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Introduction to Grids, Grid Middleware and Applications Carl Kesselman the globus alliance Introduction to Grids, Grid Middleware and Applications Carl Kesselman the globus alliance

Science Today is a Team Sport Grid School 2004 2 Science Today is a Team Sport Grid School 2004 2

We Must be able to Assemble Required Expertise & Resources When Needed! Transform resources We Must be able to Assemble Required Expertise & Resources When Needed! Transform resources into on-demand services accessible to any. School 2004 Grid individual or team 3

A Unifying Concept: The Grid “Resource sharing & coordinated problem solving in dynamic, multiinstitutional A Unifying Concept: The Grid “Resource sharing & coordinated problem solving in dynamic, multiinstitutional virtual organizations” 1. Enable integration of distributed resources 2. Using general-purpose protocols & infrastructure Grid School 2004 4

What Problems is the Grid Intended to Address? The Grid is a highly pragmatic What Problems is the Grid Intended to Address? The Grid is a highly pragmatic field. u u u It arose from applied computer science. It is focused on enabling new types of applications. Funding and investment in the Grid has been motivated by the promise of new capabilities—not in computer science, but in other fields and in other areas of work. Grid School 2004 5

What Kinds of Applications? l Computation intensive u u u l Data intensive u What Kinds of Applications? l Computation intensive u u u l Data intensive u u l Experimental data analysis (high-energy physics) Image and sensor analysis (astronomy, climate study, ecology) Distributed collaboration u u u l Interactive simulation (climate modeling) Very large-scale simulation and analysis (galaxy formation, gravity waves, battlefield simulation) Engineering (parameter studies, linked component models) Online instrumentation (microscopes, x-ray devices, etc. ) Remote visualization (climate studies, biology) Engineering (large-scale structural testing, chemical engineering) In all cases, the problems were big enough that they required people in several organization to collaborate and share computing resources, data, instruments. Grid School 2004 6

What Types of Problems? l Your system administrators can’t agree on a uniform authentication What Types of Problems? l Your system administrators can’t agree on a uniform authentication system, but you have to allow your users to authenticate once (using a single password) then use services on all systems, with per-user accounting. l You need to be able to offload work during peak times to systems at other companies, but the volume of work they’ll accept changes from day-to-day. Grid School 2004 7

What Types of Problems? l You and your colleagues have 6000 datasets from the What Types of Problems? l You and your colleagues have 6000 datasets from the past 50 years of studies that you want to start sharing, but no one is willing to submit the data to a centrallymanaged storage system or database. l You need to run 24 experiments that each use six large-scale physical experimental facilities operating together in real time. Grid School 2004 8

What Types of Problems? l Too hard to keep track of authentication data (ID/password) What Types of Problems? l Too hard to keep track of authentication data (ID/password) across institutions l Too hard to monitor system and application status across institutions l Too many ways to submit jobs l Too many ways to store & access files and data l Too many ways to keep track of data l Too easy to leave “dangling” resources lying around (robustness) Grid School 2004 9

Requirements “Themes” l Security l Monitoring/Discovery l Computing/Processing Power l Moving and Managing Data Requirements “Themes” l Security l Monitoring/Discovery l Computing/Processing Power l Moving and Managing Data l Managing Systems l System Packaging/Distribution Grid School 2004 10

What End Users Need Secure, reliable, ondemand access to data, software, people, and other What End Users Need Secure, reliable, ondemand access to data, software, people, and other resources (ideally all via a Web Browser!) Grid School 2004 11

How it Really Happens Web Browser Compute Server Simulation Tool Web Portal Registration Service How it Really Happens Web Browser Compute Server Simulation Tool Web Portal Registration Service Data Viewer Tool Chat Tool Credential Repository Telepresence Monitor Camera Database service Data Catalog Certificate authority Users work with client applications Compute Server Application services Collective services organize VOs & enable aggregate &/or Grid School 2004 access to other services virtualize resources Database service Resources implement standard access & 12 management interfaces

How it Really Happens l Implementations are provided by a mix of Application-specific code How it Really Happens l Implementations are provided by a mix of Application-specific code u “Off the shelf” tools and services u Common middleware tools and services u l E. G. Globus Toolkit Tools and services from the Grid community (compatible with GT) Glued together by… Application development u System integration u Grid School 2004 13

