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INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS • DR. A LEM, FISHERY INDUSTRY OFFICER, FAO-GLOBEFISH • INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS • DR. A LEM, FISHERY INDUSTRY OFFICER, FAO-GLOBEFISH • NACA AQUAMARKETS 2003 • MANILA, 2 -6 JUNE 2003

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OUTLINE • • • SOME WORDS ON FAO GLOBEFISH/INFONETWORK INTL. TRADE ISSUES THAT AFFECT OUTLINE • • • SOME WORDS ON FAO GLOBEFISH/INFONETWORK INTL. TRADE ISSUES THAT AFFECT TRADE WTO - FROM URUGUAY TO DOHA (AND CANCUN) • CONCLUSIONS 3

FAO • ALL ISSUES RELATED TO FISHERIES • TRADE: FISH UTILIZATION AND MARKETING SERVICE FAO • ALL ISSUES RELATED TO FISHERIES • TRADE: FISH UTILIZATION AND MARKETING SERVICE • COFI-SUBCOMMITTEE ON FISH TRADE • (COFI-SUBCOMMITTEE ON AQUACULTURE) • INFONETWORK (GLOBEFISH, INFOPESCA, INFOPECHE, INFOSAMAK, EUROFISH, INFOYU) 4

GLOBEFISH • PARTNERS: • European Commission, • NMFS (US), • FROM (Spain), OFREMER (France), GLOBEFISH • PARTNERS: • European Commission, • NMFS (US), • FROM (Spain), OFREMER (France), IREPA (Italy), DENMARK, Norwegian Seafood Export Council, MOROCCO, Fundación Chile • ASSOCIATE PARTNERS: ACADEMIA AND INDUSTRY 5

GLOBAL FISH EXPORTS (2001) $ 56 BILLION • DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: 50 % OF EXPORTS GLOBAL FISH EXPORTS (2001) $ 56 BILLION • DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: 50 % OF EXPORTS • NET EXPORT REVENUES FROM FISHERIES MOST IMPORTANT AFTER TIMBER FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (US$ 18 billion)

World exports of fishery commodities in 2001, in value 7 World exports of fishery commodities in 2001, in value 7

Net exports from commodities 8 Net exports from commodities 8

AQUACULTURE EXPORTS • PROBLEM OF ANALYSIS • TRADE STATISTICS DO NOT GIVE ORIGIN ( AQUACULTURE EXPORTS • PROBLEM OF ANALYSIS • TRADE STATISTICS DO NOT GIVE ORIGIN ( CAPTURE OR AQUACULTURE) • ONLY FOR SOME SPECIES IS ORIGIN EVIDENT ( TROUT, ATLANTIC SALMON, CARP, TILAPIA ) • TRADE: A MIX OF FARMED AND CAPTURE PRODUCT (SHRIMP, PACIFIC SALMON)

MAJOR FARMED SPECIES FOR EXPORT • SHRIMP • SALMON • BIVALVES • CARP # MAJOR FARMED SPECIES FOR EXPORT • SHRIMP • SALMON • BIVALVES • CARP # 1 IN PRODUCTION BUT LIMITED TRADE

FASTGROWERS • FARMED SALMON EXPORTS: 700, 000+ MT, • FARMED TROUT EXPORTS: 125, 000+ FASTGROWERS • FARMED SALMON EXPORTS: 700, 000+ MT, • FARMED TROUT EXPORTS: 125, 000+ MT • FARMED TILAPIA EXPORTS: CA 70, 000 MT • FARMED SEABASS AND SEABREAM EXPORTS: CA 100, 000 MT

Source: FAO World Trade of Shrimps, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 12 Figures Source: FAO World Trade of Shrimps, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 12 Figures in Live weight

World Trade Flow of Salmons, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 13 Source: FAO World Trade Flow of Salmons, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 13 Source: FAO

AMERICAN CATFISH • # 5 IN US FISH CONSUMPTION • EXPORTS ARE GROWING (Vietnam AMERICAN CATFISH • # 5 IN US FISH CONSUMPTION • EXPORTS ARE GROWING (Vietnam to US) • AMERICAN CATFISH INSTITUTE marketing and campaigns

World Trade of Bivalves, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 15 World Trade of Bivalves, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 15

BIVALVE TRADE (2001) • SCALLOP IMPORTS: 68, 000 MT • CLAM IMPORTS: 145, 000 BIVALVE TRADE (2001) • SCALLOP IMPORTS: 68, 000 MT • CLAM IMPORTS: 145, 000 MT • MUSSEL IMPORTS: 180, 000 MT • OYSTER IMPORTS: 41, 000 MT

World Trade Flow of Seabass and Seabream, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 17 World Trade Flow of Seabass and Seabream, 1976 -2001 in MT (live weight) 17 Source: FAO

World Trade of Tilapia, 1990 -2001 in MT (live weight) 18 Source: FAO World Trade of Tilapia, 1990 -2001 in MT (live weight) 18 Source: FAO

SEAWEED • LIMITED TRADE • FOOD AND NON-FOOD • EXAMPLE: EU-IMPORTS: 61, 000 MT SEAWEED • LIMITED TRADE • FOOD AND NON-FOOD • EXAMPLE: EU-IMPORTS: 61, 000 MT (2000) FRESH+DRIED

LIVE SEAFOOD • • GROWING DEMAND MAINLY ETHNIC MARKETS HIGH PRICES ASIAN ETHNIC MARKETS LIVE SEAFOOD • • GROWING DEMAND MAINLY ETHNIC MARKETS HIGH PRICES ASIAN ETHNIC MARKETS IN EUROPE AND US • (+ ORNAMENTAL OR AQUARIUM MARKET)

