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International Conference CZ PRES “Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges” Christophe Demunter European International Conference CZ PRES “Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges” Christophe Demunter European Commission – DG EUROSTAT – Unit F-6

Structure of the presentation i. Eurostat’s work on tourism statistics ii. Sources for data Structure of the presentation i. Eurostat’s work on tourism statistics ii. Sources for data on tourism employment iii. Characteristiscs of employment in the tourist accommodation sector Ø age and gender structure, educational attainment, type of contract, seniority in the job, etc. International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 2

European tourism statistics n Council Directive 95/57/EC § Accommodation statistics: ð capacity (e. g. European tourism statistics n Council Directive 95/57/EC § Accommodation statistics: ð capacity (e. g. number of bedrooms, bed places) ð occupancy (e. g. nights spent, occupancy rates) data collected from hotels, campsites, etc. § Statistics on tourism demand: ð participation in tourism (e. g. number of tourists) ð information on trips with overnight stays data collected from household or border surveys legislation currently under revision ! International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 3

European tourism statistics (continued) Evolution of the number of nights spent in hotels and European tourism statistics (continued) Evolution of the number of nights spent in hotels and similar establishments, EU-27, 2000 -2008 (index: 2000 = 100) ð ð ð contraction following a four years period of growth average annual growth 2003 -2007: +3. 2% first negative growth since post-9/11 recovery Source: Eurostat, Tourism Statistics (Statistics in Focus “ Slight decrease in nights spent in hotels in 2008”, data 13/02/2009) Notes: DK, FI, SE, NO: based on 12 months data; DE, ES, MT, AT, PT, SI, HR, and LI: based on 11 months data; BE, EL, FR, LV, LT, NL, PL, RO and SK: based on 10 months data; BG, CZ, IE, IT, CY, HU, NL and UK: based on 9 months data. International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 4

European tourism statistics (continued) n Other tourism-related statistics § Indicators on sustainable and competitive European tourism statistics (continued) n Other tourism-related statistics § Indicators on sustainable and competitive tourism ~ Commission Communication “Agenda for a sustainable and competitive European Tourism” (October 2007) § Balance of Payments statistics: travel item ~ one of the main items of the current services account ~ receipts/expenditure of an economy linked to travel/tourism § Transport statistics: (air) passenger transport § Employment in the tourist accommodation sector International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 5

Sources for data on tourism employment n EU Labour Force Survey § One of Sources for data on tourism employment n EU Labour Force Survey § One of the largest social surveys in the EU § Data for the tourist accommodation sector without a new or special data collection n Tourism Satellite Accounts § Methodological framework developed by UNWTO, OECD and Eurostat to measure the macro-economic importance of tourism § Includes a table on employment in the tourism industries § But … in most countries not yet implemented n Ad-hoc, non-harmonised studies (eg. France) International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 6

Accommodation sector employes 2. 3 million 9. 3 million persons are employed in the Accommodation sector employes 2. 3 million 9. 3 million persons are employed in the hotels, restaurants and catering sector (horeca) in the EU ð 4. 2% of total employment ð Nearly 1. 5 million in Germany and in Spain … of which 2. 3 million in the accommodation sector ð 1. 0% of total employment, 25% of horeca employment ð Germany (383 000 persons) , Spain (329 000), Italy (246 000) and France (240 000) account for more than half Based on partial results from TSA, total employment in the tourism industry is estimated to be 5 to 6 times higher ð 12 to 14 million persons employed in the EU (or 5. 5% to 6%) International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 7

Gender: tourism is a major employer for women ð ð 59% of the labour Gender: tourism is a major employer for women ð ð 59% of the labour force in the tourist accommodation sector consists of female workers (total economy: 45% ; horeca: 55%) of which 74% works full-time (total economy: 68%; horeca 63%) Share of persons employed, by economic activity, gender, full-time/part-time, EU-27 (2008) Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 8

Age: job opportunities for a young workforce ð ð 41% of those employed in Age: job opportunities for a young workforce ð ð 41% of those employed in the tourist accommodation sector are under 35 years old (total economy: 33% ; horeca: 45%) In most countries the share of -35 yrs in accommodation is about 10 percentage points above the share in the total employment Share of persons employed, by economic activity and by age group, EU-27 (2008) Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey Notes: EU-27 not including BE, BG, IE, LV, PL, SI, SE, UK International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 9