Forget Homogeneity! l Trying to force homogeneity on users is futile. Everyone has their Forget Homogeneity! l Trying to force homogeneity on users is futile. Everyone has their own preferences, sometimes even dogma. l The Internet provides the model… Grid School 2004 14

How it Really Happens (without the Grid) Web Browser Application Developer Web Portal 0 How it Really Happens (without the Grid) Web Browser Application Developer Web Portal 0 Grid Community 0 Data Viewer Tool Chat Tool Credential Repository Camera Telepresence Monitor Camera C Data Catalog Certificate authority Users work with client applications Compute Server Registration Service 13 Globus Toolkit Compute Server B Simulation Tool 9 Off the Shelf A Application services Collective services organize VOs & enable aggregate &/or Grid School 2004 access to other services virtualize resources Database service D Database service E Database service Resources implement standard access & 15 management interfaces

How it Really Happens (with the Grid) Globus Web Browser GRAM Simulation Tool Globus How it Really Happens (with the Grid) Globus Web Browser GRAM Simulation Tool Globus GRAM Globus Index Service CHEF Compute Server Camera Application Developer 2 Off the Shelf Data Viewer Tool 9 Globus Toolkit Grid Community 4 4 CHEF Chat Teamlet My. Proxy Telepresence Monitor Globus DAI Globus MCS/RLS Certificate Authority Users work with client applications Camera Application services Collective services organize VOs & enable aggregate &/or Grid School 2004 access to other services virtualize resources Globus DAI Database service Resources implement standard access & 16 management interfaces

Why Standardize An Approach? l Building large-scale systems by composition of many heterogeneous components Why Standardize An Approach? l Building large-scale systems by composition of many heterogeneous components demands that we extract and standardize common patterns u u Resource lifetime management interfaces u Resource inspection and monitoring interfaces u Base fault representation u Service and resource groups u Notification u l Approach to resource identification And many more… Standardization encourages tooling & code re-use u Support to build services more quickly & reliably Grid School 2004 17

Putting it All Together: Open Grid Services Architecture l Define a service-oriented architecture… u Putting it All Together: Open Grid Services Architecture l Define a service-oriented architecture… u l …to address vital Grid requirements u l the key to effective virtualization AKA utility, on-demand, system management, collaborative computing, etc. …building on Web service standards. u extending those standards when needed Grid School 2004 18

What Is the Globus Toolkit? l l The Globus Toolkit is a collection of What Is the Globus Toolkit? l l The Globus Toolkit is a collection of solutions to problems that frequently come up when trying to build collaborative distributed applications. Heterogeneity u u l To date (v 1. 0 - v 4. 0), the Toolkit has focused on simplifying heterogenity for application developers. We aspire to include more “vertical solutions” in future versions. Standards u u Our goal has been to capitalize on and encourage use of existing standards (IETF, W 3 C, OASIS, GGF). The Toolkit also includes reference implementations of new/proposed standards in these organizations. Grid School 2004 19

“Standard Plumbing” for the Grid l Not turnkey solutions, but building blocks and tools “Standard Plumbing” for the Grid l Not turnkey solutions, but building blocks and tools for application developers and system integrators. u l Some components (e. g. , file transfer) go farther than others (e. g. , remote job submission) toward enduser relevance. Since these solutions exist and others are already using them (and they’re free), it’s easier to reuse than to reinvent. u And compatibility with other Grid systems comes for free! Grid School 2004 20

How Far Does the Globus Toolkit Go? Today Goal Grid School 2004 21 How Far Does the Globus Toolkit Go? Today Goal Grid School 2004 21

Leveraging Existing and Proposed Standards l SSL/TLS v 1 (from Open. SSL) (IETF) l Leveraging Existing and Proposed Standards l SSL/TLS v 1 (from Open. SSL) (IETF) l LDAP v 3 (from Open. LDAP) (IETF) l X. 509 Proxy Certificates (IETF) l Grid. FTP v 1. 0 (GGF) l OGSI v 1. 0 (GGF) l And others on the road to standardization: WSRF (GGF, OASIS), DAI, WS-Agreement, WSDL 2. 0, WSDM, SAML, XACML Grid School 2004 22

