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Integrated Product Development Igor Fürstner [email protected] su. ac. yu Polytechnical Engineering College Vojvodina, Serbia
Product Development (differences between classical and modern approach) l Planning – – – l Long term 5 y->1 -2 y Mid term 2 -3 y->6 -18 m Short term 6 m->1 m Amoritzation – 8%/y->30%/y
Product Development (differences between classical and modern approach) l Prototyping, manufacturing planning, manufacturing – 3 -9 m, lot of mistakes, tools for manufacturing are made at the beginning of the manufacturing process. . . -> – Simulations, direct beginning of the manufacturing process, tools for manufacturing are made before the beginning of the manufacturing process. . .
Product Development (differences between classical and modern approach) l Training – – – l Nonsystematic and discontinuous (it happens during the work process) -> Professional and continuous Workplace planning – – – The workplace is specialized and static -> The workplace is general and dynamic
Product Development (differences between classical and modern approach) l Quality – – – l The quality monitoring is done after the production -> The quality assurance is implemented to the whole process Workflow – – – Sequential -> Paralell
Product Development Time – Time = Money – Later appearance on the market l Less demand – – Classical approach l l – Market changes Market is occupied by other manufacturers Better quality products The development process is sequential and divided Investors are concentrated towards faster production Modern approach (time is important) l l l Attention is paid on the system as a whole Development is continuous (faster response to customer demands, new products are on the market more frequently) Investors are concentrated towards time shortening
Product Development Time and costs l l l The basic problem during the development and production of a product is finding and using different methods, which will result in higher profit and bigger market share Research has shown that during the first 15% of the product realization process up to 85% of the product costs is determined and only 15% of the cost is spent. This leads to the conclusion that the most important decisions concerning the product have to be made during the development of the product.
Product Development Time and costs
Modern product development l Aim – – – l Faster product development process Faster production process Avoidance of the mistakes as soon as possible How to achieve the aim – – Establish an appropriate communication between the participants of the whole process Establish an appropriate decision making rule
Communication l Now days, product development and production is commonly organized at several different places (production plants) – Advantages l l Faster processes Use of knowledge and technology Engagement of development, production and other infrastructure Mutual cost and risk management
Communication – Disadvantages l Communication (collaboration) – – – Geographic distances Organizational differences Cultural differences Religious differences Procedural differences
Communication l l Formal Informal Written Verbal
Communication Types of development projects
Distributed network l Virtual factory – Attributes l l l l l Geographical dispersion Possible cultural differences Work is done in time and space using appropriate organization boundaries Communication and coordination using appropriate communication technology Lack of hierarchy Extreme decentralization This kind of organization is not constant, after the project is finished the structure is decomposed High level of flexibility Quick response opportunities (possibility to react considering the changes in the surroundings)
Distributed network l Characteristics of the virtual factory – – Space (centralized – Decentralized) Time (synchronous – Non-sinchronous) Type of interaction (personal – Electronic) Social differences (low – High)
Integrated product development l Integrated product development is based an a systematic approach during the development process, that fulfills the customers requirements, connecting - using the added value that results from a team work (cooperation, trust…)
The structure of the IPD l Systematic approach – The IPD uses the principles and tools of Systems Engineering (considering the product’s lifecycle)
The structure of the IPD Lifecycle
The structure of the IPD l l The customer is the center of the process Cooperation – – – Human resources Cooperation, collaboration (Computer Support Cooperative Work)
The structure of the IPD l IPD tools (DFx) – l Information and communication technologies – l Product data management (PDM) Automation of engineering activities – l Design for excellence CAx technologies Organization and control – Project management (PM)
Integrated product development Customer requirements l 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. The customer’s behavior considering any product (reasons why a customer buys or doesn't buy a product) can be divided into 8 categories: Costs (Can I afford it? ) Availability (Can I find it? ) Packaging (Is It attractive? ) Performance (Does it fulfills my expectations? ) Ease of the handling (Can I use it? ) Reliability Maintenance (Is it expensive? ) Social parameters (What the others think about the product? )
Customer requirements l 1. CR can be divided into four levels Universal expectations (Expecters) • 2. Specific expectations (Spokens) • 3. Should be considered in a product Unspoken, latent expectation • • 4. Easily valuable and can be benchmarked Has to be defined by market research, interviews, brainstorming The customer didn’t know, didn’t want or forgot to tell „Plus” expectations (Exciters)
Customer requirements l How to ask the customer 1. Don’t ask 1. 2. Ask 1. 3. What do you like about this product? Don’t ask 1. 4. What do you like most about our product? Is low cost an attractive feature? Ask 1. What do you consider when purchasing the product?
