Скачать презентацию INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Prof J Hanacek Скачать презентацию INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Prof J Hanacek

9d5db5652309fabb7cb09da6744058c9.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 30

INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Prof. J. Hanacek, M. D. , Ph. D. , INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Prof. J. Hanacek, M. D. , Ph. D. ,

What the pathophysiology is • Physiologia, ae, f. gr. fysis = nature; logos = What the pathophysiology is • Physiologia, ae, f. gr. fysis = nature; logos = science • Pathophysiologia, ae, f. gr. pathos = disease, pain, suffering

Physiology Pathophysiology Life Logic Healthy Study Diseased The calligraphy done by the Korean artis Physiology Pathophysiology Life Logic Healthy Study Diseased The calligraphy done by the Korean artis Kim Hyun-Seung

Pathophysiology - definitions /Pa. Phy/ Pa. Phy is a biomedical science on the mechanisms Pathophysiology - definitions /Pa. Phy/ Pa. Phy is a biomedical science on the mechanisms related to development and elimination of pathological processes and diseases Pa. Phy is a biomedical science dealing with functional changes in diseased organism Pa. Phy deals with the dynamic aspects of pathological processes and diseases. It studies disordered or altered functions - the physiologic mechanisms altered by disease in the living organism

 • Pathophysiology deals with temporal and spatial dynamics in the intensity of pathological • Pathophysiology deals with temporal and spatial dynamics in the intensity of pathological processes • Pathophysiology is devoted to study of protective and defensive mechanisms of body tissue, organs and systems, and their role in defence against noxae, in pathogenesis of disease, and in sanogenesis • Pathophysiology belongs to core subjects of undergraduate medical education

Pathophysiology deals with logic of life under pathological conditions Pathophysiology help us to understand Pathophysiology deals with logic of life under pathological conditions Pathophysiology help us to understand the logic of life during development of pathological processes Pathophysiology creates a bridge between sciences and clinical subjects in undergraduate medical education

 Pathophysiology is a modern integrative biomedical science founded on basic and clinical research Pathophysiology is a modern integrative biomedical science founded on basic and clinical research that is concerned with the mechanisms responsible for the initiation, development, and treatment of pathological processes in humans and animals. International Society for Pathophysiology (1998)

 • Why pathophysiology is important for medical students and physicians 1. It helps • Why pathophysiology is important for medical students and physicians 1. It helps them to find answers to important 2. questions related to disease processes: 3. 4. a) What is the cause/causes of the disease, and why the disease is developing 5. b) What are the mechanisms responsible for disease onset, progression, and recovery 1. c) What are the mechanisms responsible for development of symptoms and signs of disease 2. If doctors are able to understand the causes and mechanisms of the disease, then they are able to find the way how to influence them rationally

Relation among pathophysiology and other subjects of unergraduate medical education Biology – pathological processes Relation among pathophysiology and other subjects of unergraduate medical education Biology – pathological processes begin frequently at the cell level Anatomy and histology – macro- and microstructural properties of the human body is essential for understanding their pathology Biochemistry – biochemical processes are changed under pathological condition

Biophysics – biophysical properties of cells, tissues and organs determine their structural and functional Biophysics – biophysical properties of cells, tissues and organs determine their structural and functional characteristics Physiology – firstly, we have to understand the functions of the healthy tissues, organs and systems of the body, than we are able to distinguish pathological functions Pathological anatomy – to understand the microstructural and macrostructural changes under pathological conditions helps to understand functional changes and vice versa

Microbiology and immunology – the subject help us to understand of the mechanisms involved Microbiology and immunology – the subject help us to understand of the mechanisms involved in development of disease caused mainly by biologic noxas and disorders of immune system Pharmacology – Pa. Phy enables the doctor to treat diseases rationally (causally) Clinical subjects – Pa. Phy is a theory of disease, clinic is medical practice Humanistic subjects (psychology, ethics, sociology, antropology. . . ) – psychologic and social factors play an important role in disease development

The position of Pathophysiology in undergraduate medical education • It becomes an integrative biomedical The position of Pathophysiology in undergraduate medical education • It becomes an integrative biomedical subject • It becomes a bridge between the subjects of sciences and clinical medicine • It is an important part of undergraduate medical education THE MAIN TASKS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • To teach mechanisms of diseases • To help to understand the substance of health ● To help students to understand the logic of life under pathological conditions