Increased functionality, standardization The “Grid Ecosystem” App-specific Services Web services X. 509, LDAP, FTP, Increased functionality, standardization The “Grid Ecosystem” App-specific Services Web services X. 509, LDAP, FTP, … Custom solutions Open Grid Services Arch GGF: OGSI, WSRF, … (leveraging OASIS, W 3 C, IETF) Multiple implementations, Globus Toolkit including Globus Toolkit Defacto standards GGF: Grid. FTP, GSI (leveraging IETF) Time Grid School 2004 23

What You Get in the Globus Toolkit l OGSI(3. x)/WSRF(4. x) Core Implementation u What You Get in the Globus Toolkit l OGSI(3. x)/WSRF(4. x) Core Implementation u l Basic Grid Services u l Popular among current Grid users, common interfaces to the most typical services; includes both OGSA and non-OGSA implementations Developer APIs u l Used to develop and run OGSA-compliant Grid Services (Java, C/C++) C/C++ libraries and Java classes for building Gridaware applications and tools Tools and Examples u Useful tools and examples based on the developer APIs Grid School 2004 24

What Have You Got Now? l A Grid development environment u u l A What Have You Got Now? l A Grid development environment u u l A set of basic Grid services u u u l Develop new OGSI-compliant Web Services Develop applications using Grid APIs Job submission/management File transfer (individual, queued) Database access Data management (replication, metadata) Monitoring/Indexing system information Entry into Grid community software u Still more useful stuff! Grid School 2004 25

How To Use the Globus Toolkit l By itself, the Toolkit has surprisingly limited How To Use the Globus Toolkit l By itself, the Toolkit has surprisingly limited end user value. u u l There’s very little user interface material there. You can’t just give it to end users (scientists, engineers, marketing specialists) and tell them to do something useful! The Globus Toolkit is useful to application developers and system integrators. u u You’ll need mind. You’ll need to have a specific application or system in to have the right expertise. to set up prerequisite hardware/software. to have a plan. Grid School 2004 26

Easy to Use – But Few Applications are “Easy” l The uses that the Easy to Use – But Few Applications are “Easy” l The uses that the Toolkit has been aimed at are not easy challenges! l The Globus Toolkit makes them easier. u u Providing solutions to the most common problems and promoting standard solutions A well-designed implementation that allows many things to be built on it (lots of happy developers!) 6+ years of providing support to Grid builders Ever-improving documentation, installation, configuration, training Grid School 2004 27

Architecture l Once you have some decent requirements and some understanding of use cases… Architecture l Once you have some decent requirements and some understanding of use cases… u u l Draw the system design. Describe how the design will meet the needs of typical use cases. Consider deployment and M&O requirements for the design. Get feedback! Globus GRAM Simulation Tool Web Browser Globus GRAM Globus Index Service CHEF Compute Server Camera Data Viewer Tool CHEF Chat Teamlet My. Proxy Certificate Authority Telepresence Monitor Camera Globus DAI Globus MCS/RLS Globus DAI Database service You will start getting a sense of what components will be needed. Grid School 2004 28

Select Components l Within the system design, components will have functional requirements, too. u Select Components l Within the system design, components will have functional requirements, too. u u u l Capabilities (“features”) Interfaces (protocols, APIs, schema) Performance/scalability metrics Ideally, much of it already exists. u u Leverage what’s already out there (Web, Grid, fabric technologies, off-the-shelf products, etc. ). Decompose into smaller bits if necessary. If too much is unique to this application, you’re probably doing something wrong. If a candidate component is almost--but not quite--perfect, it can probably be extended (or used in conjunction with something else) to meet requirements. Grid School 2004 29

Integration Plan l Existing components must be integrated. u u Define interfaces u l Integration Plan l Existing components must be integrated. u u Define interfaces u l Identify “integration points” Develop “glue” if necessary New components must be developed. u u Identify requirements (features+interfaces+performance) Plan development Grid School 2004 30

Application Development l Phased “top-down” development u u u l Focus on satisfying individual Application Development l Phased “top-down” development u u u l Focus on satisfying individual project goals or requirements in turn, or Focus on widening deployment in turn. Danger of “muddying” the architecture (inefficiencies creep in, especially regarding reusability). “Bottom-up” development u u Focus first on components, then move to “system integration”. Danger of missing the “big picture” (missing unstated requirements). Grid School 2004 31

