- Количество слайдов: 12
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS At the most macro-global level of analysis, economic, political, and cultural activities may now be more structurally integrated than in any earlier historical periods. Far-flung networks of public, private, and nonprofit organizations weave together local communities, nation-states, IGOs, and transnational entities. Major theoretical and empirical tasks are to explain these emerging organizational and network forms, their global diffusion, and the impacts of diverse trends on persons, nations, and civil societies. v Globalization among nation-states proceeding by fits-and-jerks along economic, political, and cultural dimensions v 3/16/2018 city networks and transnational advocacy networks add World several layers of complexity to the international system
The Globalization Trifecta Globalization refers to processes that increase connectivity among societies & their people, institutions, organizations. Globalization intertwines cultural, political, and economic interdependencies that challenge traditional arrangements. “The growing extensity, intensity, and velocity of global interactions can be associated with their deepening impact such that the effects of distant events can be highly significant elsewhere and specific local developments can come to have considerable global consequences. ” (Held et al. 1999) ü Communication & transportation technologies compress and decouple time, geographic spaces, social distances (“global village”) ü National & regional boundaries grow increasingly permeable ü Cultural / identity groups become detached from their traditional territorial bases (the diffusion of supraterritoriality) 3/16/2018 How can SNA concepts & methods capture these changes?
World-System Analysis World-system analysis, formulated by Immanuel Wallerstein and Andre Gunder Frank, draws from neo-Marxist development theory & Fernand Braudel’s Annales School. “A system is defined as a unit with single division of labor and multiple cultural systems” (Wallerstein 1974). 1. The modern world-system is the only fully capitalist world-economy to emerge, around 1450 -1550, and it had expanded across the entire planet by about 1900. 2. This world-economy consists of a tripartite division of labor into core, semiperipheral, and peripheral countries. Ø Core businesses, with support of the states where they operate, monopolize the most profitable activities (~80% of world wealth). Ø Semiperiphery countries are dominated (usually by the core countries) but they also dominate some other nations Ø 3/16/2018 Periphery countries are dominated by both other positions
Structural Position in the W-S Multiple-network analyses test world-system/dependence theory hypotheses that nations’ positions in the tripartite W-S affect trade and investment imbalances (foreign penetration & control). For 1960 s, Snyder & Kick (1979) blockmodeled four relationships: trade flows, military intervention, diplomatic relations, and joint treaty memberships. The result was a four 10 -block images. They regressed the 118 nations’ economic growth (change in GNP per capita from 1955 to 1970) onto dummy variables for the set of 10 W-S block positions, while controlling for 1955 GNP/capita. Core block C nations had highest net GNP growth rates, about $500 per capita more than others. Although, semi- and peripheral blocks did not have distinctly different growth rates, they concluded the effects were “entirely consistent with world-system/dependency theories. ” 3/16/2018
periphery core semiperiphery 3/16/2018
Role Equivalence in the W-S Rossem (1993) argued that Snyder & Kick’s application of structural equivalence methods misspecified the world system’s role relations, due to substantial geographic clustering of international relations. His SNA analyses used five international networks: imports & exports of economic goods; major conventional weapons trade; foreign troop presence; diplomatic ties. A role equivalence partition uncovered four W-S structural positions (see next slide). W-S role only weakly explained dependency & economic performance: ► A nation’s role was determined more by its absolute economic and population size than by its development level (tiny nations occupy the peripheral roles) ► National GDP growth from 1980 to 1989 was explained slightly better by dependency than by positions in the W-S role structure 3/16/2018 ► Have W-S positions stagnated or evolved over past 20 -40 years?
Role Equivalence Model of World System Core USA, France, Germany, UK, Japan, Soviet Union, Canada, Brazil, China, Saudi Arabia Semiperiphery Periphery 1 Sweden, India, Egypt, Austria, Czech, Iran, Pakistan, Mexico, Iraq, Poland, Turkey, Greece, Indonesia Venezuela, Denmark, Kenya, Morocco, Korea, Peru, Cuba, Hungary, Sudan, Jordan, Israel, Ghana, Zambia, Panama, Somalia, Haiti, Congo Imports Exports Diplomatic ties Arms trade Troops 3/16/2018 Periphery 2 Singapore, Jamaica, Yemen, Laos, Uganda, Cyprus, Nepal, Mali, Iceland, Rwanda, Benin, Guyana, Fiji, Belize, Taiwan, Chad, Grenada, Brunei SOURCE: Van Rossem (1996: Fig 2 & Table 2)
World Cities Network The World-System can also be examined as an urban network comprised of intercity movements of people, goods, information. Global processes are geographically grounded: “Globalization can be deconstructed in terms of the strategic sites where global processes materialize and the linkages that bind them. ” (Saskia Sassen 1998: 392) Air passenger traffic for pairs of cities is widely available for measuring social distances in WCN. Geographic proximity also constrains the volumes flowing between the urban dyads. WCN forms a hierarchy of core primary (NYC, LA, London), semiand peripheral cities – how closely resembling the W-S tripartition? 3/16/2018
3/16/2018 SOURCE: Derudder & Witlox (2005)
Transnational Advocacy Networks In Activists Beyond Borders (1998), Margaret Keck & Kathryn Sikkink argued that transnational advocacy networks (TANs) reshape international relations by generating information, using symbolic elements, pressuring states and international orgs, and seeking to hold them accountable to international norms. A transnational advocacy network is nonstate actors “working together on an international issue that are bound together by shared values, common discourse, and dense exchanges of information and services. ” “Boomerang effect” occurs when human rights groups inside a country can channel information about human rights violations to transnational actors, who in turn, generate international pressures. Activists in Argentina & Mexico mobilized pressures from INGOs & foreign governments to stop those nations’ human rights abuses. 3/16/2018 Can TAN be analyzed as a transnational policy domain network?
References Bergesen, Albert and John Sonnett. 2001. “The Global 500: Mapping the World Economy at Century’s End. ” American Behavioral Scientist 44: 1602 -1615. Derudder, B. and F. Witlox. 2005. “An Appraisal of the Use of Airline Data in Assessing the World City Network: A Research Note on Data. ” Urban Studies 42: 2371 -88. Held, David, Anthony Mc. Grew, David Goldblatt and Johnathan Perraton. 1999. Global Transformations: Politics, Economic and Culture. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Keck, Margaret E. and Kathryn Sikkink. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Keck, Margaret E. and Kathryn Sikkink. 1999. “Transnational Advocacy Networks in International and Regional Politics. ” International Social Science Journal 159: 89 -101. Sassen, Saskia. 1998. “The Impact of New Technologies and Globalization on Cities. ” Pp. 391 -409 in Globalization of the World of Large Cities, edited by F. -C. Lo & Y. -M. Yeung. Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Snyder, David and Edward L. Kick. 1979. “Structural Position in the World System and Economic Growth, 1955 -1970: A Multiple-Network Analysis of Transnational Interactions. ” American Journal of Sociology 84: 1096 -1126. Van Rossem, Ronan. 1996. “The World System Paradigm as General Theory of Development: A Cross-National Test. ” American Sociological Review 61: 508 -527. Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1974. The Modern World-System. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 3/16/2018