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International Scientific Data Sharing: Benefits and Opportunities Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS UNESCO Science Laureate International Scientific Data Sharing: Benefits and Opportunities Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman, FRS UNESCO Science Laureate

A Connected World ! The Digital Age --- digital divides! l An Age where A Connected World ! The Digital Age --- digital divides! l An Age where Truth is Often Stranger than Fiction! l The Knowledge Explosion l New Challenges and Opportunities l Transitioning to a Knowledge Economy l A Key Factor: Networking and Data Sharing l Pakistan: A Case Study l

The Digital Age Death of Distance l Networking Presents New Opportunities l ICT Driving The Digital Age Death of Distance l Networking Presents New Opportunities l ICT Driving Growth Commerce Telemedicine E Governance GIS Remote Controlled Instrumentation

Truth Stranger than Fiction ! l Blind seeing with the Tongue l Paralysed moving Truth Stranger than Fiction ! l Blind seeing with the Tongue l Paralysed moving wheel chairs--- with thought control l Luminescent Orchids l Metamaterials – making invisible l Stem cells

Requirements for Rapid Progress q Human capital with knowledge and skills q Technology q Requirements for Rapid Progress q Human capital with knowledge and skills q Technology q Innovation/Entrepreneurship Infrastructure and incentives to innovate Mechanisms: Networking, Data Sharing, Knowledge generation and application 5

The Knowledge Explosion l ICT serving to level out the playing field l Share The Knowledge Explosion l ICT serving to level out the playing field l Share of developing countries as % of world research publications increased from 20. 9% to 32% l Share of developed countries declined from 84. 3% to 75. 3% in same period UNESCO SCIENCE REPORT 2010

New Challenges and Opportunities! Challenges: Diminishing young populations in many countries opting for research New Challenges and Opportunities! Challenges: Diminishing young populations in many countries opting for research l Lack of vision in leaderships of many developing countries l Opportunities: The advent of a knowledge age l Easier to Catch up---given the political will eg. China, Korea etc. l

Impact of just one institution---MIT l MIT graduates and faculty have founded 4000 companies Impact of just one institution---MIT l MIT graduates and faculty have founded 4000 companies l Employ: 1. 1 million people l Annual Sales: $ 240 billion l Collectively these companies are the 18 th largest economy in the World!

Constraints of a Developing Country Lack of a vision, strategy, action plan to transition Constraints of a Developing Country Lack of a vision, strategy, action plan to transition to Knowledge Economies l Inability to Use Data due to: 1) Lack of critical mass of Quality Researchers 2) Lack of ICT Infra-structure 3) Lack of Funds for Research/Libraries 4) Lack of Incentives for Academics to publish (universities are actually community colleges)

Open Access --- the New Wave! l Open Access Journals l Open Access Journal Open Access --- the New Wave! l Open Access Journals l Open Access Journal Articles l Open Access Book Chapters l Open Access Lectures

Open Source l MIT Open Source Materials --- A Wonderful Initiative l Apple i. Open Source l MIT Open Source Materials --- A Wonderful Initiative l Apple i. Tunes U : Another great source of data l Host of Other Materials Freely Available on Internet

Data Sharing l Telemedicine l Sharing GIS Data --- Web based GIS for sharing Data Sharing l Telemedicine l Sharing GIS Data --- Web based GIS for sharing geographical data, E governance l International Grid: CERN calculations --across the world! l Remote Control of Science Experiments: NMR

l. An Example from a Developing Country: Pakistan l. An Example from a Developing Country: Pakistan

Pakistan---An Exciting Beginning !! l My appointment as Federal Minister of Science & Technology Pakistan---An Exciting Beginning !! l My appointment as Federal Minister of Science & Technology and Federal Minister-Chairman Higher Education Commission (2000 -2008) 6000% increase in budget of Science & Technology 2400% increase in budget of higher education

Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT ONE ---National Vision, Strategy and Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT ONE ---National Vision, Strategy and Action Plan

Cabinet (on 19 November 2003) Entrusted Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman to Prepare a comprehensive National Cabinet (on 19 November 2003) Entrusted Prof. Dr. Atta-ur-Rahman to Prepare a comprehensive National Development Plan – Transitioning to a Knowledge Economy 16