Deployment l Involve “real users” as early as possible. u u l Pick early Deployment l Involve “real users” as early as possible. u u l Pick early adopters carefully. u u u l You’ll learn a lot and be able to “course correct. ” You’ll establish “happy users” to help in later stages. Aggressive users, technologically skilled, representative of the target user base. Set expectations carefully. Be wary of overinvestment. Deployment is a significant chunk of your effort. u u Separate team? Make sure it’s linked to the development activity. Grid School 2004 32

Computation-Intensive Science: Grid 2003 l Gri. Phy. N - Grid Physics Network (NSF) l Computation-Intensive Science: Grid 2003 l Gri. Phy. N - Grid Physics Network (NSF) l i. VDGL - International Virtual Data Grid Laboratory (NSF) l LCG - LHC Computing Grid (EU) l PPDG - Particle Physics Data Grid (DOE) Grid School 2004 33

Grid 2003 Project Goals l Ramp up U. S. Grid capabilities in anticipation of Grid 2003 Project Goals l Ramp up U. S. Grid capabilities in anticipation of LHC experiment needs in 2005. u u u l Build, deploy, and operate a working Grid. Include all U. S. LHC institutions. Run real scientific applications on the Grid. Provide state-of-the-art monitoring services. Cover non-technical issues (e. g. , SLAs) as well as technical ones. Unite the U. S. CS and Physics projects that are aimed at support for LHC. u u Common infrastructure Joint (collaborative) work Grid School 2004 34

Grid 2003 Requirements l l l l General Infrastructure Support Multiple Virtual Organizations Production Grid 2003 Requirements l l l l General Infrastructure Support Multiple Virtual Organizations Production Infrastructure Standard Grid Services Interoperability with European LHC Sites Easily Deployable Meaningful Performance Measurements Grid School 2004 35

Grid 2003 Components l GT GRAM l Chimera & Pegasus l GT MDS l Grid 2003 Components l GT GRAM l Chimera & Pegasus l GT MDS l GSI-Open. SSH l GT Grid. FTP l Mon. ALISA l GT RLS l Ganglia l GT MCS l VOMS l Condor-G l PACMAN l DAGman Grid School 2004 36

Grid 2003 Components l Computers & storage at 28 sites (to date) u l Grid 2003 Components l Computers & storage at 28 sites (to date) u l Uniform service environment at each site u u l Certification & registration authorities, VO membership services, monitoring services Client-side tools for data access & analysis u l Globus Toolkit provides basic authentication, execution management, data movement Pacman installation system enables installation of numerous other VDT and application services Global & virtual organization services u l 2800+ CPUs Virtual data, execution planning, DAG management, execution management, monitoring IGOC: i. VDGL Grid Operations Center Grid School 2004 37

System Overview Grid School 2004 38 System Overview Grid School 2004 38

Grid 2003 Operation l All software to be deployed is integrated in the Virtual Grid 2003 Operation l All software to be deployed is integrated in the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) distribution. u u u l l The VDT uses PACMAN to ease deployment and configuration. Each participating institution deploys the VDT on their systems, which provides a standard set of software and configuration. A core software team (Gri. Phy. N, i. VDGL) is responsible for VDT integration and development. A set of centralized services (e. g. , directory services) is maintained Grid-wide. Applications are developed with VDT capabilities, architecture, and services directly in mind. Grid School 2004 39

Grid 2003 Deployment l l VDT installed at more than 25 U. S. LHC Grid 2003 Deployment l l VDT installed at more than 25 U. S. LHC institutions, plus one Korean site. More than 2000 CPUs in total. More than 100 individuals authorized to use the Grid. Peak throughput of 500 -900 jobs running concurrently, completion efficiency of 75%. Grid School 2004 40

Grid 2003 Applications l l l 6 VOs, 11 Apps High-energy physics simulation and Grid 2003 Applications l l l 6 VOs, 11 Apps High-energy physics simulation and data analysis Cosmology based on analysis of astronomical survey data Molecular crystalography from analysis of X-ray diffraction data Genome analysis System “exercising” applications Grid School 2004 41

Grid 2003 Applications To Date l CMS proton-proton collision simulation l ATLAS proton-proton collision Grid 2003 Applications To Date l CMS proton-proton collision simulation l ATLAS proton-proton collision simulation l LIGO gravitational wave search l SDSS galaxy cluster detection l ATLAS interactive analysis l BTe. V proton-antiproton collision simulation l Sn. B biomolecular analysis l GADU/Gnare genone analysis l Various computer science experiments www. ivdgl. org/grid 2003/applications Grid School 2004 42

