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INTERACTIONS 1939 - Present WAR DIPLOMACY INTERACTIONS 1939 - Present WAR DIPLOMACY

LEAGUE OF NATIONS The League of Nations created to maintain world peace Forty-two members, LEAGUE OF NATIONS The League of Nations created to maintain world peace Forty-two members, twenty-six of them outside Europe Dominated by UK, France and used as force against Germany The league had no power to enforce its decisions League could only Make suggestions Impose sanctions Blockades Collective security depended on all major powers Powers Left Out United States never joined USSR ignored Germany not invited for some time The mandate system United States opposed direct colonization Allies proposed system of trusteeships France, United Kingdom benefited most Created from German colonies, Ottoman territories in S. W. Asia Idealistic Attempts to disarm nations led to naval reduction treaties Attempt to outlaw war led to Kellogg-Briand treaty Many nations reduced their militaries to minimal levels

LEAGUE OF NATIONS LEAGUE OF NATIONS

OLD AND NEW CAUSES OF WAR Japan Global conflict began with Japanese invasion of OLD AND NEW CAUSES OF WAR Japan Global conflict began with Japanese invasion of Manchuria, 1931 League of Nations condemned action; Japan simply withdrew from league 1937, Japan launched full-scale invasion of China 1937 War In China Resumed Nationalists and communists formed "united front" against Japanese Unable to effectively work together, they conducted guerilla attacks Japan, Germany, Italy ally 1940; neutrality pact with USSR, 1941 Italy, Germany, and Russia Italy after the Great War Italians felt slighted at the Paris Peace Conference Mussolini promised national glory, empire Invaded Ethiopia (1935 -1936), killed 250, 000 Ethiopians; annexed Albania Germany: deep resentment at Treaty of Versailles Harsh terms: reparations, economic restrictions, depression helped Nazis Hitler blamed Jews, communists, liberals for losing war, Versailles Treaty After 1933, Hitler moved to ignore terms of peace settlement Withdrew from League, 1933; Rebuilt military, air force; reinstated draft Militarized Rhineland, 1936; Austria, 1938; France and Britain did nothing Spanish Civil War 1936 - 1939 Spanish fascists stage coup against republic; socialists, communists fight Italians, Germans, Russians helped each side but fascists won The Munich Conference: Peace for our time? In 1938, Germany "appeased" by taking Sudetenland Britain and France desperate to avoid war, appeased Hitler Russian-German Non-Aggression Treaty, 1939, shocked world

BROKEN TREATIES, WARS BROKEN TREATIES, WARS

LEADERS LEADERS

WORLD WAR II: AXIS 1939 - 1942 Blitzkrieg: Germany conquers Western Europe : 1939 WORLD WAR II: AXIS 1939 - 1942 Blitzkrieg: Germany conquers Western Europe : 1939 – 1940 Blitzkrieg: lightening war of tank, air, mobility Battle of the Atlantic: German subs against British convoys Battle of Britain: British defeat German airforce The German invasion of the Soviet Union 1941: Germany conquers Balkans, invades USSR Blitzkrieg strategies less effective in Russia Hitler underestimated Soviet industrial capacity, Germans ill-prepared for war, stalled at Stalingrad U. S. support of the Allies before Pearl Harbor Roosevelt sold, "loaned" arms , war material to UK Later supplied the Soviets and the Chinese Japanese expansion Continued into southeast Asia: Indochina, 1940 -1941 USA responded by freezing Japanese assets, used oil embargo Demanded withdrawal from China and southeast Asia 7 December 1941 US navy at Pearl Harbor attacked US declared war on Japan; Germany, Italy declared war on USA Japanese overran Southeast Asia, swept seas of Allied Navies

WORLD WAR II: 1942 - 1945 Impact of Soviet Union and U. S. entry WORLD WAR II: 1942 - 1945 Impact of Soviet Union and U. S. entry in 1941 USSR brought vital personnel and USA industry to Allies Russia fielded 350 divisions against the German 130 Germany forced to fight a two front war German subs sank 2, 452 ships, U. S. shipyards built more Allied victories came after 1943 Russians defeated the Germans at Stalingrad, pushed them back 1944, British-U. S. troops invaded North Africa and then Italy June 1944, British-U. S. forces invaded northern France at Normandy Overwhelmed Germans on coast of Normandy, 6 June 1944 Round-the-clock strategic bombing by Allies leveled German cities Germans surrendered unconditionally 8 May 1945; Hitler committed suicide Turning the tide in the Pacific The Battle of Midway, June 1942; United States broke Japanese code Island-hopping strategy: moving to islands close to Japan for air attacks US launched unrestricted submarine warfare against Japanese empire British invade Japanese empire through Burma, SE Asia Chinese nationalists, communists tie down 2 million Japanese troops Savage fighting on islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa US launches round the clock air raids against Japanese used kamikazes; Okinawan civilians refused to surrender U. S. military was convinced that Japan would not surrender Japanese surrender after devastating assault U. S. firebombing raids devastated Japanese cities: in Tokyo, 100, 000 killed August 1945: atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed 200, 000 Japanese emperor surrendered unconditionally 15 August, ending WWII