Areas • • Agriculture Textiles Leather Materials Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Engineering Goods Electronics • Areas • • Agriculture Textiles Leather Materials Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Engineering Goods Electronics • • • Energy / Power Telecommunications Information Technology Construction & Housing Transportation Strategic Industries / Technologies 17

Methodology q Study undertaken: PCST + PIDE q 12 Committees ( several hundred eminent Methodology q Study undertaken: PCST + PIDE q 12 Committees ( several hundred eminent scientists, engineers, planners, economists and private sector representatives) q Consultation with Federal / Provincial Ministries q Consultation with PAEC, KRL, NESCOM, SPD etc. q Intensive Brainstorming Sessions: l SWOT Analysis Strategies Identified l Action Plan prepared in each field l l Important projects for implementing the Action Plan Identified l Will need to reviewed and revised constantly 18

Gaps q Technology gap Example: q Fan Industry: Korea sells 10 times more fans Gaps q Technology gap Example: q Fan Industry: Korea sells 10 times more fans (with noise reduction technology) than Pakistan q Policy gap We have ignored the paradigm shift in world trade which is towards high tech products q Innovation gap Lack of organized effort to promote innovation/ entrepreneurship 19

Approach Focus, Focus! q Prepare prioritized list of “Doable” projects in each sector q Approach Focus, Focus! q Prepare prioritized list of “Doable” projects in each sector q Clearly identify l What is to be done ? l Who will do it ? l Implementation timeframe ? l Human resource requirements ? l Cost of project ? l Impact on national economy ? 20

Cabinet Decision Foresight Document (270 pages) Approved National Implementation Committee constituted under Prime Minister Cabinet Decision Foresight Document (270 pages) Approved National Implementation Committee constituted under Prime Minister comprising relevant Ministries, eminent scientists, engineers, Secretaries and Private Sector representatives 21

Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT Two ---Developing Critical Mass of Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT Two ---Developing Critical Mass of High Quality Researchers (developing national abilities to generate, share and utilize data)

Challenge: How do we attract our brightest to Education/Research ? l Pakistan has 85 Challenge: How do we attract our brightest to Education/Research ? l Pakistan has 85 million below age 19 (54% of population) ! l Both a Challenge and an Opportunity It is the brightest among them who must provide the leadership in all fields--education, S&T, Government l HOW ? ? l

1) Excite young minds about the wonders of science ! l 2) Select and 1) Excite young minds about the wonders of science ! l 2) Select and train the Brightest in top universities abroad l 3) Attract them back--- by creating an enabling environment : l Salaries l Research Funding l Access to Literature/ Instrumentation l Critical Mass—create clusters ! l

Attracting the Brightest ! l Dramatic Change in Salary Structures/Benefits Under new “Tenure Track” Attracting the Brightest ! l Dramatic Change in Salary Structures/Benefits Under new “Tenure Track” system salaries of Professors raised to over US $ 5, 000 per month (equal to US$ 7, 000 per month after tax concessions)---five times more than Federal Ministers in Government ! Performance based system 75% Tax waiver for University Teachers (maximum 5%)

l Massive Foreign scholarship programs l Nearly 11, 000 awarded (mostly for Europe) l l Massive Foreign scholarship programs l Nearly 11, 000 awarded (mostly for Europe) l World’s largest Fulbright Scholarship program for the US l Each returning scholar given access to $ 100, 000 research fund with guaranteed jobs at excellent salaries on tenure track system l About US$ 1 Billion being spent on Foreign Scholarships (1500 in IT) l Indigenous Ph. D programs promoted

Distribution of Approved Project Cost 27 Distribution of Approved Project Cost 27

Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT THREE ---Developing world class infrastructure Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT THREE ---Developing world class infrastructure --- the knowledge highways!

