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Institute on Beginning Reading II Enhancing Core Reading Instruction for English Language Learners in Institute on Beginning Reading II Enhancing Core Reading Instruction for English Language Learners in Kindergarten and Grade 1 For Each Student Assessment For All Students Instruction Goals

Acknowledgments § Oregon Department of Education § Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement, Acknowledgments § Oregon Department of Education § Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement, College of Education, University of Oregon § U. S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Baker and Thompson © 2003 2

Copyright § All materials are copy written and should not be reproduced or used Copyright § All materials are copy written and should not be reproduced or used without expressed permission of Dr. Scott Baker or Maria Elena Arguelles. Selected slides were reproduced from other sources and original references cited. Baker and Thompson © 2003 3

Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of today’s session are to: Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of today’s session are to: 1. Understand the role of assessment in Reading First with English Language Learners (ELLs). 2. Identify instructional practices related to positive academic outcomes for ELLs. 3. Identify methods to enhance core reading instruction for ELLs. Baker and Thompson © 2003 4

Scientific Research in Education A Body of Knowledge: § established through analysis of information Scientific Research in Education A Body of Knowledge: § established through analysis of information collected in specific ways § in Early Literacy provides foundation for Beginning Reading Instruction An Ongoing Process: § providing principles for collecting new information, plus analysis and interpretation of information § in Beginning Reading, provides foundation for determining ongoing effects Baker and Thompson © 2003 5

The Role of Assessment in Reading First with ELLs Satisfy both conceptions of Research The Role of Assessment in Reading First with ELLs Satisfy both conceptions of Research § An existing body of knowledge indicates their use (schools acting on the data) should improve outcomes for students § Formative Assessments!! § Will be part of ongoing procedures to evaluate effects § Summative Assessments!! Baker and Thompson © 2003 6

Research on How Assessment Devices Work with ELLs Examples from a 2 -year study Research on How Assessment Devices Work with ELLs Examples from a 2 -year study with English Language Learners Three objectives 1. Collect promising student reading measures with ELLs in Grade 1 2. Systematically observe beginning reading instruction in Grade 1 classrooms 3. Investigate the relationship between instructional practices in reading and student performance on reading measures Baker and Thompson © 2003 7

Investigating Assessment Measures with ELLs Primary Languages of Participating Students Spanish 266 (60%) Cambodian Investigating Assessment Measures with ELLs Primary Languages of Participating Students Spanish 266 (60%) Cambodian English 85 (19%) (3%) Somali 23 (5%) Vietnamese 19 (4%) Cantonese 12 (3%) (4%) Hmong 16 14 Tagolog 5 (. 1%) Chinese 3 (. 1%) Laotian Baker and Thompson © 2003 2 8

Investigating Assessment Measures with ELLs Student Performance Measures § DIBELS measures at the beginning Investigating Assessment Measures with ELLs Student Performance Measures § DIBELS measures at the beginning and end of the year § Phonemic Segmentation Fluency § Nonsense Word Fluency § Oral Reading Fluency § A measure of Reading Comprehension at the end of the year § Other “trial” measures Baker and Thompson © 2003 9

Investigating Assessment Measures with ELLs Systematic Classroom Observations § § Moderate inference instrument 30 Investigating Assessment Measures with ELLs Systematic Classroom Observations § § Moderate inference instrument 30 items rated on a 1 -7 scale § General effectiveness items § Items specifically targeting effective instruction for ELLs § Items targeting instruction in Reading / Language Arts Framework § § Observers w/ expertise in ELLs and beginning reading All observations for the duration of the 2. 5 hour reading period Baker and Thompson © 2003 10

Results from the Study Evidence the primary measures had established reliability and predicted outcomes Results from the Study Evidence the primary measures had established reliability and predicted outcomes for English Language Learners § § § Meaningful variability in performance Fluency as an index of “comprehension” Ability to predict meaningful outcomes Performance patterns that make sense in the context of other students Providing pictures of growth over time Baker and Thompson © 2003 11

