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Intro to Info Tech Enterprise Computing This presentation can be viewed on line at: Intro to Info Tech Enterprise Computing This presentation can be viewed on line at: Copyright 2003 byhttp: //web. fscj. edu/Janson/cgs 1060/wk 11. EC. ppt Janson Industries 1

Objectives n Explain u What is an Enterprise u Categories u Enterprise of enterprise Objectives n Explain u What is an Enterprise u Categories u Enterprise of enterprise systems technologies 2 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Enterprise n An organization of some size u Hospital-sized u Generate n or larger Enterprise n An organization of some size u Hospital-sized u Generate n or larger lots of information Special organizational structure u Usually broken up into functional units u Different computing needs u Functional units must work together 3 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Organizations n Have CEOs, but don't run the dayto-day operations u Reps the company Organizations n Have CEOs, but don't run the dayto-day operations u Reps the company to outside orgs F Customers, u Responsible n n Govt, Bo. D, etc for long term planning COO (Chief Operations Officer) oversees the business with execs Other execs run functional areas u CIO, CFO, Director of Research, etc. 4 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Organizations n Employees breakdown into four levels of information users u Executives u Middle Organizations n Employees breakdown into four levels of information users u Executives u Middle Managers u Low Level Managers u Non-management employees n Each level has very different information needs 5 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Executives n Strategic responsibilities u Large scope u Long time frame F Ex. Long Executives n Strategic responsibilities u Large scope u Long time frame F Ex. Long term planning u Manage n middle managers Their decisions affect : u Large portions of the business F Financing for next 20 years, companywide manufacturing, world-wide sales u The Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries entire business for years to come 6

Middle Managers n Tactical responsibilities u Medium scope u Middle time frame (2 -5 Middle Managers n Tactical responsibilities u Medium scope u Middle time frame (2 -5 years) F Ex. 5 year plan to implement long term plan u Manage n Low Level Managers Their decisions affect : u Significant F Sales u For portions of the business in China, Florida 2 -5 years 7 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Low Level Managers n Operational responsibilities u Small scope u Near time frame u Low Level Managers n Operational responsibilities u Small scope u Near time frame u Manage employees F Hiring, n evaluating, firing Their decisions affect : u Small portions of the business F Sales u Near in Jacksonville term and up to 2 years 8 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Mgt Responsibilities n Planning n Organizing n Leading n Controlling 9 Copyright 2012 by Mgt Responsibilities n Planning n Organizing n Leading n Controlling 9 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Planning n Choose Planning n Choose "model" to pursue n Determine goals and targets u Are used to measure how efficient and effective the model is n Very different at different levels 10 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Planning n LL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u How many and what type of Planning n LL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u How many and what type of employees for each shift F 6 am – 10 am • 2 counter – 1 drive through, 1 counter • 2 general cooks F 10 am – 2 pm • 4 counter – 1 drive through, 3 counter • 3 cooks – 1 fryer, 2 flat grill 11 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Planning n HL Mc. Donalds Mgr 10 year plan: u Outsource drive through counter Planning n HL Mc. Donalds Mgr 10 year plan: u Outsource drive through counter position to call centers u Implement ordering over the Internet via F Web Browser F Texting Messaging 12 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Planning n Plan timeline: u Call center US/Europe F In first store in 1 Planning n Plan timeline: u Call center US/Europe F In first store in 1 year F District in 1. 5 years F Region 2 years F Area wide in 5 years u Call center Asia/SA/Third world F In first store in 2. 5 year F District in 3 years F Region 4 years F Area wide in 8 years 13 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Planning n Plan timeline: u Browser ordering F In first store in 2. 5 Planning n Plan timeline: u Browser ordering F In first store in 2. 5 years F District in 4 years F Region 5 years F US/Europe 9 years F World-wide 15 years u Texting F In first store in 3. 5 years F District in 3 years F Etc. etc. 14 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Organizing n n Assign specific resources to the plan Create the culture u Values Organizing n n Assign specific resources to the plan Create the culture u Values u Environment n Again, very different for different managers 15 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Organizing n LL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u 6 am – 10 am F Organizing n LL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u 6 am – 10 am F Jean works drive through F Mary works counter F Bill and Tim are cooks u Need F Put Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries to hire 3 cooks and 2 counter positions available on big sign outside F Submit job to Worksource F Submit request for internal transfers from other stores to region F Advertise in newspaper Sun-Tues and on Craig's List 16 F Set aside next Thursday for interviews