Paksat 1 Ku Band C-Band Paksat 1 Ku Band C-Band

Virtual University l 4 Digital Satellite (PAKSAT-1) TV Channels for content delivery (License for Virtual University l 4 Digital Satellite (PAKSAT-1) TV Channels for content delivery (License for 2 granted) l Satellite Earth Station l 2 Recording Studios l Potential for providing high quality training in remote areas of Pakistan

August 14, 2000 29 Cities 31 August 14, 2000 29 Cities 31

Information Technology Spread of Internet Services in Cities & Towns of Pakistan 2500 2000 Information Technology Spread of Internet Services in Cities & Towns of Pakistan 2500 2000 1500 1050 1000 580 500 29 Year 20 03 20 02 20 01 20 00 19 99 19 98 19 97 19 96 19 95 94 19 19 93 19 92 19 91 0

From 40 to 1, 000 Cities on Optical Fibre (2000 -2005) 2002 China Afghanistan From 40 to 1, 000 Cities on Optical Fibre (2000 -2005) 2002 China Afghanistan Iran India SDH/PDH (525/622 Mb/s) backbone being upgraded to DWDM 10 Gb/s 822 cities on the Internet

Internet user growth June 2000: 130, 000 Oct 2006: >12 million Actual users more Internet user growth June 2000: 130, 000 Oct 2006: >12 million Actual users more than 20 Million! Dial up Start point Today

Plummeting costs…. June 2000: US$ 87, 000/E 1 August 2001: US$ 6, 000 October Plummeting costs…. June 2000: US$ 87, 000/E 1 August 2001: US$ 6, 000 October 2004 : US$ 3, 800 Now US$ 950 per month/2 Mb/s ! Start point Today

Communications Network---the Effect of one Good Decision! 1992 -2000, little Growth(300, 000 phones) l Communications Network---the Effect of one Good Decision! 1992 -2000, little Growth(300, 000 phones) l 2001, CPP regime brought in l l Network expansion of 3 million phone-lines ordered in 2002 ! Mobilink, U-fone l Explosive growth continues till today (over 100 million phones today—hottest sector of the economy)

Pakistan Education & Research Network PERN – I Status (2003 – 08) Universities/ Institutes Pakistan Education & Research Network PERN – I Status (2003 – 08) Universities/ Institutes 80 Core Bandwidth 155 Mbps Last Mile Bandwidth 4 -24 Mbps International Leased Circuit 155 Mbps PERN – II Plans (2009 - 2013) Universities/ Institutes/R&E Org. 250+ Core Bandwidth 10 Gbps Last Mile Bandwidth 1 Gbps International Leased Circuit 1. 3 Gbps

Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT FOUR ---The Contents ---- Access Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT FOUR ---The Contents ---- Access to Information!

Digital Library l E-Journals: 25, 000 full text journals l E-Books: access to over Digital Library l E-Journals: 25, 000 full text journals l E-Books: access to over 45, 000 text books and monographs -- 220 international publishers l MIT Mirror Web site

E-Resources Ever since its inception, Digital Library is striving hard to provide our institutions E-Resources Ever since its inception, Digital Library is striving hard to provide our institutions with superior quality peer-reviewed, full-text, academic and research material in the shape of e-journals as well as e-books. There are more than 75 Thousand e contents available to researchers. . Springer Link Cambridge Uni. Press Wiley Interscience JSTOR Mc. Graw-Hill Professional Science Direct Project MUSE Science Online IEEE Ebrary ISI – Web of Science Emerald For a complete list of e-resources please visit www. digitallibrary. edu. pk National Digital Library Program 40

Usage Stats – An Insight Downloads - Overall Usage National Digital Library Program 41 Usage Stats – An Insight Downloads - Overall Usage National Digital Library Program 41

International Video-lecturing Program / Distance Learning l High quality video-conferencing equipment installed l Series International Video-lecturing Program / Distance Learning l High quality video-conferencing equipment installed l Series of international lectures (nationwide) by top professors from leading world universities l Complete Courses Now Being Delivered: Sri Lanka, Thailand, Pakistan etc benefiting URL: http: \111. 68. 111. 200/moodle

Video Conferencing Facility Launched in Dec 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Universities Equipped 4 Video Conferencing Facility Launched in Dec 2006 2007 2008 2009 Total Universities Equipped 4 14 16 36 70 Events organized 14 532 490 894 1921 Technic Lectures / Conferen al Meeting Intervie Events Presentati ces Discussi s ws on Total Events 2006 3 3 8 - - 14 2007 154 10 276 63 20 523 2008 63 7 316 82 22 490 2009 63 10 630 167 24 894 Total 283 30 1230 312 66 1921 43