Predictive Power with Two Populations Native English Speakers r =. 52 English Language Learners Predictive Power with Two Populations Native English Speakers r =. 52 English Language Learners r =. 62 Evidence for both the Predictive Variable and the Outcome Variable Baker and Thompson © 2003 12

Results from the Study Evidence for Predicting Outcomes with English language learners Correlations With Results from the Study Evidence for Predicting Outcomes with English language learners Correlations With Oral Reading Fluency, Spring English ELL Grade 1 Not Speakers Spanish (n = 85) (n = 98) (n = 265) LNF Fall G 1. 52. 53. 62 PSF Fall G 1 . 29 . 33 . 41 NWF Fall G 1 . 60 . 62 . 72 All correlations are significant, p <. 01 Baker and Thompson © 2003 13

Results from the Study But What about Comprehension? Correlations With Reading Comprehension, Spring Grade Results from the Study But What about Comprehension? Correlations With Reading Comprehension, Spring Grade 1 English Speakers (n = 85) ELL Not Spanish (n = 98) ELL Spanish (n = 227) LNF Fall G 1 . 39 . 37 . 47 PSF Fall G 1 . 27 . 25 . 42 NWF Fall G 1 . 38 . 45 All correlations are significant, p <. 01 Baker and Thompson © 2003 14

Results from the Study Predicting Reading Outcomes Over Time: The Shape of Things To Results from the Study Predicting Reading Outcomes Over Time: The Shape of Things To Come English Language DIBELS Learner Sample Baker and Thompson © 2003 15

Relevancy of DIBELS Benchmarks for English Language Learners Students Who Met Grade 2 Benchmark Relevancy of DIBELS Benchmarks for English Language Learners Students Who Met Grade 2 Benchmark Risk Status at End of Grade 1 DIBELS Sample (n = 342) ELL Sample (n = 247) High: ORF < 10 0 / 51 0% 2 / 42 5% Moderate: ORF = 10 - 39 About 64 / 193 33 % 12 / 105 11% Low: ORF > 39 95 / 98 97% 67 / 100 67% Baker and Thompson © 2003 16

Results from the Study Reading Growth of English Language Learners From Grade 1 to Results from the Study Reading Growth of English Language Learners From Grade 1 to 2: The “Matthew Effect” in Action Actual ORF Growth Grade 1 Percentile Rank Baker and Thompson © 2003 17

General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment § § § Evidence that DIBELS General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment § § § Evidence that DIBELS also measures important reading outcomes with English Language Learners Initial evidence that outcomes of English Language Learners at the end of Grade 1 is an important predictor of future reading performance If the second point is true then: A key issue becomes determining what influences reading performance at the end of Grade 1 Baker and Thompson © 2003 18

General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment § “Potential” Variables that Influence Reading General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment § “Potential” Variables that Influence Reading Outcomes Reading performance at beginning of the year § Evidenced by correlations between measures at beginning and end of the year § § English Language Learner Status: i. e. , ELL or fluent English speaker Among English Language Learners -- level of English language proficiency § Reading Instruction throughout the year Also possible that some combination of variables “interact” to influence optimal reading outcomes Baker and Thompson © 2003 19

General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment Separate “Predictors” of Grade 1 ORF General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment Separate “Predictors” of Grade 1 ORF Benchmark Index on Each Variable % of Students Meeting Benchmark Predictor Variables Baker and Thompson © 2003 20

General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment Combination of Three Variables Influencing Grade General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Assessment Combination of Three Variables Influencing Grade 1 Benchmark Performance % of Students Meeting Benchmark “Index” on 3 -Variable Combination Baker and Thompson © 2003 21

General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Observations and Outcomes Explicit Teaching Improves the General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Observations and Outcomes Explicit Teaching Improves the Odds of Strong Outcomes § Items from the Observation Instrument: § § Models skills and strategies during the lesson Makes relationships among concepts overt Emphasizes distinctive features of new concepts Provides scaffolds in how to use strategies, skills, and concepts § Focus of literacy activities changes regularly § Adjusts use of English to make concepts comprehensible Baker and Thompson © 2003 22

