite service. n n When: composite service not often used and service processes not stable. Example: tour manager where the itinerary is not predefined EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 24

WS composition – Classification (2) n Mandatory & Optional-Composite Services n Mandatory: all subcomponents WS composition – Classification (2) n Mandatory & Optional-Composite Services n Mandatory: all subcomponents must participate to yield a result n n Example: service that calculates the averages of stock values for a company. Optional: subcomponents are not obligated to participate for a successful execution. n Example: services that include a subcomponent that is an optimizer. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 25

Important issues on WS composition n n n n Service Discovery Service Coordination and Important issues on WS composition n n n n Service Discovery Service Coordination and Management Uniform Information Exchange Infrastructure Fault Tolerance and Scalability Adaptiveness Reliability & Transactions Security Accountability Testing EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 26

Service Discovery n An efficient discovery structure should be able: n n n find Service Discovery n An efficient discovery structure should be able: n n n find out all services implementing some functionality (ontology) semantic level reasoning (discover most appropriate service). scalable. Most of existing discovery infrastructures use a central lookup server (Jini, UPn. P) Semantic Language: DAML-S, a process modelling language for computer-interpretable description of services. n AI inspired description logic-based language, built on top of XML + RDF for well-defined semantics and a set of language constructs and properties. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 27

Service Discovery - DAML-S Enables automatic Web Service discovery. =automatic location of services with Service Discovery - DAML-S Enables automatic Web Service discovery. =automatic location of services with required functionality. n Currently performed manually n DAML-S: expressed in computer interpretable semantic markup. n EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 28

Service Discovery - Example of DAML-S <daml: Class rdf: ID=”Composite. Process”> <daml: intersection. Of Service Discovery - Example of DAML-S parse. Type = “daml: collection”> EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 29

Reliability & Transactions n n How we can measure reliability? WS descriptions may lie! Reliability & Transactions n n How we can measure reliability? WS descriptions may lie! Transactions are fundamental to reliable distributed computing. Traditional transaction systems support ACID semantics, use a two-phase commit approach: all participating resources are locked until entire transaction is completed. n n Only in close environments where transactions are short-lived Not on an open environment (flexibility in how it is attained) n MS XLANG: compensating transactions. n Split the model into concurrent sub-transactions that can commit independently (requires compensation over committed sub transactions in case of abortion). EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 30

Security n n Basic security: HTTP over SSL Authorisation control. n n Existing authorisation Security n n Basic security: HTTP over SSL Authorisation control. n n Existing authorisation control frameworks not applicable to WS (designed for some services e. g. network access control (DIAMETER) or not well designed to access different administrative domains (. NET Passport)) Proposal: generic authorisation control protocol based on SOAP/XML. Supports credential transformation. n n Need for CA in each domain. It will issue users and services with certificate and secret key pairs used for user authentication and request signing. Credentials described in an XML-based language. Authorisation server validates the certificate, credentials etc. If everything is successfully validated, the authorisation server sends back a SOAP response containing the result. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 31

References 1. Dipanjan Chakraborty, Service Composition in Ad-Hoc Environments. Ph. D Dissertation Proposal, University References 1. Dipanjan Chakraborty, Service Composition in Ad-Hoc Environments. Ph. D Dissertation Proposal, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 2001. 2. Dipanjan Chakraborty, Technical Report TR-CS-01 -19: Dynamic Service composition: Stateof-the-Art and Research Directions. University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 2001. 3. Anans Rajamam, “Overview of UDDI”, Online, 2001. 4. F. Curbera and al, “Unraveling the Web Services Web: An Introduction to SOAP, WSDL, and UDDI”. IEEE Internet Computing March-April 2002, p. 86 -93. 5. Takashi Suzuki, Randy H. Katz, An authorization control framework to enable service composition across domains. University of California, Berkeley. 6. DAML Service Coalition, DAML-S Semantic Markup for Web Services. Online at http: //www. daml. org/services/daml-s/2001/10/daml-s. html, 2001. 7. WSDL Specification, Online at http: //www. w 3 c. org/TR/wsdl. 8. Steve Vinoski, Web Services and Dynamic Discovery, Online at http: //www. webservices. org/article. php? sid=389, 2001. 9. UDDI Specification, Online at http: //uddi. org/. 10. UDDI Technical White Paper, Online at http: //uddi. org/, 2000. 11. Sheila A. Mc. Ilaith, Tran Cao Son, Honglei Zeng, Semantic Web Services, IEEE Intelligent Systems, 2001 12. Vladimir Tosic, Bernard Pagurek, Babak Esfandiari, Kruti Patel, On the Management of Composition of Web Services, Carleton University, Canada. 13. Tom Clements, “Overview of SOAP”. Online at: http: //dcb. sun. com/practices/webservices/overview_soap. jsp 14. Deitel, ”Web Services: A technical Introduction”, Prentice Hall, 2002. 15. W 3 C Web Services Architecture. Online at: http: //www. w 3. org/TR/2003/WD-ws-arch 20030514/. W 3 C Working Draft 14 May 2003. EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 32

That’s all folks! EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 33 That’s all folks! EPL 602: Advanced Internet Technologies 33