Telemedicine l Pakistan’s Telemedicine Program Initiated in 2001 l Selected Doctors Trained in USA Telemedicine l Pakistan’s Telemedicine Program Initiated in 2001 l Selected Doctors Trained in USA l Proved invaluable when earthquake devastated northern areas l Over 4000 tele-consultations provided

Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT FIVE ---Controlling Improper Use of Systematically Addressing the Constraints in Data Sharing l CONSTRAINT FIVE ---Controlling Improper Use of Available Data --- Plagiarism!

National Plagiarism Policy prepared and implemented l Software (“Authentcate”/”Turnitin”) provided to all universities/institutions l National Plagiarism Policy prepared and implemented l Software (“Authentcate”/”Turnitin”) provided to all universities/institutions l Plagiarism “watch dog” set up l All theses and research papers checked by universities & centrally monitored l National Archives created for all National Publications (M. Phil. /Ph. D. Theses, books etc). l

IMPACT IMPACT

Increasing Access l 1947 -2003 : 135, 000 university students 2009 : 400, 000 Increasing Access l 1947 -2003 : 135, 000 university students 2009 : 400, 000 university students l No. of Public Sector Universities / Degree Awarding Institutes : Doubled from 59 in 2000 to 127 in 2009 l

Results l 600% in ISI abstracted publications l 1000% increase in citations over last Results l 600% in ISI abstracted publications l 1000% increase in citations over last 4 years l Tripling of enrolment and doubling of universities

Year wise Research Output-Pakistan Year wise Research Output-Pakistan

Ph. D Output Discipline Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences Biological & Medical Sciences Engineering & Ph. D Output Discipline Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences Biological & Medical Sciences Engineering & Technology Business Education Physical Sciences Social Sciences Arts & Humanities Honorary Total 1947 - 2002 [55 years] 2003 - 2009 [ 7 Years ] Number 363 589 14 11 688 899 663 54 3, 281 450 601 131 58 677 739 377 4 3, 037

World University Rankings l Higher Education Times, UK Rankings, November 2009: l Several Pakistani World University Rankings l Higher Education Times, UK Rankings, November 2009: l Several Pakistani universities ranked among the top 300 universities of the World : Karachi University at 223 Natl. science) , NUST at 263, NUST at 281 QAU at 69 in Engineering-related discipline

Glowing International Reviews-World Bank l USAID l British Council l “Nature”--27 th November 2007 Glowing International Reviews-World Bank l USAID l British Council l “Nature”--27 th November 2007 ---- “The Paradox of Pakistan” l “Nature” --28 th August 2008 --- “After Musharraf” l “Nature”--- 3 rd September 2009 l “Nature” --- 22 nd September 2010 l

Nature, 22 nd September 2010 “Rahman's strong scientific background, enthusiasm for reform and impressive Nature, 22 nd September 2010 “Rahman's strong scientific background, enthusiasm for reform and impressive ability to secure cash made him a hit at home and abroad---It really was an anomaly that we had a person of that stature with that kind of backing Atta-ur-Rahman was a force of nature. " 54

Highest Civil Award of Austria Highest Civil Award of Austria

International Prize for Pakistan l I was selected for the TWAS (Italy) Prize for International Prize for Pakistan l I was selected for the TWAS (Italy) Prize for Institution Building l Prize was conferred and Prize Lecture delivered by me in Durban, South Africa last month

Royal Society (London) l In a survey entitled “A New Golden Age ? ” Royal Society (London) l In a survey entitled “A New Golden Age ? ” the Royal Society has come forward with examples of recent positive changes in some Islamic countries and quoted Pakistan as the best practice model to be followed by other developing countries

PAKISTAN’s Potential Winners of International Science Olympiads PAKISTAN’s Potential Winners of International Science Olympiads

A GROUP OF GERMAN STUDENTS A GROUP OF GERMAN STUDENTS

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