Thanks to pathophysiology the medical student can understand the inner logic of the pathological Thanks to pathophysiology the medical student can understand the inner logic of the pathological processes, their relationships, and their biological significance. On this basis student is able, as a result, to built an individual model of disease in a given patient

„House of Medicine“ Neurology Gynekology and Obtetrics Surgery Internal medicine Ceiling plate PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Pathology „House of Medicine“ Neurology Gynekology and Obtetrics Surgery Internal medicine Ceiling plate PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Pathology Pharmacology walls Microbiology PHYSIOLOGY Base plate Anat Biol Histol Bioch Foundations Chem Biophys

Structure of pathophysiology 1. General pathophysiology 2. Special /organs, systems/ pathophysiology 1. General pathophysiology Structure of pathophysiology 1. General pathophysiology 2. Special /organs, systems/ pathophysiology 1. General pathophysiology – content 2. 3. It deals with general pathologic processes, and pathomechanisms: -thay are involved in pathogenesis of more than one disease. It also contain explanation of some basic medical terms ● Examples of general pathological processes – inflammation, fever, hyperthermia, hypothermia, shock, stress, edemas, disturbances of control mechanisms, hyperreactivity, hyporeactivity, damage of genetic information. .

● Defensive and adaptive mechanisms – - non-specific and specific immunity, hypertrophy, atrophy, hyperfunction, ● Defensive and adaptive mechanisms – - non-specific and specific immunity, hypertrophy, atrophy, hyperfunction, hypofunction, homeostasis ● Incresed predisposition to onset of disease (diathesis, athopy) – due to genetic or/and environmental factors

Essential terminology a) Nosology /nosos = disease; logos = science/ Systematically describes the specific Essential terminology a) Nosology /nosos = disease; logos = science/ Systematically describes the specific type of disease and this is the base for creation classification system of diseases b) Etiology of disease /aitiá = cause/ Deals with noxae (causes) which are involved in disease onset and with conditions under which the causes are able to induce disease processes (Oposit - etiology of health: deals with factors which promote the health) c) Pathogenesis /pathos = pain, suffering, distress, genesis - onset/ Deals with mechanisms involved in disease onset and diseases development (pathomechanisms)

d) Sanogenesis /sanos = health/ Deals with mechanisms involved in recovery from disease to d) Sanogenesis /sanos = health/ Deals with mechanisms involved in recovery from disease to health e) Semiology /sémeion = sign, symptom/ Deals with symptoms and signs of diseases Symptoms – subjective feeling of disease Signs – objective parameters of changed functions and structures of body systems f) Tanatogenesis /thanatos = death/ Deals with processes leading to death

2. Special pathophysiology - is devoted to analysis and explanation of pathomechanisms involved in 2. Special pathophysiology - is devoted to analysis and explanation of pathomechanisms involved in functional disturbances of the organs and systems of the organism: Content of special pathophysiology: • hematologic disorders • disorders of cardiovascular system • dysfunctions of respiratory system • disorders of uropoietic system • neurologic disorders • dysfunctions of of endocrine system • metabolic disorders • disorders of reproductive system • dysfunctions of of GIT

SPECIAL SECTIONS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • Clinical pathophysiology /clinical physiology/ • Space pathophysiology • Experimental SPECIAL SECTIONS OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • Clinical pathophysiology /clinical physiology/ • Space pathophysiology • Experimental pathophysiology • Pathophysiology of extreme - events • Ocupational pathophysiology and Pa. Phy of sports • Adaptation pathophysiology ● Cellular and molecular pathophysiology

REMARKS TO PATHOGENESIS ● Pathogenesis of disease processes can not be reduced to only REMARKS TO PATHOGENESIS ● Pathogenesis of disease processes can not be reduced to only quantitative changes of structures, functions and mechanisms presenting in healthy people ● It is necessary to take into account development of qualitatively new processes, which are harmful for the body structure and functions One example of such new pathologic mechanism is vicious circle (a complex of events that reinforces itself through a feedback loop toward greater instability)

Examples of vicious circle 1 st example: Development of LV insufficiency Mitral stenosis decreased Examples of vicious circle 1 st example: Development of LV insufficiency Mitral stenosis decreased cardiac output of left ventricle activation of sympathetic n. s. arter resist vasoconstriction (skin, splanchnic, kydney aa. ) heart rate end – diastolic vol of LV shorter diastola of LV

2 nd example: Development of edema during RV failure Right ventricle failure volume overload 2 nd example: Development of edema during RV failure Right ventricle failure volume overload hydrostatic pressure in venous system formation of edema COLV fluid volume activation sympathic vasoconstriction in venous system blood flow in kydney resorbtion Na+ activation of in kydney R - A- A system

