Скачать презентацию Introduction to the pelagic ocean Primary production phytoplankton Скачать презентацию Introduction to the pelagic ocean Primary production phytoplankton

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Introduction to the pelagic ocean Primary production, phytoplankton and zooplankton Introduction to the pelagic ocean Primary production, phytoplankton and zooplankton

Primary productivity Ø What is a primary producer? Ø What is photosynthesis? Ø What Primary productivity Ø What is a primary producer? Ø What is photosynthesis? Ø What do you need to carry out photosynthesis Ø What are the products of primary production? Ø How do the land ocean compare?

June (2002) http: //www. globalcarbonproject. org/science/figures/FIGURE 9. htm December (2002) http: //www. globalcarbonproject. org/science/figures/FIGURE June (2002) http: //www. globalcarbonproject. org/science/figures/FIGURE 9. htm December (2002) http: //www. globalcarbonproject. org/science/figures/FIGURE 9. htm

Phytoplankton Ø Primary producers (autotrophs) Ø Microscopic Ø ‘Plants’ of the ocean Ø Convert Phytoplankton Ø Primary producers (autotrophs) Ø Microscopic Ø ‘Plants’ of the ocean Ø Convert energy from the sun into organic carbon Ø Consumed by the higher trophic levels Ø Fuel the pelagic food web

The Plankton food web simplified CO 2 Phytoplankton Large zooplankton Nutrients Small zooplankton The Plankton food web simplified CO 2 Phytoplankton Large zooplankton Nutrients Small zooplankton

The Energy Pyramid The Energy Pyramid

Ø There are many different types Ø Cyanobacteria (Prokaryotic) l l Synechococcus Prochlorococcus Ø Ø There are many different types Ø Cyanobacteria (Prokaryotic) l l Synechococcus Prochlorococcus Ø Eukaryotes l l Diatoms Dinoflagellates Coccolithophores Flagellates

Prokaryotes: Synechococcus Ø Cyanobacteria Ø Have phycoerythrin, a pigment with orange fluorescence Ø Significant Prokaryotes: Synechococcus Ø Cyanobacteria Ø Have phycoerythrin, a pigment with orange fluorescence Ø Significant in primary production worldwide, but more important in oligotrophic areas Ø Typically small Small (0. 8 -1. 5 μm) Ø Found solitary or in pairs http: //www. ibvf. cartuja. csic. es/Cul tivos/fotos/Synechococcus_PCC _7202_dis. jpg

Prochlorococcus Ø Cyanobacteria Ø Significant in primary production worldwide, but more important in oligotrophic Prochlorococcus Ø Cyanobacteria Ø Significant in primary production worldwide, but more important in oligotrophic areas Ø Contains divinyl derivatives of chlorophyll a and b Ø Picophytoplankton Ø Small (0. 5 -0. 8 μm) http: //proportal. mit. edu/images/mit 9215. jpg

Eukaryotes (the ones we will look at today) Diatoms Ø Incredibly important in coastal Eukaryotes (the ones we will look at today) Diatoms Ø Incredibly important in coastal regions Ø Vary in size from a few um to over 1 mm Ø Silica frustule gives them widely varying shapes Ø Non-motile Ø Often form chains

Diatoms The silica frustule comes in widely varying morphologies Ø The silica frustule l Diatoms The silica frustule comes in widely varying morphologies Ø The silica frustule l l l Increases drag Decreases predation Cheap http: //www. bhikku. net/archives/03/img/diatoms. JPG

Diatoms Ø This leads to very different cell morphologies http: //www. discoverlife. org/nh/tx/Algae/image http: Diatoms Ø This leads to very different cell morphologies http: //www. discoverlife. org/nh/tx/Algae/image http: //starcentral. mbl. edu/microscope/port al. php? pagetitle=assetfactsheet&imageid s/Diatom. jpg. html http: //www. io-warnemuende. de/bio-ag=23592 phytoplankton-en. html http: //www. ldeo. columbia. edu/res/fac/micro/im ages. section/pages/diamtoms. html http: //www. urbanrivers. org/drawingdiat oms/diatom. jpg http: //kentsimmons. uwinnipeg. ca/16 cm 05/1116 /16 protists. htm

Dinoflagellates Ø Can be large, although they range a lot in size (5 -50 Dinoflagellates Ø Can be large, although they range a lot in size (5 -50 μm) Ø Can form blooms - Red Tides Ø Motile l l l Use two flagella Gives them the ability to avoid predators Or move up and down in water column in search of better nutrient or light conditions

