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Introduction to the Bible Introduction to the Bible

Objectives • Describe how the Bible was transmitted, translated, and gradually recognized as authoritative Objectives • Describe how the Bible was transmitted, translated, and gradually recognized as authoritative by religious communities from antiquity to the present

Why Study the Bible? • Millions are influenced by its teachings. – Language, art, Why Study the Bible? • Millions are influenced by its teachings. – Language, art, music, literature, etc. – Various religions: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, etc.

What’s In It For Me • You can gain a better understanding of the What’s In It For Me • You can gain a better understanding of the Bible. • You can understand more of just about everything that you see, hear, or read! • The Bible is like a code key for symbols, figures of speech, and plot lines, of art, literature, and popular culture!

What’s In It For Me • You might be able to better participate in What’s In It For Me • You might be able to better participate in society. Many of the hottest political and social issues today involve arguments made from the Bible. • You can get images, metaphors, and literary styles that can help you with your own writing and self expression.

“I have always said, I always will say, that the studious perusal of the “I have always said, I always will say, that the studious perusal of the sacred volume will make better citizens, better fathers, and better husbands. ”
– Thomas Jefferson (1743 -1826), 3 rd President of the United States.

Literature • • East of Eden (Steinbeck) Paradise Lost (Milton) Lord of the Flies Literature • • East of Eden (Steinbeck) Paradise Lost (Milton) Lord of the Flies (Golding) Old Man and the Sea (Hemmingway) A Tale of Two Cities Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Stowe) Anything by Shakespeare or Milton

 • • Da. Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Etc. Art • • Da. Vinci Michelangelo Raphael Etc. Art

Movies • • • The Passion The Matrix (Allusions) Star Wars (Themes) Apocalypse Now Movies • • • The Passion The Matrix (Allusions) Star Wars (Themes) Apocalypse Now (Title) Chariots of Fire (Title)

In America • Supreme Court, Money, Declaration of Independence, etc. In America • Supreme Court, Money, Declaration of Independence, etc.

Speeches • “We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me Speeches • “We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it doesn’t matter with me now, because I’ve been to the mountaintop… And I’ve looked over. And I‘ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we as a people will get to the Promised Land!” – Martin Luther King, Jr.

Speeches • Lincoln: Against the policy of dividing free states and slave states (House Speeches • Lincoln: Against the policy of dividing free states and slave states (House Divided Speech) – Luke 11: 17 - “Every kingdom divided against itself becomes a desert, and house falls on house. ”

Language Ambitious Cucumber Puberty Bald Head Eat, Drink, and be Merry Scapegoat Beautiful Holier Language Ambitious Cucumber Puberty Bald Head Eat, Drink, and be Merry Scapegoat Beautiful Holier than Thou Sex Blab House Divided Two-edged Sword Brother’s Keeper Left Wing Under the Sun Busy Body Liberty Wordy Castaway Network Wrinkle

In the World • B. C. (Before Christ) and A. D. (Anno Domini) – In the World • B. C. (Before Christ) and A. D. (Anno Domini) – Although now to be “Politically Correct” it is technically B. C. E and C. E.

Discussion • What are some other ways that we see the Bible’s influence in Discussion • What are some other ways that we see the Bible’s influence in culture?

Objective • Describe how we came to have the Bible in the English language. Objective • Describe how we came to have the Bible in the English language.

Translations • Written by Scribes • Later On… – Monks, rabbis, or skilled artists Translations • Written by Scribes • Later On… – Monks, rabbis, or skilled artists – 500 by 500 AD

Translations • 4 th Century: *Saint Jerome* – Translated into Latin (vernacular) – “Vulgate” Translations • 4 th Century: *Saint Jerome* – Translated into Latin (vernacular) – “Vulgate” means of the people or common – Becomes only legal translation for a 1000 years.

Translations • 14 th Century: *John Wycliffe* – First in English (from Vulgate) – Translations • 14 th Century: *John Wycliffe* – First in English (from Vulgate) – Condemned a heretic for disobeying the Pope – English translations were outlawed (capital offense) – Dies before he is prosecuted

Translations (Century Later…) • William Tyndale** – Felt called to translate from original languages Translations (Century Later…) • William Tyndale** – Felt called to translate from original languages into English – Worked with Martin Luther who was translating the Bible into German

Translations • Tyndale (cont. ) – Tyndale showed up on Luther's doorstep in Germany Translations • Tyndale (cont. ) – Tyndale showed up on Luther's doorstep in Germany in 1525, and by year's end had translated the New Testament into English. Tried, condemned to death by strangling and then burning

Translations • Tyndale (cont. ) • Last words: “Lord open the King of England’s Translations • Tyndale (cont. ) • Last words: “Lord open the King of England’s eyes” – 1 year later Henry VIII allowed English Bible to be distributed.