General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Observations and Outcomes Sheltered Teaching Techniques Improve General Conclusions of Study Findings Related to Observations and Outcomes Sheltered Teaching Techniques Improve the Odds of Strong Outcomes § Items from the Observation Instrument § § Uses visuals and manipulatives to teach content Provides explicit instruction in English language use Encourages students to give elaborate responses Uses gestures and facial expressions in teaching vocabulary and clarifying meaning of content Baker and Thompson © 2003 23

Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of today’s session are to: Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of today’s session are to: 1. Understand the role of assessment in Reading First with English Language Learners (ELLs). 2. Identify instructional practices related to positive academic outcomes for ELLs. 3. Identify methods to enhance core reading instruction for ELLs. Baker and Thompson © 2003 24

Instructional Practices Related to Positive Academic Outcomes § The common instructional practices found across Instructional Practices Related to Positive Academic Outcomes § The common instructional practices found across successful classrooms were the following: § § § Many opportunities for students to produce the skill Strategic integration of content Judicious use of differentiated instruction Ample review of skills Specific instruction on vocabulary Key finding: Highly successful teachers displayed a seamless integration of instructional objectives. Baker and Thompson © 2003 25

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § The following examples demonstrate the utilization and Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § The following examples demonstrate the utilization and integration of the instructional practices observed during the study. Baker and Thompson © 2003 26

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill and content integration. § Instructional Objective: Integrating Phonics and Vocabulary § First set of target words included the following: § b oy § en joy § oy ster § Student blended sounds and gave sentences with target words Baker and Thompson © 2003 27

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill, Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill, content integration, and ample review. § Instructional Objective: Integrating phonics and vocabulary § Second set of target words included the following: § Voice, spoil, noise: § Each word defined by students or the teacher & used in a sentence § Discussion about similarity among words: voice, similar, noise, boy, enjoy, oyster § § § Students answer questions & discuss Critical objective was to make sure students understood sounds were the same but spellings were different Review 30 minutes later: students given definitions and required to identify target words Baker and Thompson © 2003 28

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Content integration, ample review, Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Content integration, ample review, and student production of the skill. § Instructional Objective: Integrating Phonological Awareness and Vocabulary § Sound for the Day: /aw/ (saw, straw, haul) § During Instruction: Teacher said sounds slowly & students said the word § Use of different methods of Vocabulary Instruction § Multiple meaning words (e. g. , two kinds of “saw”) § Giving and discussing definitions (e. g. , discussed meaning of straw) § Multiple methods of understanding (e. g. , vivid demonstration of “haul”) § Students had to use each word in a sentence Baker and Thompson © 2003 29

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Student production of skill and frequent vocabulary instruction § Instructional Objective: Vocabulary building § 7 minutes into the lesson there was a short vocabulary activity § Words from upcoming story were written on the board: § Photo — student gives sentence; teacher shows a photograph, discusses, & uses in a sentence § Graph — teacher shows graph of class’s favorite character (Little Miss Muffet); uses different colored chalk to highlight; students explain the term § Elephant — student gives a sentence; discussion of how an elephant is different than other animals § Telephone — two students gave definitions and used in sentences Baker and Thompson © 2003 30

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Judicious use of differentiated Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Judicious use of differentiated instruction and opportunities to practice the skill § Instructional Objective: Teaching phonological segmenting § Most Intense Instruction with Students Most At Risk § Daily small group instruction with three English language learners § During one lesson the target words were: fat, fit, fast, pit § Lesson emphasis on: § students hearing individual sounds; § seeing patterns (beginning /f/, middle vowel); § each student producing each sound multiple times Baker and Thompson © 2003 31