Dinoflagellates http: //www. aad. gov. au/Asset/em_unit/images/dino 1. jpg http: //faculty. ccri. edu/lmfrolich/Microbiology/eukaryotes. htm http: Dinoflagellates http: //www. aad. gov. au/Asset/em_unit/images/dino 1. jpg http: //faculty. ccri. edu/lmfrolich/Microbiology/eukaryotes. htm http: //microscopy. bio. cmich. edu/images/SE Mgallery/SEMgallery 06. jpg http: //comenius. susqu. edu/BI/202/CHROMALVEOLAT A/ALVEOLATAE/DINOFLAGELLATA/CERATIUM. htm http: //www. pleasanton. k 12. ca. us/avhs web/thiel/creek/research/99/janelle/Pict ures/gony. jpg

Coccolithophores Ø Typically smaller than diatoms and dinoflagellates Ø Have Ca. CO 3 tests Coccolithophores Ø Typically smaller than diatoms and dinoflagellates Ø Have Ca. CO 3 tests composed of multiple coccoliths Ø Form blooms over much of the Northern Atlantic Ø Emiliania huxleyi is an incredibly abundant species

http: //www. geo. uni-bremen. de/cocco/index. php? option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=47&lang=en http: //www. geo. uni-bremen. de/cocco/index. php? option=com_content&task=view&id=31&Itemid=47&lang=en

You can even see these guys from space Photo NASA http: //www. geo. unibremen. You can even see these guys from space Photo NASA http: //www. geo. unibremen. de/cocco/index. php? option=com_content&task=vie w&id=31&Itemid=47&lang=en

Flagellates Ø Grab bag of assorted others Ø Have a flagella Ø Typically small Flagellates Ø Grab bag of assorted others Ø Have a flagella Ø Typically small http: //starcentral. mbl. edu/microscope/ portal. php? pagetitle=getcollection&col lection. ID=171 http: //www. nilesbio. com/prod 149. html http: //www. orgs. muohio. edu/ uvlakes/UVecology/Protist/pr otozoa. html

The Plankton food web simplified CO 2 Phytoplankton Large zooplankton Nutrients Small zooplankton The Plankton food web simplified CO 2 Phytoplankton Large zooplankton Nutrients Small zooplankton

Zooplankton Ø Heterotrophs Ø Primary or secondary consumers Ø Many shapes and sizes l Zooplankton Ø Heterotrophs Ø Primary or secondary consumers Ø Many shapes and sizes l l l Microscopic Very Large http: //www. break. com/usercontent/2007/8/Gia nt-Jellyfish-Swim-345642. html

Microzooplankton (small zoo’s) Ø Very small – microscopic Ø Usually protozoans Ø Many different Microzooplankton (small zoo’s) Ø Very small – microscopic Ø Usually protozoans Ø Many different groups l l l Ciliates Radiolarians Foraminifera

http: //www. divediscover. whoi. edu/expedition 10/dai ly/critter/images/tintinnids. jpg http: //www. pleasanton. k 12. ca. http: //www. divediscover. whoi. edu/expedition 10/dai ly/critter/images/tintinnids. jpg http: //www. pleasanton. k 12. ca. us/avhswe b/thiel/creek/research/99/janelle/Pictures/ nocti. jpeg http: //www. obs-vlfr. fr/gallery/Plankton. Protists/swimmimg_oligotrich_with_prey Photo: Mike Stukel http: //www. animalpicturesarchive. com/ view. php? tid=3&did=4131

Mesozooplankton (Large zoo’s) Ø Larger zooplankton (>200 um) Ø Metazoans Ø Many types: l Mesozooplankton (Large zoo’s) Ø Larger zooplankton (>200 um) Ø Metazoans Ø Many types: l l l Copepods Euphausiids Amphipods

Amphipod: Phronema PLANKTON!! Copepod: C. pacificus Euphausiid: E. pacifica Pelagic annelid: Tomopteris Amphipod: Phronema PLANKTON!! Copepod: C. pacificus Euphausiid: E. pacifica Pelagic annelid: Tomopteris

Lab today Ø Observe different types of phytoplankton Ø Draw them and annotate one Lab today Ø Observe different types of phytoplankton Ø Draw them and annotate one unique characteristic from each culture Ø Speculate on the ecological value of the characteristic Ø Guess what to which group each mystery phytoplankton belongs to. Ø Observe and draw a zooplankter Ø Annotate a unique characteristic Ø Discuss the plankton food web