Education: lower educated strongly represented ð ð More than 1 out of 3 employed Education: lower educated strongly represented ð ð More than 1 out of 3 employed in tourist accommodation has a lower level of formal education (total economy: 1 out of 4) Obvious link with required competences (f. i. 36% need to use computers, compared with 50% in the total economy) Share of persons employed, by economic activity and by educational level, EU-27 (2008) Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey Notes: EU-27 not including BE, BG, IE, LV, PL, SI, SE, UK International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 10

Contract: high share of temporary jobs … ð Proportion of persons having a temporary Contract: high share of temporary jobs … ð Proportion of persons having a temporary job in accommodation is double as high compared to total economy (28% versus 14%) ð Seasonality of tourism affects availability of permanent jobs ð Share of part-time workers is comparable to the total economy Share of employees, by economic activity and by permanency of the job, EU-27 (2008) Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey Notes: EU-27 for“hotels and restaurants” not including BG, PL, SI, SE and for “tourist accommodation” not including BE, BG, IE, LV, PL, SI, SE, UK. International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 11

. . . and limited average stay with the same employer ð Staff turnover . . . and limited average stay with the same employer ð Staff turnover is much higher in the accommodation sector, with an average stay of 6. 5 years compared to 10. 5 years in the total economy ð In the labour market of nearly all Member States, average stay exceeds 8 years ; for the accommodation sector this is the case for only 1 Member State (Portugal) Average seniority of work with the same employer (in months), by economic activity (2008) Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey Notes: EU-27 not including BE, BG, IE, LV, PL, SI, SE, UK International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 12

Seasonality: employment tends to be less affected ð ð ð Nights spent in 3 Seasonality: employment tends to be less affected ð ð ð Nights spent in 3 rd quarter are 2. 5 x higher than in 1 st quarter Employment in 3 rd quarter only 20% higher than in low season Big differences across Europe Seasonal variation in occupancy of collective tourist accommodation and of employment in the tourist accommodation sector, EU-27 (2007) Source: Eurostat, Tourism Statistics & EU Labour Force Survey Notes: 1) Standardised quarterly variation compared to the annual average (index=100) International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 13

Can tourism competitiveness foster employment? ð ð Regions with high tourist activity tend to Can tourism competitiveness foster employment? ð ð Regions with high tourist activity tend to have lower unemployment rates 17 of the 20 most ‘popular’ tourist regions have unemployment rates below the national average Regional unemployment rates compared to national unemployment rate for the top-5 regions (NUTS 2) with the highest number of tourism nights per inhabitant (2007) Source: Eurostat, Tourism Statistics, Population Statistics, Labour Market Statistics Notes: 1) Nights spent in hotels and similar accommodation and on tourist campsites, by non-residents and residents of the Member State ; 2) Analysis not applicable to EE, CY, LV, LT, LU, MT and SI (no NUTS 2 regions) ; 3) Unemployment data refers to 2006. International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 14

Some concluding remarks Employment in tourism (i. c. accommodation sector) ð … in particular Some concluding remarks Employment in tourism (i. c. accommodation sector) ð … in particular employs younger and female workers and offers opportunities to the lower educated ð … tends to be less stable compared to the entire economy ð is a challenge for tourism and labour market statisticians! Recent developments in the tourism market can improve the competitiveness of European tourism & foster employment ð increased number of trips, especially an explosion of short breaks outside the peak season : smoother seasonal pattern leading to more stable jobs ? ? ð increased importance of domestic tourism : stronger competitive position of the EU (or shifts within the EU) ? ? International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 15

Further information Contact Christophe. Demunter@ec. europa. eu ð head of section “tourism statistics” [DG Further information Contact Christophe. [email protected] europa. eu ð head of section “tourism statistics” [DG Eurostat, Unit F 6] Data § All data & publications are available on the Eurostat website Statistics in Focus “The tourist accommodation sector employs 2. 3 million in the European Union” released in September 2008 § Dedicated section on Tourism Statistics: http: //ec. europa. eu/eurostat/tourism International Conference CZ PRES, 10 -11 June 2009, Prague (CZ) „Tourism Industry: Employment and Labour market challenges“ 16