Organizing n Culture: u Will accept part timers u Will provide day care services Organizing n Culture: u Will accept part timers u Will provide day care services for employees u Monthly sales contest for counter employees 17 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Organizing n HL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u Assign Terra Haute region as browser Organizing n HL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u Assign Terra Haute region as browser test location (Bill Reynolds region mgr) u Assign San Francisco region as texting test location (Mary Worth) u Assign IT VP to: F Come up with 5 yr H/W requirements F Implementation plan for test regions u Assign Purchasing VP to F Find call center vendors F Develop 5 yr hardware purchasing plan 18 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Leading n Motivate people to do well n Get people to work together n Leading n Motivate people to do well n Get people to work together n Sell the plan u Build confidence that actions being taken are good for company and employees 19 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Leading n HL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u Assign HR VP to: F Look Leading n HL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u Assign HR VP to: F Look at call center impact on # of store employee levels F Based on normal attrition, come up with retraining/hiring needs for stores and IT F Come up communication campaign to sell employees on call centers u Set status report mtg with IT VP to 15 th of next month u Set due date on H/W reqs as Feb 1 st u Assign HR, IT, and Purchasing VPs to new "Bold Tech" team 20 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Leading n LL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u Hire artist to create posters re: Leading n LL Mc. Donald's Mgr decides u Hire artist to create posters re: sales contest u Set mtg date to explain F new day care services F new counter buddy team system: • Counter people are a team • If one is overwhelmed, other comes to help • All counter people will be trained to handle both phone and register 21 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Controlling n Evaluating performance u Gather performance info u Compare info to F Similar Controlling n Evaluating performance u Gather performance info u Compare info to F Similar orgs F Competitors n Benchmarking: u Find successful operators u Determine their advantages u Practice "me too" 22 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Controlling n After 2 months of new buddy system, for each transaction LL Manager Controlling n After 2 months of new buddy system, for each transaction LL Manager : u Collects time order placed and time order delivered u Tabulates avg time by teams, shifts, and days of the week u Compares to historical data 23 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Controlling n Conducts status meetings n Evaluates plans n HL mgr launches investigation into Controlling n Conducts status meetings n Evaluates plans n HL mgr launches investigation into Taco Bells partnership with Navy bases u Number u Cost u Avg of new stores of opening stores on bases sales 24 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Management n Different levels spend different amount of time on different activities u Controlling/evaluating Management n Different levels spend different amount of time on different activities u Controlling/evaluating big activity for LL not so much HL u HL not so concerned with details also F Sales data looked at globally • US not producing well • Demote US mgr u LL mgr sees sales are down F Looks at day to day sales compared to last year F Looks at sale item mix Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries 25

Non-Management Employees n Some perform the operational tasks of the business u Take orders Non-Management Employees n Some perform the operational tasks of the business u Take orders u Purchase supplies u Balance the books u Count inventory n What's expected of an employee depends on the job level u Low skill: follow instructions u High skill: fill a role, figure it out, act in a proactive manner 26 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Non-Management Employees n May perform management-like functions u Scheduling u Inventory management u Market Non-Management Employees n May perform management-like functions u Scheduling u Inventory management u Market research n Information is: u Collected for all the employees to do there jobs u Analyzed to make better decisions 27 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Information Systems n What’s a system? n Categorized as: u Bus Intelligence: gather and Information Systems n What’s a system? n Categorized as: u Bus Intelligence: gather and analyze data u Bus Process Mgt: help operational activities: sales, hiring, purchasing u Business Process Automation: greater efficiency and accuracy of operational activities 28 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Information Systems n Categorized by functional area u Accounting u Sales u Human resources Information Systems n Categorized by functional area u Accounting u Sales u Human resources u Etc. n n There are specialized systems for each area Some general information system types span many areas 29 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Specialized n Accounting and finance systems perform functions such as u Billing, n A/P, Specialized n Accounting and finance systems perform functions such as u Billing, n A/P, A/R They also analyze and produce: u Financial reports u Legally required documents u Tax information 30 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Specialized n n Human resources systems (aka employee relationship mgt) Provide access to data Specialized n n Human resources systems (aka employee relationship mgt) Provide access to data and ability to update info for both HR and emp u Benefits info: health retirement plans u Work history: appraisals, career path n Often will prompt mgrs to do things: u Employee appraisal due u Raise time u Anniversary Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries 31