Total War Mobilization of all society in order to win Civilians used to work Total War Mobilization of all society in order to win Civilians used to work in war industry Women used in non-combatant roles Minorities employed in many roles including combat Industry, science mobilized to support war Allies went on total war very early; Axis delayed and it cost them the war Civilians and the War Combatants started to attack civilians Cities and civilian targets became fair game Guerillas Non-traditional combatants attack enemy behind the lines In Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland, France, Russia, China helped win the war Technology Scientists became an integral part of the war Rockets, jet fighters, radar, atomic bombs, super weapons Allies had a clear and early lead but Germany had its surprises

Country 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Austria 24 27 27 29 27 Country 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 Austria 24 27 27 29 27 28 29 12 France[1] GROWTH OF GDP DURING WAR YEARS 1938 186 199 164 130 116 110 93 101 Germany 351 384 387 412 417 426 437 310 Italy[2] 141 151 147 144 145 137 117 92 Japan[3] 169 184 192 196 197 194 189 144 Soviet Union[4] 359 366 417 359 274 305 362 343 UK 284 287 316 344 353 361 346 331 USA[5] 800 869 943 1 094 1 235 1 399 1 474 1 629 1 600 1 331 1 596 1 862 2 065 2 363 2 341 Axis Total: [7] 685 746 845 911 902 895 826 466 Allied/Axis GDP: [8] 2. 38 2. 15 1. 58 1. 75 2. 06 2. 31 2. 86 5. 02 Allied Total: [6]

WORLD WAR II ALLIANCES WORLD WAR II ALLIANCES

HOME FRONTS “Civilians” Impossible in new war to separate front, rear areas All nations HOME FRONTS “Civilians” Impossible in new war to separate front, rear areas All nations had to mobilize who population to survive US had it easiest but all other civilians suffered Occupation, collaboration, and resistance Patterns of occupation varied : Germany, Japan were worst Both Japan, Germany exploited conquered states, peoples Slave labor conscripted from conquered populations to work in factories Labor conscripted from Poles, Soviets, Balkans, also Chinese and Koreans Many local people accepted, collaborated with occupying forces Japanese domination not much different from European domination Others aided conquerors to gain power in new administration Anticommunism led some in western Europe to join the Nazi SS troops Resistance to occupation took many forms Active resistance: sabotage, assaults, assassination Passive resistance as well: intelligence gathering, refusing to submit Resistance in Japan and Germany was dangerous and rare Occupation forces responded to resistance with atrocities Brutal reprisals to acts of resistance by both Germans and Japanese Despite retaliation, resistance movements grew throughout the war Prisoner of War, Enemy Combatants, Detainees Western Allies treated POWs well Russians, Germans, Japanese did not US detained and isolated 150, 000 people of Japanese descent

WOMEN, MINORITIES AND WAR Minorities The Germans utilized racially acceptable minorities in their army WOMEN, MINORITIES AND WAR Minorities The Germans utilized racially acceptable minorities in their army Russians, Chinese mobilized everyone – irrespective of race, ethnicity Japanese enlisted other ethnic groups but mistreated their Korean soldiers The USA and the African Americans Given low, menial jobs; segregated from white troops White officers commanded black units Only later in war allowed into combat Graduates of Tuskagee formed a famous fighter squadron The British and French Mobilized their empires and citizens for war British Indian Army, French colonial troops very active Women and the war "It's a Woman's War, Too!" Over half a million British, 350, 000 American women joined auxiliary services Soviet and Chinese women took up arms and joined resistance groups Jewish women and girls suffered as much as men and boys Women's social roles changed dramatically By taking jobs or heading families, women gained independence and confidence Changes expected to be temporary, would return to traditional role after war "Comfort women" Japanese armies forcibly recruited 300, 000 women to serve in military brothels 80 percent of comfort women came from Korea Many were massacred by Japanese soldiers; survivors experienced deep shame