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Specific instruction on vocabulary Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Specific instruction on vocabulary and opportunities to produce the skill. Key Factors Related to Building Vocabulary § Focus on a small number of critical words § Multiple exposures to build depth of knowledge § Provide many opportunities for oral & writing practice § Introduce new words before they are encountered in reading Baker and Thompson © 2003 32

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § Instructional Practices Used: Integrating vocabulary and Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § Instructional Practices Used: Integrating vocabulary and comprehension instruction, opportunities to produce skill, and specific instruction on vocabulary (previous day) Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story “Clyde the Monster” § Difficult vocabulary was taught the day before § Students wrote vocabulary words in notebooks they would use the next day § Students read the story with the teacher § Then they wrote a letter to Clyde § Teacher modeled extensively § Students required to use specific vocabulary Baker and Thompson © 2003 33

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Integrating vocabulary and comprehension Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Practices Used: Integrating vocabulary and comprehension instruction, specific instruction on vocabulary and opportunities to produce skill § Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story § “Strange Bumps” by Arnold Lobel Before Reading Activities § In preparing to read, students prompted to use “reading strategies” -- students identified what those strategies were § Emphasis on doing “what good readers do”) § Class browses through the book § Importance of understanding: “Brain can see what’s happening in the story” § Teacher uses “think alouds” during this warm-up to model getting ready to read (Lesson continues on next slides) Baker and Thompson © 2003 34

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § § Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § § Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story “Strange Bumps” by Arnold Lobel (continued from previous slide) Before Reading Activities Prior to reading the story there was a short vocabulary lesson § Target words included: darkness, pleasant, tonight § § Explanations / discussions of target words were short & context specific; usually with synonyms Students explained word meanings; § Teacher gave summary definition of each word (lesson continues) Baker and Thompson © 2003 35

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § Instructional Objective: Comprehension with reading the story “Strange Bumps” by Arnold Lobel (continued from previous slides) § During Story Reading Activities During the reading of the story, target words were identified and students and teacher discussed briefly During this initial reading of the story, frequent pauses to address comprehension § § § Students’ attention drawn to central question: “What could those bumps be? ” (interjected throughout story) § Students required to use clues and “evidence” from the story to discuss this central question and other story-related questions. Baker and Thompson © 2003 36

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § § Instructional Practices Used: Opportunities to Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § § Instructional Practices Used: Opportunities to produce skill and ample review of skills Instructional Objective: Building fluency Less commonly observed than instruction on the other essential early literacy skills § When observed, teachers provided fluency building by: § Working in pairs or partners for practice § Providing specific time for rereading texts Baker and Thompson © 2003 37

Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § Instructional Practices Used: Opportunities to produce Positive Instructional Practices Related to ELLs § § Instructional Practices Used: Opportunities to produce skill and ample review of skills Instructional Objective: Building fluency through pairing or partnering students Short focused interactions -- teacher monitored and listened for “good” reading and discussions Students took turns reading -- always discussed what was read; § Connections made to the text and their own experiences § Discussion with partner about what they do when afraid; after reading “Strange Bumps” with partner § Partner work was also a vehicle for language use § Followed by “seminars” with the whole class § Strong academic emphasis in partner work Baker and Thompson © 2003 38

Application Activity § Think about this discussion and write down two ideas or instructional Application Activity § Think about this discussion and write down two ideas or instructional practices you can use with your ELL students to improve their reading skills. Baker and Thompson © 2003 39

Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of today’s session are to: Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do The objectives of today’s session are to: 1. Understand the role of assessment in Reading First with English Language Learners (ELLs). 2. Identify instructional practices related to positive academic outcomes for ELLs. 3. Identify methods to enhance core reading instruction for ELLs. Baker and Thompson © 2003 40

Practices that Enhance Reading Instruction § Demonstrate explicit steps and strategies § Model multiple Practices that Enhance Reading Instruction § Demonstrate explicit steps and strategies § Model multiple examples § Provide multiple opportunities to practice § Structure ample review and opportunities for learning Baker and Thompson © 2003 41