Specialized n Engineering systems u CAD: u CAE: n computer aided design computer aided Specialized n Engineering systems u CAD: u CAE: n computer aided design computer aided engineering Manufacturing systems u CAM: computer aided manufacturing u MRP: materials requirements planning 32 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Specialized n SFA: sales force automation u Access/update u Interaction u Prompt customer info Specialized n SFA: sales force automation u Access/update u Interaction u Prompt customer info log for actions: F Make sales call F Place an order F Schedule a meeting 33 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

General Systems n Five major systems u Transaction Processing System (TPS) u Management u General Systems n Five major systems u Transaction Processing System (TPS) u Management u Expert Systems u Decision u Office Information System (MIS) Support System (DSS) Information System (OIS) 34 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Transaction Processing System n Automates the day to day operations n Transactions u Input Transaction Processing System n Automates the day to day operations n Transactions u Input – Processing - Output Input n Processing Output Can look at many things as transactions u You process my lectures into knowledge 35 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Transaction Processing System n n Buying a stick of beef jerky in a Jiffy Transaction Processing System n n Buying a stick of beef jerky in a Jiffy store is an example of a sales tx Sales transaction consists of many steps u Item and qty being purchased are input u Item price is retrieved (or input) u Total cost calculated and displayed u Customer inputs money u Change is calculated u Inventory on hand reduced by qty u Cash on hand increased by total cost u Change is output to the customer 36 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Transaction Processing System n In the old days, no real time tx n Sales Transaction Processing System n In the old days, no real time tx n Sales transaction consisted of u Price and qty of purchased item input u Total cost calculated and displayed u Customer inputs money u Clerk inputs paid amount and register figures out change or Clerk figures out change in his head u Change is output to the customer 37 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Transaction Processing System n n Is there an accurate inventory count? Is the a Transaction Processing System n n Is there an accurate inventory count? Is the a cash on hand amount available? n How were these calculated? n How long was this information valid? 38 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

TPS Customer CC# Item Denied Qty Order entry Status Inventory File Visa On hand TPS Customer CC# Item Denied Qty Order entry Status Inventory File Visa On hand qty Status Ord # Inventory Item Qty Status Ord # Item Qty Status Order File Ord info Status Customer File Cust info Shipping Bill of lading Customer 39 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Transaction Processing System n Use to be done by hand, phone, and paper u Transaction Processing System n Use to be done by hand, phone, and paper u Automating makes it faster, more accurate and fewer people needed n What about other TPS subsystems u A/R u A/P u Payroll u General Ledger u Outgoing orders u Receiving Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries 40

Management Information System n n Uses the raw facts collected by the TPS to Management Information System n n Uses the raw facts collected by the TPS to provide useful information for the management of the business For instance, could manager evaluate employees better if he had u Sales per employee per hour? u What about difference is shifts/days? 41 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

System Development n Programmer/System analyst: u Works with business experts to define the required System Development n Programmer/System analyst: u Works with business experts to define the required information u Identifies the source of data u Designs, develops or buys s/w to transform data into the needed info n End user computing (EUC) gives business experts: u Access to raw data u Training in s/w to transform data (Crystal reports, MS Access, etc. ) Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries 42

Expert Systems n Make recommendations based on data n Earliest example MYCIN, used to: Expert Systems n Make recommendations based on data n Earliest example MYCIN, used to: u Diagnose infections u Recommend antibiotics u Recommend dosages (based on patient weight, medical history, etc. ) n Analyst u Interviewed Stanford Medical profs about treating infectious diseases u Built s/w rules 43 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

MYCIN n Would ask a series of simple questions to gather information u Patient MYCIN n Would ask a series of simple questions to gather information u Patient temperature u Is patient experiencing dizziness u Etc. n Based on answers made rec n Results: u Correct 69% of the time u Would you want to be in the 31%? u Unfortunately, that's better then any individual doctor did Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries 44