Grid 2003 Interesting Points l l Each virtual organization includes its own set of Grid 2003 Interesting Points l l Each virtual organization includes its own set of system resources (compute nodes, storage, etc. ) and people. VO membership info is managed system-wide, but policies are enforced at each site. Throughput is a key metric for success, and monitoring tools are used to measure it and generate reports for each VO. Grid School 2004 43

Grid 2003 Metrics Metric Target Achieved Number of CPUs 400 2762 (28 sites) Number Grid 2003 Metrics Metric Target Achieved Number of CPUs 400 2762 (28 sites) Number of users > 10 102 (16) >4 10 (+CS) Number of sites running concurrent apps > 10 17 Peak number of concurrent jobs 1000 1100 > 2 -3 TB 4. 4 TB max Number of applications Data transfer per day Grid School 2004 44

Data-Intensive Science: the Earth System Grid School 2004 ESG 45 Data-Intensive Science: the Earth System Grid School 2004 ESG 45

ESG Project Goals l l Improve productivity/capability for the simulation and data management team ESG Project Goals l l Improve productivity/capability for the simulation and data management team (data producers). Improve productivity/capability for the research community in analyzing and visualizing results (data consumers). Enable broad multidisciplinary communities to access simulation results (end users). The community needs an integrated “cyberinfrastructure” to enable smooth workflow for knowledge development: compute platforms, collaboration & collaboratories, data management, access, distribution, and analysis. Grid School 2004 46

ESG Earth System Grid Goal: address technical obstacles to the sharing & analysis of ESG Earth System Grid Goal: address technical obstacles to the sharing & analysis of highvolume data from advanced earth system models Grid School 2004 47

ESG Requirements l Move data a minimal amount, keep it close to computational point ESG Requirements l Move data a minimal amount, keep it close to computational point of origin when possible. l When we must move data, do it fast and with a minimum amount of human intervention. l Keep track of what we have, particularly what’s on deep storage. l Make use of the facilities available at a number of sites. (Centralization is not an option. ) l Data must be easy to find access using standard Web browsers. Grid School 2004 48

ESG Major ESG Components l Grid Services u u u u l GRAM Grid. ESG Major ESG Components l Grid Services u u u u l GRAM Grid. FTP (+striped Grid. FTP server) MDS (+Web. SDV, +Trigger Service, +Archiver) My. Proxy Simple. CA RLS MCS Other Services u u HPSS u SRM u l Open. DAPg Apache, Tomcat ESG-specific services u Workflow Manager u Registration Service Grid School 2004 49

Under the Covers of ESG Grid School 2004 ESG 50 Under the Covers of ESG Grid School 2004 ESG 50

ESG Deployment l Four data centers (LBNL, LLNL, NCAR, ORNL) l User registration and ESG Deployment l Four data centers (LBNL, LLNL, NCAR, ORNL) l User registration and authorization established l Two major datasets are available, with associated metadata l Work underway to add IPCC datasets as they are produced Grid School 2004 51

ESG Interesting Points l A lot of effort has been needed to build acceptable ESG Interesting Points l A lot of effort has been needed to build acceptable metadata models. l Ease of use (simple interfaces, like registration service) is critical! u u l Users shouldn’t have to see anything other than web interface and the data they ask for. Don’t bother giving certificates to users as long as they’re using the portal for everything. Specific goals (e. g. , providing access to specific datasets) will dramatically focus work. Grid School 2004 52

Collaborative Engineering: NEESgrid U. Nevada Reno www. neesgrid. org Grid School 2004 53 Collaborative Engineering: NEESgrid U. Nevada Reno www. neesgrid. org Grid School 2004 53

NEESgrid System Integrators l National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) l Argonne National Laboratory NEESgrid System Integrators l National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) l Argonne National Laboratory l USC-Information Sciences Institute l University of Michigan l Stanford University l UC-Berkeley l Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Grid School 2004 54

