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INSTITUTO DE ASTROFÍSICA DE CANARIAS Canary Islands, SPAIN “Hardware Developments for Fast Control Systems” INSTITUTO DE ASTROFÍSICA DE CANARIAS Canary Islands, SPAIN “Hardware Developments for Fast Control Systems” OPTICON planning meeting UKATC, Edinburgh Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) ð Started on mid-80 s ð Configurable logic blocks Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) ð Started on mid-80 s ð Configurable logic blocks ð 65 nm, 550 MHz ð Interface to many standards ð Hundreds of I/O ð Recently grown to big sizes Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

FPGA main features ð Parallelism ð Speed ð Low cost ð Flexibility ð Tiny FPGA main features ð Parallelism ð Speed ð Low cost ð Flexibility ð Tiny size, low power consumption, low weight Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

FPGA vs µPs, DSPs, GPUs ð FPGAs helped conventional processors doing interfacing, glue logic, FPGA vs µPs, DSPs, GPUs ð FPGAs helped conventional processors doing interfacing, glue logic, . . . ð FPGAs have grown to a level capable of accepting a microprocessor inside. . . ð Traditional approach is to manufacture big quantities of a general purpose microelectronics hardware, and write a (specific) program to solve the specific task ð Using FPGAs, we can get rid of any program and produce the hardware adequate for each task. Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

FPGA: Transversal key technology ð Adaptive optics ð Detector controllers ð Phasing control for FPGA: Transversal key technology ð Adaptive optics ð Detector controllers ð Phasing control for segmented mirrors ð High time resolution astronomy ð Lossless data compression ð On-line data reduction ð… Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

IAC Example ð In-house technology development project ð Examine FPGA technology and evaluate its IAC Example ð In-house technology development project ð Examine FPGA technology and evaluate its potential for AO ð Develop know-how to be used in future AO projects for astronomy and other fields ð L. F. Rodríguez Ramos et al. “FPGA adaptive optics system test bench”. Proc. SPIE 5903, 120128, 2005 ð J. G. Marichal-Hernández, L. F. Rodríguez-Ramos et al. “Atmospheric wavefront phase recovery using specialized hardware: GPUs and FPGAs”. Applied Optics 2005 Dec 10; 44(35): 7587 -94 ð L. F. Rodríguez Ramos et al. “Testing FPGAs for real-time control of adaptive optics in giant telescopes ”. Proc. SPIE 6272, 2006 Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Project team ð People Luis F. Rodriguez Ramos PI & PM Teodora Viera Control Project team ð People Luis F. Rodriguez Ramos PI & PM Teodora Viera Control Algorithm José V. Gigante Camera I/F, displays and centroid computation Fernando Gago Frame grabbing Guillermo Herrera DACs I/F Angel Alonso Optics Nicolas Descharmes Optics ð Budget 4000 man-hours (~2 man-yr) 25 K€ ($30 K) Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Experimental setup TS L 1 MO ATM LS D 2 L 3 LA L Experimental setup TS L 1 MO ATM LS D 2 L 3 LA L 4 BS 2 50 /50 D 1 BS 1 SHC 5 0/50 D 3 NDF L 2 MMDM SC Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Electronic system setup Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division Electronic system setup Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Electronic system setup Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division Electronic system setup Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

FPGA occupancy example ð ð ð Image recomposing Centroid calculation Matrix computation Linearization PI FPGA occupancy example ð ð ð Image recomposing Centroid calculation Matrix computation Linearization PI control 1% 35% 3% 6% 2% ð Display ð Housekeeping 14% 9% ð TOTAL 70% Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Results I Frame clock centroids correction frames, centroids and actuation Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto Results I Frame clock centroids correction frames, centroids and actuation Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Last two rows and actuation Technology Division

Results II Switching voltage pattern added to the first ring of actuators (7) 64 Results II Switching voltage pattern added to the first ring of actuators (7) 64 errors in X Servo OFF Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias 39 actuators Servo ON Technology Division

Joint development proposed ðAstronomy related building blocks ðPractical System prototype Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto Joint development proposed ðAstronomy related building blocks ðPractical System prototype Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Building blocks development ð Never start from scratch: Lots of commercially available IP Cores Building blocks development ð Never start from scratch: Lots of commercially available IP Cores plus. . . ð Astronomy related building blocks, to be developed in a joint effort and made available to the community. ð Previous work needed in O Block identifying, O Common development methodology, O Agreeing interfaces O Synthesis software evaluation O … Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Building block examples ð ð ð FFT (2 D and multi-D) Centroid computation Image Building block examples ð ð ð FFT (2 D and multi-D) Centroid computation Image correlation Gaussian fitting Sparse Matrix Floating point arithmetic Camera interface Inter-boards and intra-board communication Detector pre-processing (Flat, slope, cosmetics…) Lossless data compression Intersystem Synchronization. . . Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

ELT AO Prototype ð Massively parallel FPGA-only system capable of implementing all the aspects ELT AO Prototype ð Massively parallel FPGA-only system capable of implementing all the aspects of the adaptive optics of a giant telescope, including multi-guide star atmospheric tomography ð ð ð ELT simulation optical bench Hardware Processing engine (subcontract) AO Algorithm reformulation AO Prototype simulation AO Prototype laboratory tests Telescope tests at OGS(1 m) + WHT(4, 2) + GTC(10 m) Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Work breakdown and schedule Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division Work breakdown and schedule Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Cost idea ð Coordination: ð Man-power: ð Subcontracts: 20. 000 €/y 200. 000 €/y Cost idea ð Coordination: ð Man-power: ð Subcontracts: 20. 000 €/y 200. 000 €/y 50. 000 € ð TOTAL approx: 1. 2 M€ Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division

Thank you Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division Thank you Luis F. Rodríguez-Ramos Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias Technology Division