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International Harmonized Research Activities: Intelligent Transport Systems Y. Ian Noy, Ph. D. , P. International Harmonized Research Activities: Intelligent Transport Systems Y. Ian Noy, Ph. D. , P. Eng. , CPE Ergonomics Division Road Safety and Motor Vehicle Regulation Directorate Transport Canada 330 Sparks St. . , Ottawa, Ontario, K 1 A 0 N 5 Tel: (613) 998 -2268 Fax: (613) 998 -4831 [email protected] gc. ca Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Intelligent World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Intelligent Transport Systems Positioning & tracking Digital maps Communication links Microprocessors Image processors Information databases Traffic management Traffic monitoring Smart cards Automated aids Transportation objectives • • • Reduce congestion Improve safety Increase efficiency Improve comfort Improve transit services • Reduce fuel consumption • Reduce emissions Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Levels World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Levels of Automation Ø Information Ø Warning Ø Driver assistance (active pedal) Ø Partial control of vehicle functions (steering, stop&go) Ø Complete control of vehicle (AHS) Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Rationalizing World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Rationalizing Automation Ø Each level has unique safety issues Ø Each level must coexist with other levels Ø Progression from one level to next is not incremental – it represents a radical change Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Vehicle-based World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Vehicle-based Driver Assistance and Crash Avoidance Systems Ø Vision enhancement & visual range warning Ø Intelligent speed adaptation Ø Adaptive cruise control Ø Collision warning (e. g. , lane departure, rear-end, lane change, intersection) Ø Fatigue/impairment warning Ø Pavement monitoring and friction warning Ø Vehicle Stability Warning and Assistance Ø Emergency reporting and response Ø Backing and merging aids Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 ITS: Safety Impact Framework Geveva World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 ITS: Safety Impact Framework Geveva November 2001 Positive IHRA-ITS Negative Direct + - Indirect + - Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Direct World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Direct Safety Benefits Positive Negative Direct + - Indirect + - Ø Reduction of crash risk through • on-board CA systems • road-side CA systems • tolerance for driver/system errors Ø Mitigation of crash consequences through improved emergency response Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Indirect World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Indirect Safety Benefits Positive Negative Direct + - Indirect + - Ø Reduced exposure (optimized routes and trip lengths, and greater choice of mode) Ø Reduced exposure to unauthorized use (elicense) Ø Reduced traffic variance and conflicts (through better traffic management and improved interaction between driver and other road users) Ø Reduced driver stress and fatigue Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Direct World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Direct Safety Risks Positive Negative Direct + - Indirect + - Ø Driver distraction Ø Driver overload Ø Driver confusion Ø Reduced situation awareness Ø Lack of trust/acceptance due to false or nuisance alarms Ø Increased discomfort, stress Ø Command effect Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Indirect World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Indirect Safety Risks Positive Negative Direct + - Indirect + - Ø Behavioural adaptation Ø Increased travel (pleasurable) Ø Loss of skill & negative transfer Ø Violation of expectation (by non-users) Ø Collision migration (MV to SV, to other users, etc. ) Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 ITS Safety, World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 ITS Safety, or IS IT? n IHRA-ITS technology is safety neutral Its implementation is safety critical Driving Task n ITS Safety impact depends largely on the extent to which the system supports users’ needs, and is compatible with human capabilities and limitations + Collisions - Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Government’s Role Geveva November 2001 World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Government’s Role Geveva November 2001 Ø Discourage technologies/implementations that are likely to have an adverse effect on safety Ø Encourage implementation of technologies that are likely to have safety benefits IHRA-ITS Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Enhanced World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV): International Harmonized Research Activities • • Australia Canada France Germany Hungary Italy Japan • • the Netherlands Poland Sweden U. K. U. S. A. EC EESV Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS ESV: World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS ESV: IHRA Working Groups Ø Intelligent Transport Systems Ø Advanced Offset Frontal Crash Protection Ø Pedestrian Safety Ø Biomechanics Ø Vehicle Compatibility Ø Side Impact Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS : World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS : Objectives Ø to coordinate international policy-oriented research to minimize the potential adverse consequences of on-board ITS technologies. Ø to develop procedures for the evaluation of safety of in-vehicle information, control and communication systems. Ø to provide an international view of the state of research into understanding the safety impact of driver workload and distraction. Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 Aspects of World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 Aspects of System Safety 1. System Reliability • IHRA-ITS Reliability of hardware and software, the propensity for malfunction and the potential to go into a dangerous and/or unanticipated safety mode. 2. Human Machine Interaction (HMI) • Key issues are function allocation, the design of interface, definition of dialogue between the user and the system. 3. Overall Traffic System • The aggregate effect on the traffic system as a whole. Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Scope World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Scope Ø includes original and aftermarket onboard information, control and communication systems, including • telematics • driver assistance systems, and • collision warning and avoidance systems Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Summary World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Summary of Activities Ø Conceptual Framework Ø Workshops Ø Survey of current research Ø Priority Projects For further information visit http: //199. 79. 179. 92/ITS. html Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Priority World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Priority Projects 1. Development of a harmonized safety evaluation methodology framework 2. Driver understanding and expectation of ITS systems 3. Human factors principles checklist 4. Normative data on naturalistic driving behavior 5. Simulator reference test scenarios 6. Improved secondary task methodology for evaluating safety effects of driver workload 7. Harmonization and validation of surrogate safety measures Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Importance World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Importance of ITS Safety Research Ø Expands ESV’s role into crash avoidance Ø Elaborates the role of governments with respect to ITS safety Ø ITS safety is currently unregulated; therefore, there is a reasonable prospect for harmonized policies based on shared scientific understanding of the issues Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Key World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Key Challenges for Government Ø Traditional policy paradigms not suitable: • Design cycle shorter than policy cycle • Technology is diversifying rapidly • Science lags technology Ø Integration by consumer, not industry Ø Jurisdictional boundaries no longer valid Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS IHRA-WP. World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS IHRA-WP. 29 Liaison Ø IHRA research focus • Summarize state of knowledge • Coordinate joint research • Develop test procedures Ø WP. 29 to identify regulatory needs and priorities. IHRA to coordinate the regulatory development research to support WP. 29 work program Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Recommendations World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Recommendations vis WP. 29 Ø coordinate with WP. 1 and WP. 15 on ITSrelated matters (ISA) Ø Develop strategy for global regulation development for on-board ITS • ST – coordinate among existing GR’s, lead? • LT – create new GR Ø utilize IHRA-ITS WG as Informal Group for ITS-related matters Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada

World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Possible World Forum for Harminization of Vehicle Regulations WP. 29 Geveva November 2001 IHRA-ITS Possible Short Term Plan Ø GRRF – Collision avoidance, driver assistance (ACC, ESP), ISA Ø GRE/GRRF? – Reliability (Annex 18) Ø GRE/GRSG? – Collision and drowsiness warning, vision enhancement, maneuvering aids Ø GRSG – Telematics, navigation Ø GRSP – Collision mitigation? Ergonomics Division, Transport Canada