NON-FOOD OR ORNAMENTAL • MOSTLY FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE • MARINE AQUACULTURE GROWING • ASIA TO NON-FOOD OR ORNAMENTAL • MOSTLY FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE • MARINE AQUACULTURE GROWING • ASIA TO EU, US AND JAPAN • VERY DEPENDENT ON ECONOMIC CLIMATE • IMPORTS 2000: US$ 250 MILLION • RETAIL: US$ 3 BILLION +

SOME FUTURE TRADE ISSUES 1. 2. 3. 4. QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY WTO: TRADE SOME FUTURE TRADE ISSUES 1. 2. 3. 4. QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY WTO: TRADE AND TARIFFS FISHERIES SUBSIDIES DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL DEVELOPMENT 5. DEMAND TRENDS 6. FISH TRADE-FOOD SECURITY

QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY • CODEX STANDARDS FOR AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS • HACCP AND RISK QUALITY AND FOOD SAFETY • CODEX STANDARDS FOR AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS • HACCP AND RISK ASSESSMENT • ISO 9000 STANDARDS • LABELLING-CERTIFICATION • TRACEABILITY AND PRODUCTION METHOD (CONSUMER INFORMATION) • NEW EU LABELING RULES 2002 • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

QALITY AND FOOD SAFETY II • GMOS • ENVIRONMENT • TRANSPARENCY QALITY AND FOOD SAFETY II • GMOS • ENVIRONMENT • TRANSPARENCY

TRADE AND TARIFFS • !!! FISH IS A NON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT !!! • TARIFF TRADE AND TARIFFS • !!! FISH IS A NON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT !!! • TARIFF REDUCTIONS OVER TIME • NTBs (NON-TARIFF TRADE BARRIERS) • TARIFF ESCALATION FOR PROCESSED PRODUCTS • URUGUAY ROUND TRADE NEGOTIATIONS • NEW ROUND OF TRADE NEGOTIATIONS: Doha Development Agenda

URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENTS • SPS (SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES) • TBT (TECHINICAL BARRIERS TO URUGUAY ROUND AGREEMENTS • SPS (SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY MEASURES) • TBT (TECHINICAL BARRIERS TO TRADE) • ANTI-DUMPING • SUBSIDIES AND COUNTERVAILING MEASURES • DISPUTE SETTLEMENT (SHRIMP, SALMON, TUNA, SARDINES)

DOHA Development Agenda • TRADE LIBERALISATION • FISH=MARKET ACCESS FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: • PROPOSAL: DOHA Development Agenda • TRADE LIBERALISATION • FISH=MARKET ACCESS FOR NON-AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS: • PROPOSAL: ELIMINATE ALL DUTIES ON FISH AND FISH PRODUCTS • FISHERIES SUBSIDIES: PROPOSALS FOR GREEN/RED BOXES • ECOLABELING

GLOBALISATION • INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS • COUNTRY MEMBERSHIP (WTO, CODEX, REGIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSIONS) • CHINA GLOBALISATION • INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENTS • COUNTRY MEMBERSHIP (WTO, CODEX, REGIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSIONS) • CHINA IN WTO, RUSSIA IN 2004 ? • COUNTRY MEMBERSHIP IN TRADE AREAS (ASEAN, EU, NAFTA, MERCOSUR) • CONVERGENCE OF POLICY • GLOBAL SOURCING-THIRD COUNTRY PROCESSING • GLOBAL TRENDS IN DEMAND

DISTRIBUTION • CONCENTRATION OF DEMAND • INCREASING POWER OF SUPERMARKETS AND HYPERMARKETS • CUSTOMER DISTRIBUTION • CONCENTRATION OF DEMAND • INCREASING POWER OF SUPERMARKETS AND HYPERMARKETS • CUSTOMER TRUST IN SUPERMARKETS ! • GREAT POTENTIAL FOR AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS IN MODERN DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS – PLANNED PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY – STANDARD QUALITY – CONTRACT PRICES

DEMAND TRENDS • • FAO PROJECTIONS 2010/2030/2050: 270 MILLION TONS SUPPLY GAP MORE FRESH DEMAND TRENDS • • FAO PROJECTIONS 2010/2030/2050: 270 MILLION TONS SUPPLY GAP MORE FRESH FISH MORE LIVE FISH MORE VALUE-ADDED ORGANIC PRODUCTS

FOOD SECURITY • AQUACULTURE IMPORTANT FOR DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION • AQUACULTURE EXPORTS CREATE FOREIGN CURRENCY FOOD SECURITY • AQUACULTURE IMPORTANT FOR DOMESTIC CONSUMPTION • AQUACULTURE EXPORTS CREATE FOREIGN CURRENCY REVENUES • FISH TRADE-FOOD SECURITY

CONCLUSIONS • AQUACULTURE TRADE GOVERNED BY INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS (WTO) • TRADE IN AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS CONCLUSIONS • AQUACULTURE TRADE GOVERNED BY INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS (WTO) • TRADE IN AQUACULTURE PRODUCTS GROWING, IN ABSOLUTE AND RELATIVE TERMS • BETTER STATISTICS NEEDED • FUTURE RISE IN DEMAND MUST BE MET BY AQUACULTURE SUPPLIES

THANK YOU ! THANK YOU !