NSF’s Goals for NEESgrid l Encourage collaboration among earthquake engineering researchers and practitioners. u NSF’s Goals for NEESgrid l Encourage collaboration among earthquake engineering researchers and practitioners. u u u l Provide remote access to large-scale NSF earthquake engineering facilities. Provide distributed collaboration tools. Provide easy-to-use simulation capabilities. Allow integration of physical and simulation capabilities. Provide a community data repository for sharing data generated by use of the system. Create a cyberinfrastructure for earthquake engineering. u Define and implement Grid-based integration points for system components. Grid School 2004 55

NEESgrid Core Capabilities l Tele-control and tele-observation of experiments l Data cataloging and sharing NEESgrid Core Capabilities l Tele-control and tele-observation of experiments l Data cataloging and sharing l Remote collaboration and visualization tools and services l Simulation execution and integration Grid School 2004 56

NEESgrid Requirements l l Single sign-on with Grid credentials Web interfaces for end users NEESgrid Requirements l l Single sign-on with Grid credentials Web interfaces for end users u u u l Collaboration services (chat, video, documents, calendars, notebooks, etc. ) Telepresence services (video feeds) Telecontrol (in limited instances) Data viewing, data browsing and searching Simulation capabilities Uniform interfaces for major system capabilities u u Control Data acquisition Data streams Data repository services Grid School 2004 57

More NEESgrid Requirements l System security u u l l l Protect facilities from More NEESgrid Requirements l System security u u l l l Protect facilities from misuse Physical safety! Distributed collaboration during realtime experiments Automated (pre-programmed) control of distributed experiments (physical and simulation) Simplify effects of heterogeneity at facilities Grid School 2004 58

NEESgrid High-level Structure Certificate Authority My. Proxy Account Mgmt Tools Index Service Monitoring Tools NEESgrid High-level Structure Certificate Authority My. Proxy Account Mgmt Tools Index Service Monitoring Tools NEESgrid Website Bugzilla Mailing Lists Grid School 2004 59

Architecture of NEESgrid Equipment Site Grid School 2004 60 Architecture of NEESgrid Equipment Site Grid School 2004 60

Major NEESgrid Components l OGSA Services u u u l l l NTCP - Major NEESgrid Components l OGSA Services u u u l l l NTCP - Uniform Telecontrol Interface NMDS - Metadata Repository Management NFMS - File Repository Management Creare Data Turbine - Data & Video CHEF - Web Portal, Collaboration Tools NEESgrid Simulation Portal - Simulation Tools Open. SEES, Fedeas. Lab - Simulation Frameworks Other Grid Services u u u My. Proxy - Authentication Grid. FTP - File Movement GRAM - Job Submission/Management MDS, Big Brother - System Monitoring GSI-Open. SSH - Administrative Logins GPT - Software Packaging Grid School 2004 61

NEESgrid Deployment l l NEES-POPs installed at 16 facilities Experiment-based Deployment (EBD) u u NEESgrid Deployment l l NEES-POPs installed at 16 facilities Experiment-based Deployment (EBD) u u u l l l Sites propose experiments SI and sites cooperatively run experiment using NEESgrid (deployment) Tests architecture and components, identifying new requirements October 2004 transition to M&O team (SDSC) First round of research proposals also begin in October 2004 Grand Opening in November 2004 Grid School 2004 62

NEESgrid Interesting Points l Requirements are hard to define when a community is unused NEESgrid Interesting Points l Requirements are hard to define when a community is unused to collaboration. u u l l l Early deployment and genuine use is critical for focusing work. Iterative design is useful in this situation. Considerable effort has been needed for data modeling (still unproven). Plug-in interfaces (“drivers”) are much more useful than originally imagined. Real users don’t want to deal with WSDL. They need user-level APIs. Grid School 2004 63

Lessons Learned l The Globus Toolkit has useful stuff in it. l To do Lessons Learned l The Globus Toolkit has useful stuff in it. l To do anything significant, a lot more is needed. u u The Grid community (collectively) has many useful tools that can be reused! System integration expertise is mandatory. l OGSA and community standards (GGF, OASIS, W 3 C, IETF) are extremely important in getting all of this to work together. l There’s much more to be done! Grid School 2004 64

Continue Learning l Visit the Globus Alliance website at: www. globus. org l Read Continue Learning l Visit the Globus Alliance website at: www. globus. org l Read the book: The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (2 nd edition) l Talk to others who are using the Toolkit: [email protected] org (subscribe first) l Participate in standards organizations: GGF, OASIS, W 3 C, IETF Grid School 2004 65