Expert Systems n Later expert systems would modify themselves to produce better results u Expert Systems n Later expert systems would modify themselves to produce better results u Feed the final results u System would change its rules based on actual diagnosis n Problems with: u Hard to get to experts/knowledge source u Who's responsible if results incorrect F Experts? F Programmers? 45 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Problems with Expert Systems n n Expert systems used widely on Wall street They Problems with Expert Systems n n Expert systems used widely on Wall street They analyze the market and make decisions on trades Even allowed to do automated trades This why there are many cutoff rules regarding automatic trading 46 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Decision Support Systems n n Helps a user make a decision Enable a user Decision Support Systems n n Helps a user make a decision Enable a user to do "what if" analysis u Like n the grade DSS in Excel May use data external to the TPS u Supplier prices u Population growth projections 47 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Office Information Systems common administrative tasks Automates n u Create and distribute documents u Office Information Systems common administrative tasks Automates n u Create and distribute documents u Send and receive messages F Email, IM, faxes, voice u Calendaring F Schedule appointments, meetings, etc. u Create pages and publish to the web u Ex. MS Office, Open Office n Various pieces work together u Day before meeting, email sent w/ agenda u 15 minutes before, IM reminder sent 48 u Phone msg sent as email attachment Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Integrated Systems n Big systems that span categories n ERP: enterprise resource planning u Integrated Systems n Big systems that span categories n ERP: enterprise resource planning u TPS plus functional systems like finance, sales, HR F Ex. n SAP CRM: customer relationship mgt u Spans sales, marketing, and customer service n CMS: content mgt system u Keeps track of more than just docs u Spreadsheets, databases, video Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries 49

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Tries to balance all resources for most n efficient production Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Tries to balance all resources for most n efficient production n n Reads data from TPS and requires more info (sales projections, supplier prices, employee costs, etc. ) Spans all functions u Based on sales projections who should be hired and fired u Based on sale, orders, and forecast what supplies should be purchased u Based on long term sales projections how much money should be borrowed 50 and from who Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Enterprise Systems n All of these systems (TPS, MIS, ERP, etc. ) make up Enterprise Systems n All of these systems (TPS, MIS, ERP, etc. ) make up a organization’s Intranet u Functions that can only be accessed from inside the organization 51 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

E- Commerce n n n Two flavors: B 2 B and B 2 C E- Commerce n n n Two flavors: B 2 B and B 2 C Makes some TPS functions available over the Internet (called Extranet) Often provides new functions u Customers F Order over Web using browser F Track order status u Other business's can: F Query prices and delivery times (so ERP can pick best supplier) F Order electronically (EDI) Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries 52

Ecommerce Visa Customer CC# Item Denied Qty Order entry Status On hand qty Status Ecommerce Visa Customer CC# Item Denied Qty Order entry Status On hand qty Status Ord # Inventory Item Qty Status Ord # Item Qty Status Order File Ord info Shipping Status Customer File Internet Available Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries Inventory File Cust info Status Bill of lading Customer 53

E- Commerce Example efollet Even qty by loc 54 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries E- Commerce Example efollet Even qty by loc 54 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Enterprise Systems n n Many computers networked with tremendous storage capacity Duplication of h/w Enterprise Systems n n Many computers networked with tremendous storage capacity Duplication of h/w and data u Try to insure 99. 9% availability u Also insures against loss of data n Scalability u As demand for system grows, need to be able to easily increase capability F Grid and on-demand computing 55 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries

Enterprise Systems n Unique h/w u Mainframes – very good at transaction processing u Enterprise Systems n Unique h/w u Mainframes – very good at transaction processing u Blade servers – server on a card u All sorts of storage devices F RAID (redundant array of independent disks) F NAS (network attached storage) F Tape libraries F Optical disk jukeboxes Extensive back up and disaster recovery procedures and plans Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries n 56

Points to Remember n n Enterprise computing spans a large organization Comprised of u Points to Remember n n Enterprise computing spans a large organization Comprised of u Many functional subsytems u Enterprise wide general systems u Common and unique hardware n Enable large organizations to function more efficiently 57 Copyright 2012 by Janson Industries