HISTORY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Hippocrates (460 -370 BC)- he was the first to construct theories HISTORY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Hippocrates (460 -370 BC)- he was the first to construct theories of the causes of disease based on what he had observed in his patients His fundamental truth: „there are two factors acting alone or in combination which cause illness – the intrinsic or constitutional make-up of the person, and an extrinsic or environmental agent“, is still valid. Once normal functions of the body had been described it was but a step to investigate states of disease (from the end of 16 th century)

HISTORY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • C. Bernard (1813 -1878)-Introduction to experimental medicine (1865) • Rudolf HISTORY OF PATHOPHYSIOLOGY • C. Bernard (1813 -1878)-Introduction to experimental medicine (1865) • Rudolf Wirchov - he introduces term „pathological physiology“ to medical terminology • Galliot /1819 / - author of„Manual in general pathology and pathological physiology“ • A. F. Hecker / 1790/ -author„Textbook in pathophysiology Excellent pathophysiologist from the past: J. E. Purkyne, Prof. Pashutin, Prof. Pavlov /from Russia/, Prof. Hans Selye /Canada-1907 -1982/ -Stress theory; . . .

Methods used in pathophysiological research 1. Observation 2. Animal experiment 3. Clinical – pathopysiological Methods used in pathophysiological research 1. Observation 2. Animal experiment 3. Clinical – pathopysiological study 4. Elaboration of experimental to create models of pathological processes – animal's models, mathemathical models. . . Research at the Dept. of Pathophysiology It is devoted to research on Pa. Phy of respiratory system, especially to defensive mechanisms of the airways and lungs, and to visceral neurophysiology and Pa. Phy

The main aims of teaching pathohysiology 1. Students should understand fundamental general and 2. The main aims of teaching pathohysiology 1. Students should understand fundamental general and 2. specific pathomechanisms involved in onset, development and ending of diseases To fulfil this aim is necessary: a) to know and understand pathophysiological terms b) to know and understand essential pathomechanisms c) to connect separate pathomechanizms to rational pathogenetic network characteristic for different pathological processes d) to understand a pathologic process as event which influence the whole body e) to understand pathomechanizms as dynamic events

The roles of studets and teachers in teaching prosess a) Student has to study, The roles of studets and teachers in teaching prosess a) Student has to study, not simply memorise facts b) Individual study and seminars should be focused to obtain lasting knowledge on pathophysiology c) Teacher will help students with creation of complex view on pathogenesis of diseases • The source of lasting knowledge is understanding of the pathomechanisms (Understunding is a kind of ecstasy)

Textbooks and other sorces for study of Pa. Phy ●Sylvia Anderson Price, Lorraine Mc Textbooks and other sorces for study of Pa. Phy ●Sylvia Anderson Price, Lorraine Mc Carty Wilson, Pathophysiology - Clinical concepts of disease processes 6 th edition Mosby Year Book, St. Luis, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, London, Sydny. ●Stefan Silbernagel, Florian Lang: Color Atlas of Pathophysiology Thieme, Stuttgart - New York, 2000, 406 pp. ●S. J. Mc. Phee, V. R. Lingappa, W. F. Ganong, J. D. Lang: Pathophysiology of Disease An Introduction to Clinical Medicine Prentice - Hall International Inc. , 1995, 521 pp. ● Tatar M, Hanacek J. Pathophysiology. Topics for seminars. Comenius University 2001, 220 pp. ●Handouts of lectures on Pathophysiology – from Dept. of Pathophysiology JFM CU in Martin

Staff involved in teaching process Head: Professor M. Tatar, M. D. , Ph. D. Staff involved in teaching process Head: Professor M. Tatar, M. D. , Ph. D. Teaching staff: Teachers: Prof. Jan Hanacek, M. D. , Ph. D. - Vice-Head Prof. Milos Tatar, M. D. , Ph. D. Assoc. Prof. R. Pecova, M. D. , Ph. D. Assoc. Prof. M. Brozmanova, RNDr. , Ph. D. Assoc. Prof. J. Plevkova, M. D. , Ph. D. Technicians: Mr. M. Vrabec, Ing. , Ms. L. Mazurova, Mrs. K. Strbova Mr. T. Zatko Ph. D student: Mr. J. Halicka, M. D. , Ms. S. Gavliakova, Ing. Secretary: Mrs. M. Ilovska