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Insurance in International Trade Dr Vanessa Sims University of East Anglia Insurance in International Trade Dr Vanessa Sims University of East Anglia

I. Introduction social and commercial importance of insurance n huge range of subject-matter: n I. Introduction social and commercial importance of insurance n huge range of subject-matter: n n n ships goods warehouses building projects oil rigs

I. Introduction n huge range of risks: n n n natural disasters (storms, earthquakes…) I. Introduction n huge range of risks: n n n natural disasters (storms, earthquakes…) piracy non-payment exchange rate fluctuations strikes political changes war

II. Lloyd’s of London n insurance market origin: coffee house (1680 s) meeting place II. Lloyd’s of London n insurance market origin: coffee house (1680 s) meeting place for captains and insurers

II. Lloyd’s of London market leaders in many fields n often first to offer II. Lloyd’s of London market leaders in many fields n often first to offer insurance for new risks: n n n cars: 1904 planes: 1911 satellites: 1960 s almost bankrupt in 1980/90 s: n n Exxon Valdez Piper Alpha – hurricane Andrew – asbestosis

II. Lloyd’s of London market profitable again n capacity 2008: £ 16. 1 billion II. Lloyd’s of London market profitable again n capacity 2008: £ 16. 1 billion in premiums n profit 2006: £ 3. 7 billion n money for insurance provided by ‘names’ n are grouped together in syndicates n insurance arranged by brokers and underwriters n

Lloyd’s Market Structure 2007 Corporation of Lloyd’s 72 Syndicates Policyholders 167 Lloyd’s Brokers • Lloyd’s Market Structure 2007 Corporation of Lloyd’s 72 Syndicates Policyholders 167 Lloyd’s Brokers • Direct • Reinsurance BUSINESS FLOW Source: Lloyd’s All numbers as at 1 st August 2007 47 Managing Agents (underwriters) Members £ 16. 1 bn Capacity • Corporate (123) • Individual (1124) CAPITAL PROVISION

III. Contract Formation prospective insured = proposer n use of agents (brokers) n different III. Contract Formation prospective insured = proposer n use of agents (brokers) n different procedure at Lloyd’s: n n broker fills out slip takes slip to underwriters they accept percentage of risk by initialling slip

IV. Insurable Interest n insurable interest: legal or equitable relationship with subject-matter v Laucena IV. Insurable Interest n insurable interest: legal or equitable relationship with subject-matter v Laucena v Craufurd (1806) 2 Bos & Pul (NR) 269 v Macaura v Northern Assurance Co Ltd [1925] AC 619 v Petrofina (UK) Ltd v Magnaload Ltd [1983] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 91

IV. Insurable Interest v Feasy v Sun Life Assurance Co of Canada [2003] EWCA IV. Insurable Interest v Feasy v Sun Life Assurance Co of Canada [2003] EWCA Civ 885: “It is not a requirement of property insurance that the insured must have a ‘legal or equitable’ interest in the property as those terms might normally be understood. It is sufficient for a subcontractor to have a contract that relates to the property and a potential liability for damage to the property to have an insurable interest in the property. ” (Per Waller LJ)

V. Utmost Good Faith n utmost good faith = uberrima fides v Carter v V. Utmost Good Faith n utmost good faith = uberrima fides v Carter v Boehm (1766) 3 Burr 1905: “Insurance is a contract upon speculation. The special facts, upon which the contingent chance is to be computed, lie most commonly in the knowledge of the insured only. . . ” (per Lord Mansfield)

V. Utmost Good Faith n s. 17 Marine Insurance Act 1906: “A contract of V. Utmost Good Faith n s. 17 Marine Insurance Act 1906: “A contract of marine insurance is a contract based upon the utmost good faith, and, if the utmost good faith be not observed by either party, the contract may be avoided by the other party. ”

V. Utmost Good Faith n s. 18 Marine Insurance Act: “Subject to the provisions V. Utmost Good Faith n s. 18 Marine Insurance Act: “Subject to the provisions of this section, the assured must disclose to the insurer, before the contract is concluded, every material circumstance which is known to the assured… If the assured fails to make such disclosure, the insurer may avoid the contract. ”

V. Utmost Good Faith v Container Transport International Inc v Oceanus Mutual Underwriting Association V. Utmost Good Faith v Container Transport International Inc v Oceanus Mutual Underwriting Association (Bermuda) Ltd [1984] 1 Lloyd’s Rep 476: rejection of “decisive influence test” v Pan Atlantic Insurance Co v Pine Top Insurance Co [1995] 1 AC 501: requirement of “inducement”

V. Utmost Good Faith n moral hazard v Roselodge Rep 113 Ltd v Castle V. Utmost Good Faith n moral hazard v Roselodge Rep 113 Ltd v Castle [1966] 2 Lloyd’s n Rehabilitation of Offenders Act 1974 n physical hazard

V. Utmost Good Faith n mutual duty of utmost good faith v Banque Financière V. Utmost Good Faith n mutual duty of utmost good faith v Banque Financière de la Cité SA v Westgate Insurance Co Ltd [1991] 2 AC 249

VI. Loss and Causation peril: event insured against n exception: event expressly excluded n VI. Loss and Causation peril: event insured against n exception: event expressly excluded n loss: total or partial loss n constructive total loss n doctrine of abandonment n causation: “proximate cause” n

VI. Loss and Causation v Becker, Gray & Co v London Assurance Corp [1918] VI. Loss and Causation v Becker, Gray & Co v London Assurance Corp [1918] AC 101 v Marsden v City & County Insurance (1865) LR 1 CP 232 v Leyland Shipping Co v Norwich Union Fire Insurance Society Ltd [1918] AC 350

VII. Subrogation n indemnity principle v Castellain n v Preston (1883) 11 QBD 380 VII. Subrogation n indemnity principle v Castellain n v Preston (1883) 11 QBD 380 two elements: n n recovery of money received from third party action against third party