Customer requirements l How to ask the customer 1. Don’t ask 1. 2. Ask 1. 3. What do you like about this product? Don’t ask 1. 4. What do you like most about our product? Would you prefer a blue sports car or a red convertible? Ask 1. 2. Would you prefer a red or blue car? Would you prefer a sports car or a convertible?
Customer requirements l How to ask the customer 1. Don’t ask 1. 2. Ask 1. 3. Do you want a device to travel in space? Don’t ask 1. 4. How often would you travel in space if you had your own rocket? Are you satisfied with this product? Ask 1. What have your experiences been with this product?
Customer requirements l l Analyzing the Voice of the customers Rank the customer requirenments
Customer requirements - facts l You can never know if a product will be easily sellable until you try to sell it (Lesch’s rule) l The defined customer requirements considering a product are never 100% sure
IPD Functional requirements l The principles of design l The design problem (system) should be divided into smaller independent functional units, using the so called decomposition Two approaches can be used for this l – – Axiomatic approach Functional analysis
Functional requirements l FR – – The minimum number of different independent requirements, that totally defines the design aims based on the defined requirements The FR should be independent from each other
Design parameters • They show the future produced parts – units – modules • • They should be solution independent They should fulfill the FR
Engineering characteristics l All measurable parameters of the FR are called EC
Example 1 l Two valve (classical) faucet – l In this case: – – l It should provide a proper amount of water of the right temperature (with separate hot and cold water source) FR 1 Provide the proper amount of water FR 2 Provide the right water temperature DP 1 Means for the cold water regulation DP 2 Means for the hot water regulation The DPs define a dependent solution for the FRs and a defined final solution
Example 2 l Faucet – l In this case: – – l It should provide a proper amount of water of the right temperature FR 1 Provide the proper amount of water FR 2 Provide the right water temperature DP 1 Means for the water amount regulation DP 2 Means for the water temperature regulation The DPs define an independent solution for the FRs and an independent final solution
Integrated product development QFD (Quality Function Deployment) l • • QFD is a method (approach), that connects the customer requirements with the product’s characteristics and function The house of quality is a multidimensional table that shows the interconnection between the CR and the EC It consists of 12 elements
House of quality
House of quality CR The importance factor The product’s aim Correlation matrix EC Correlation matrix between CR and EC EC value objectives Technical benchmarking Production difficulty risk Absolute relevance Relative relevance Benchmarki ng against the concurrent products
Integrated product development Concept generation and embodiment l l The product is a sum of the DPs embodiments The phases of the product development are the following (they overlap): Different concept generation and rating 2. Configuration definition (3 D – in space relationships between modules) 3. Final embodiment that includes the concepts 1.
Design for Analysis l Complex problems are divided into smaller, more simple parts, because then the problem can be analyzed with more simple methods
Example Determine the number of teachers at the university • Number of students: • • • Group size • • Laboratory 20 Practice 40 Lecture 60 Mean 40 Number of groups 650/40=16 Number of classes per week 30 Total number of classes 30*16=480 Teaching ours for teachers per week • • 1. y 300 2. y 200 3. y 150 Sum 650 Lecture 6 Practice Laboratory 12 Mean 9 Number of teachers 480/9 =53
Concept generation l l To each DP, the development team should generate as many concepts as it is possible To achieve this, the development team can use: – – – Brainstorming (lot of ideas, that can lead to other ideas, no analysis) Benchmarking Literature. . .
Brainstorming (questions for ideas)
Morphological method l l Instead of random solution generation, the development team should define the surroundings in which the possible solutions can be found One of the possibilities is to use a morphological method that leads to the filtration of all theoretically possible solutions
Example Energy storage can be different: • Mechanical • • Mass in motion Thermodynamic • • Fluid on proper temperature Electric • • Battery Hydraulic • • Fluid in motion
Example l Mechanical solution for converting the rotation movement into linear movement
Configuration definition Example
Concept rating and choosing the right solution The rating contains: • • Defined boundaries (force, movements, dimensions, power supply…) Working surroundings Ease of production, possibility of production
Rating l l The rating can be done in a form of a table (columns – the possible solutions, rows – the most important or the whole CRs The result of the rating is an important information towards the final solution
The embodiment There can be a lot of different solutions for the final embodiment Example • • • Perpendicular joining element