Bible Translation Timeline • 1382: Wycliffe translates from Vulgate • 1522: Luther German New Bible Translation Timeline • 1382: Wycliffe translates from Vulgate • 1522: Luther German New Testament • 1525: Tyndale’s New Testament, revised 1534 • 1560: The Geneva Bible-added verse numbers • 1568: The Bishop’s Bible (KJ adapted from this) • 1611: King James Bible (originally had 80 books, Apocrypha removed in 1885) – “writings of uncertain origin” – Various “Apocrypha” based on sect • Ethiopian Orthodox, Catholic, N. T. Apocrypha

Bible Translation Timeline • 1782: Aitkin's Bible (1 st in America KJ without Apocrypha) Bible Translation Timeline • 1782: Aitkin's Bible (1 st in America KJ without Apocrypha) • 1791: 1 st Illustrated (America) • 1901: The American Standard Version • 1970: The New American Standard Version • 1971: The Living Bible paraphrased • 1978: The New International Version • 1982: The New King James Version • 1989: The New Revised Standard Version • 1996: The New Living Translation • 2002: The Message

Translations Matter • Spanish: “Juan tiene frio” – Literal English: “John has cold” • Translations Matter • Spanish: “Juan tiene frio” – Literal English: “John has cold” • ? John is cold? • ? John has a cold? • Spanish: “Juan me cae bein gordo” – Literal English: “John me falls well fat” • Not a comment about weight, actually means “I don’t like John very much”

Translations Matter! • Genesis 1: 4 – NKJV: “And God saw the light, that Translations Matter! • Genesis 1: 4 – NKJV: “And God saw the light, that it was good”. – NRSV & NIV: “And God saw that the light was good”. – Message: And light appeared. God saw that light was good

 • 1 st Ed. King James (1611): • 1 st Ed. King James (1611): "For God so loued the world, that he gaue his only begotten Sonne: that whosoeuer beleeueth in him, should not perish, but haue euerlasting life. "

 • Tyndale (1534): • Tyndale (1534): "For God so loveth the worlde, that he hath geven his only sonne, that none that beleve in him, shuld perisshe: but shuld have everlastinge lyfe. " • Wycliff (1380): "for god loued so the world; that he gaf his oon bigetun sone, that eche man that bileueth in him perisch not: but haue euerlastynge liif, "

 • Geneva (1560): • Geneva (1560): "For God so loueth the world, that he hath geuen his only begotten Sonne: that none that beleue in him, should peryshe, but haue euerlasting lyfe. " • Great Bible (1539): "For God so loued the worlde, that he gaue his only begotten sonne, that whosoeuer beleueth in him, shulde not perisshe, but haue euerlasting lyfe. "

Dead Sea Scrolls • Found in late 1940’s and early 1950’s in 11 caves Dead Sea Scrolls • Found in late 1940’s and early 1950’s in 11 caves around the Dead Sea • Dated as being made before A. D. 100. • At least one document dated about 21 B. C. • The Dead Sea manuscripts exhibited virtually identical readings to their counterparts • They proved that the many scholars who expressed doubts concerning the accuracy of Biblical texts were unfounded

Dead Sea Scrolls • Also found with the scrolls were – – – Non-Biblical Dead Sea Scrolls • Also found with the scrolls were – – – Non-Biblical writings commentaries on the OT paraphrases that expand on the Law rule books of the community war conduct thanksgiving psalms, hymnic compositions, benedictions – wisdom writings

Culture in Biblical Times • Dating an event was done by who was ruling Culture in Biblical Times • Dating an event was done by who was ruling the country. • Their Main Concerns: – Meanings of Events – Dynamics and Conflicts of People – Relationships between generations

Background Info • Old Testament: Hebrew – Leather scrolls, papyrus – Books= 39 • Background Info • Old Testament: Hebrew – Leather scrolls, papyrus – Books= 39 • New Testament: Greek – Papyrus – Books= 27

Background Info • *Torah* – Hebrew word for Teaching not law – The 1 Background Info • *Torah* – Hebrew word for Teaching not law – The 1 st 5 books of the O. T. , the central teachings of Judaism – Creation, Ancestry, and Celebrations • *Pentateuch* – Greek word for Five parts

Organization of Hebrew Scriptures (O. T. ) • • Pentateuch (The Teachings) The Historical Organization of Hebrew Scriptures (O. T. ) • • Pentateuch (The Teachings) The Historical Books Wisdom Literature/Writings The Prophets – Major Prophets – Minor Prophets

Pentateuch • • • Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Pentateuch • • • Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy

Historical Books • • • Joshua Judges Ruth I and II Samuel I and Historical Books • • • Joshua Judges Ruth I and II Samuel I and II Kings I and II Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther

Wisdom Literature • • • Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon Wisdom Literature • • • Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon

The Prophets • Major – Isaiah – Jeremiah – Lamentations – Ezekiel • Minor The Prophets • Major – Isaiah – Jeremiah – Lamentations – Ezekiel • Minor – Daniel – Hosea – Joel – Amos – Obadiah – Jonah – Micah – Nahum – Habakkuk – Zephaniah – Haggai – Zechariah – Malachi

Characteristics of Hebrew Literature • Importance of the Word • Symbolic Word Choices • Characteristics of Hebrew Literature • Importance of the Word • Symbolic Word Choices • Parallelism and Repetition – Origins in oral tradition, so many are like poetry with musical rhythms. (No rhyming) • Figures of Speech – wordplay (simile, metaphor, exaggeration, irony, and personification)

Importance of Names • In Hebrew Culture Names Have Great Power – Yahweh: vocalized Importance of Names • In Hebrew Culture Names Have Great Power – Yahweh: vocalized to Moses • Could only be spoken in the Holy of Holies • Adonai, Jehovah, or Ha-Shem (the name) – Jacob to Israel – Saul to Paul – Sarah to Sarai