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Introduction to Egyptian Art and beginning of Occidental Art
• Ancient Egyptian art comprises of the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization in the lower Nile Valley from 5000 BC to 300 AD • Civilization on the banks of river Nile
Periods • Ancient Egyptian culture • • Predynastic (4210 BC– 2680 BC) Old Kingdom (2680 BC– 2258 BC) Middle Kingdom (2258 BC– 1786 BC) New Kingdom (1786 BC– 1085 BC) Amarna Period (1085 BC– 1055 BC) Late Period of ancient Egypt start of Greek Egypt (1055 BC– 287 BC)
Architecture • • Very famous pyramids Temples dedicated to various gods Made of big blocks of stone A small entrance Concept of afterlife With a special tomb chamber Religio-magical significance Rich mythology depicted on walls justifying the claims of a pharoah • Use of hieroglyphs and extensive use of symbols
Pyramids of Giza
Temple at Luxor
Sculpture • Egyptian sculpture represented the ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses Pharaohs and various scenes from Egyptian mythology • The very famous Sphinx is an exceptional piece of art. It has a lion’s body and a human head • Stylized human form
The Sphinx at Giza
• Sobek, • Crocodile god
Egyptian Painting • The paintings were often made with the intent of making a pleasant afterlife for the deceased. • The themes included journey through the afterworld or protective deities introducing the deceased to the gods of the underworld (such as Osiris). • Some tomb paintings show activities that the deceased were involved in when they were alive and wished to carry on doing for eternity.
Ilustration from Book of the dead
• Detail of a wall painting • Queen as goddess
• Greek art began in prehistorical civilization, and gave birth to Western classical art in the ancient period • The Greek period is categorized into the Geometric (900 -700 BC), • Archaic (600 -480 BC), • Classical (480 -400 BC), • and Hellenistic (320 -30 BC) periods.
Geometric Phase • The work from this period is known for its pottery. • The vessels were often divided into rectangular sections with simplistically shaped figures, angular lines, and rows of dots and strokes illustrating a narrative. • Curved forms and perfect symmetry epitomized the Geometric style.
Attic Black. Figure Plate with Gorgon’s Head and Bands of Animals
• This piece is an example of the blackfigure technique of vase painting. It also depicts various composite figures in the style that was popular during this time.
Archaic Period: 600 -480 B. C. E. • The Archaic period is know for the positions of figures that begin to break the mold of the oncedominant, stiff Egyptian format. • It is beginning of making realistic human figures • The Archaic figures begin to move and show expression. • This can be interpreted as the first hint of a reverence for the beauty of mankind, and the very beginning of the Renaissance mindset.
• Peplos Kore, 530 B. C. E. • Archaic Female figure
• This sculpture carved from marble is the epitome of the Archaic time period. • The form of the figure can be seen through the drapery and her face is rounded and naturalistic. • . The smile on the figure’s face was a standard for Archaic figural sculpture,
Classical Period: 480 -400 B. C. E. • The Classical period is know for its use of “contrapposto, ” where the body position of the figure is shaped in an “S-curve”. • The figure’s hips and shoulders are aligned in opposite angles to create the most naturalistic, relaxed muscular position. • Also during this time, the perfect canon of proportions was developed. Heads became 1/8 of the total height of the body.
• Kritios Boy, 480 B. C. E.
Hellenistic Sculpture, 32030 B. C. E. • The work from the Hellenistic period became even more emotional, displayed more dramatic movement, explored a greater range of themes • . Artists also now considered the environment of their subject and began to use negative space an additional tool to express their vision.
• Laocoon and His Sons, Rhodes Sculptors: 1 st Century AD •
• This sculpture is highly dramatic through its use of twisted forms; • . The pain and anguish of the figures is expressed through the intensity of their expressions, • the multitude of strong diagonals that are formed, and the muscular, physical reaction to their situation. • The negative space becomes just as powerful as the positive space.
Roman Art • Legend attributes the founding of Rome to Romulus and Remus, a set of twin brothers that were the sons of the god Mars. • 6 th C BC to 4 th C AD • Ruled by powerful and ambitious rulers
Architecture • Romans invented and greatly improved infrastructure and architecture, which included roads, aqueducts, arches, vaults, columns, and civic buildings. • Created huge structures like Colloseum and temple of Parthenon dedicated to Roman gods
The Colos seum, 72 -80 B. C. E. , Rome :
• this structure seated over 50, 000 spectators. • It was used to house gladiatorial contests and public entertainment.
• Traditional Roman sculpture is divided into five categories: • portraiture, • historical relief, • funerary reliefs, • sarcophagi, and • copies of ancient Greek works
• Roman triumphal column
Roman Painting • • • Painting discovered in 19 th CE At Pompeii Very well preserved wall paintings Represents a well developed painting style Inspired Renaissance painting