GENOCIDES: HOLOCAUST Types of Murder Genocide: Killing of a specific group of people, attempt GENOCIDES: HOLOCAUST Types of Murder Genocide: Killing of a specific group of people, attempt to wipe out Democide: Mass murder of people by government Ethnic Cleansing: Term common when one group attacks, kills another Armenian Holocaust First genocide of 20 th century Turks killed 1. 5 million Armenians for their support of Russians in World War I The Holocaust Long history of anti-Semitism The "final solution" Began with slaughter of Jews, Gypsies, undesirables in Soviet Union By 1941, German special killing units had killed 1. 4 million Jews By 1942 Nazis evacuated all European Jews to camps in east Poland Jewish resistance Created tolerance of Nazi's anti-Jewish measures At first Nazis encouraged Jewish emigration Many Jews were unable to leave after Nazis took their wealth Nazi conquest of Europe brought more Jews under their control Will to resist sapped by prolonged starvation, disease Warsaw Ghetto Uprising: 60, 000 Jews rose up against Germans Altogether About 5. 7 million Jews perished; more than 2 million Poles died Almost 98% of all Gypsies were murdered Other Examples Democides: Stalin, Mao, Pol Pot (Cambodia), Zaire/Congo Genocides: Rwanda, Sudan Ethnic Cleansings: Bosnia, Kosovo, Kurds in Iraq

SETTLEMENTS & COLD WAR The origins of the cold war (1947 -1990) Postwar settlement SETTLEMENTS & COLD WAR The origins of the cold war (1947 -1990) Postwar settlement established at Yalta and Potsdam Perception of world divided between so-called free and enslaved peoples Interventionist policy, dedicated to "containment" of communism The Marshall Plan, 1948: U. S. aid for the recovery of Europe Soviets took east Germany, while United States, Britain, and France took west Germany Berlin also divided four ways; by 1950 division seemed permanent Churchill spoke of an "iron curtain" across Europe, separating east and west Similar division in Korea: Soviets occupied north and United States the south Truman doctrine, 1947: USA would support "free peoples resisting subjugation" Each Allied power to occupy and control territories liberated by its armed forces Stalin agreed to support United States against Japan Stalin's plans prevailed; Poland east Europe became communist allies President Truman took hard line at Potsdam, widened differences Postwar territorial divisions reflected growing schism between USA, USSR Unlikely alliance between Britain, USSR, USA held up for duration of war Not without tensions: Soviet resented U. S. -British delays in European invasion Idea to rebuild European economies and strengthen capitalism Soviet response: Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) for its satellites NATO and the Warsaw Pact: militarization of the cold war 1949, United States created NATO, a regional military alliance against Soviet aggression 1955, Soviets formed the Warsaw Pact in response Two global superpowers protecting hegemony with alliances United Nations, established 1945 to maintain international peace and security

MAPPING THE END OF THE WAR MAPPING THE END OF THE WAR

COLD WAR BEGINS Postwar Europe Divided into competing political, military, economic blocs NATO, European COLD WAR BEGINS Postwar Europe Divided into competing political, military, economic blocs NATO, European Economic Communities; Warsaw Pact, COMECON Neutral: European Free Trade Association; Yugoslavia Western Europe U. S. allies supported by permanent presence of American army Parliamentary governments, capitalist economies Eastern Europe Dominated by Soviet Union, Red Army, secret police Communist governments modeled after USSR dominate countries Germany divided east and west in 1949 Soviets refused to withdraw from eastern Germany after World War II Allied sectors reunited 1947 -1948, Berlin remained divided as well Berlin blockade and airlift, 1948 -1949 The Berlin Wall, 1961 In Asia Turkey, Greece, Iran pressured by USSR, allies: US responds with Truman Doctrine Communist Chinese armed by USSR, drive Nationalists out of China by 1949 Korea divided into Communist North, Pro-Western South: North invades South in 1950 Communists influence Viet Minh in Indo-China

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-1945 Era of international cooperation Many global problems cannot be solved by INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-1945 Era of international cooperation Many global problems cannot be solved by national governments Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) Red Cross, an international humanitarian agency, founded 1964 Greenpeace, an environmental organization, founded in 1970 Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch The United Nations Founded 1945 "to maintain international peace and security" Security Council Each nation has one vote; poor, 3 rd world nations dominate Cannot legislate, but has influence in international community Often used as a sounding board for world concerns, ignored by West Permanent Veto Nations: UK, US, France, Russia, China Not successful at preventing wars, for example, Iran-Iraq war Often can diffuse tense situations More successful in health and educational goals Eradication of smallpox and other diseases Decrease in child mortality, increase in female literacy General Assembly ECOSOC, UN Commission of Refugees, WHO Human rights: an ancient concept, gaining wider acceptance Nuremberg Trials of Nazis Established concept of "crimes against humanity“ Permanent court sits in Hague, Netherlands for war crimes trials Forbids slavery, torture, discrimination Guarantees basic human rights, freedoms UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights

UNITED NATIONS, 1945 UNITED NATIONS, 1945

STATE STRUCTURES 1937 STATE STRUCTURES 1937

STATE STRUCTURES 1947 STATE STRUCTURES 1947

STATE STRUCTURES 1957 STATE STRUCTURES 1957

SOUTH ASIA AFTER 1945 Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869 -1948) Political and spiritual leader, called SOUTH ASIA AFTER 1945 Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869 -1948) Political and spiritual leader, called the Mahatma ("Great Soul") Opposed to caste system, especially the exclusion of untouchables 1920 -1922, led Non-Cooperation Movement 1930, Civil Disobedience Movement The India Act of 1937 Repression failed, so the British offered modified self-rule through the India Act Unsuccessful because India's six hundred princes refused to support : Muslims want independent state Muslims would not cooperate, wanted an independent state During World War II Many Indians sympathetic with Japan, Gandhi pursued peaceful non-cooperation British were very concerned about Indian disloyalty which really never surfaced Indian self-rule British finally willing to consider independence after WWII Muslim separatism grew; feared domination by Hindus Partition of India and ensuing violence Independent India, 1947, divided into Muslim Pakistan and Hindu India Ten million refugees moved either to India or Pakistan; one million died in migration Gandhi assassinated by a Hindu extremist, 30 January 1948 Conflicts between India and Pakistan 1947, fought over province of Kashmir; Pakistan lost Pakistan allied with United States; India accepted aid from both superpowers India and Pakistan stayed in British Commonwealth; English was official language

SOUTHWEST ASIA SINCE 1945 Arab states gained independence during, after World War II British SOUTHWEST ASIA SINCE 1945 Arab states gained independence during, after World War II British suppress Iraqi nationalist uprising in 1941; expel Vichy French from Syria British, US force French to grant Lebanon, Syria independence in 1943 Creation of Israel Unable to resolve conflict, Britain turned Palestine question over to UN, 1947 UN proposed dividing into two states, Palestine and Israel; Arabs opposed 1947, British withdrew, civil war broke out, Jews proclaimed the state of Israel Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq declared war on Israel achieved victory in 1949; claimed territories larger than what was granted by UN Egypt Military leaders under Gamal A. Nasser seized power in 1952 Nasser became prime minister, a leader of pan-Arab nationalism Egypt neutral in cold war, accepted aid from both powers Nasser dedicated to ending imperialism, destroying state of Israel Suez crisis, 1956, greatly enhanced Nasser's prestige Canal owned by UK; Nasser nationalized it British, French, and Israeli forces attack to retake canal US, USSR condemned military action, forced them to withdraw Suez crisis divided United States and its allies in western Europe Pan-Arab Nationalism Sought to unify Arabs in one secularized state; downplayed Islam Egypt, Syria, Yemen united in 1968; union late broke down Strongly influenced by Arab-Israeli conflict Ba’ath Parties in Syria, Iraq strongest Pan-Arab Parties

AFRICA AFTER 1945 Black African nationalism and independence Growth of African nationalism Began as AFRICA AFTER 1945 Black African nationalism and independence Growth of African nationalism Began as grassroots protest against European imperialism African nationalism celebrated Negritude (blackness), African roots Obstacles to African independence White settlers opposed black independence Anticommunist fears justified interference in African politics Economic and political instability often hampered postindependent Africa South Africa Transformation of South Africa Gained independence in 1901, but denied civil rights to black population South African economy strong, both mining and industry; prospered during WWII Black workers demanded political change 1948 : Afrikaner National Party wins control of South African government Apartheid Harsh legal system imposed in 1948, designed to keep races separate 87 peercent of South African land was for white residents, others classified by race African National Congress led by Mandela, launched campaign to protest apartheid Severe government repression provoked international opposition after 1960

DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA Forcing the French out of north Africa France in Africa 1950 DECOLONIZATION OF AFRICA Forcing the French out of north Africa France in Africa 1950 s and 1960 s, French granted independence to all its African colonies except Algerian Revolt of May 1954 repressed by French; eight thousand Algerian Muslims died War in Algeria, 1954 -1962 Algerian nationalists pursued guerrilla warfare against French rule By 1958, a half-million French soldiers were committed to the conflict Freedom and conflict in sub-Sahara Africa Ghana (Gold Coast) first to gain independence, 1957 Kwame Nkrumah, nationalist leader, jailed and censored for political actions Eventually released, Nkrumah became Ghana's first president, 1957 Anticolonial rebellion in Kenya Violent clashes between native Kikuyu (Mau Mau) and European settlers after 1947 1930 s and 1940 s, Kikuyu pushed off farm lands, reduced to wage slaves Labeling Mau as communist subversives, Britain gained U. S. support Kikuyu uprising crushed by superior arms in 1955; twelve thousand Africans killed

DECOLONIZATION DECOLONIZATION