Instructional Implications for ELLs Demonstrate Explicit Steps & Strategies § Consistent language will allow Instructional Implications for ELLs Demonstrate Explicit Steps & Strategies § Consistent language will allow ELL learners to focus on the task. § Be sure to explain the terms you will use initially so students know what they mean. § If the explanation is complex or time consuming, preview the terms and activities ahead of time. § Explicit instruction of spelling rules and decoding strategies is beneficial. Baker and Thompson © 2003 42

Instructional Implications for ELLs Model Multiple Examples § Multiple examples give ELL learners a Instructional Implications for ELLs Model Multiple Examples § Multiple examples give ELL learners a better understanding of the task they are expected to perform. § Be sure that examples include the range of tasks and level of difficulty that are expected to perform. Baker and Thompson © 2003 43

Instructional Implications for ELLs Provide Multiple Opportunities to Practice § § § The use Instructional Implications for ELLs Provide Multiple Opportunities to Practice § § § The use of choral responding provides EL learners an opportunity to practice without focusing too much attention on them. Small group instruction provides opportunities to focus on specific skills, preview tasks and vocabulary, and review and provide additional practice. Individual turns helps you ensure ELLs are completing the tasks independently. Baker and Thompson © 2003 44

Instructional Implications for ELLs Structure Ample Review and Opportunities for Learning § § § Instructional Implications for ELLs Structure Ample Review and Opportunities for Learning § § § English sounds and words that are new to them and not part of their home language Auditorily similar letters Words that are not part of either their receptive or expressive vocabulary Letters if their home language is not alphabetic Letter-sound correspondences if their home language is syllabic or logographic Irregular words, especially function words Baker and Thompson © 2003 45

Evaluating a Lesson § How well does this lesson meet the needs of ELLs? Evaluating a Lesson § How well does this lesson meet the needs of ELLs? Objective: PA: Segmentation of rimes § Tell the students that you will say a word and they will repeat only the end of each word. § Model the task. If I say buy, you will say the end of the word, /i/. Model again with the words go and key. § Ask students to perform the task with the following list: say, bone, tea, now, same, bow, tie, knee, soon, bay, toe, neat What are concern areas for ELLs? ________________________ § Baker and Thompson © 2003 46

Problem English Sounds § Spanish § b, d, dg, h, j, m, n, ng, Problem English Sounds § Spanish § b, d, dg, h, j, m, n, ng, r, sh, t, th, v, w, y, z, sclusters, end clusters § Chinese § b, ch, d, dg, f, j, l, m, n, ng, long o, sh, th, v, z, lclusters, r-clusters § Vietnamese § Long a, long e, k, l, ng, p, r, sh, s, y, l-clusters, rclusters § Korean § b, l, long o, ow, p, r, sh, t, th, l-clusters, r-clusters Baker and Thompson © 2003 47

Evaluating a Lesson § How well does this lesson meet the needs of ELLs? Evaluating a Lesson § How well does this lesson meet the needs of ELLs? Instructional Objective: PA: Oral blending § Tell students that you say some words, one sound at a time. They should listen carefully, blend the sounds together, and tell you what your word is. After blending each word, have volunteers use it in a sentence. § Words: see, pie, no, dye, lay, seed, pipe, nose, dime, lace What are concern areas for ELLs? ________________________ § Baker and Thompson © 2003 48

General Principles for Instruction When Teaching ELLs Instructional Principle §Provide Why Important? “think alouds” General Principles for Instruction When Teaching ELLs Instructional Principle §Provide Why Important? “think alouds” §Set clear goals for language and content §Tap student’s prior knowledge §Use visuals & manipulatives §Teach key vocabulary Baker and Thompson © 2003 49

General Principles for Instruction When Teaching ELLs Instructional Principle §Adjust Why Important? speech §Provide General Principles for Instruction When Teaching ELLs Instructional Principle §Adjust Why Important? speech §Provide practice and application §Provide corrective feedback Baker and Thompson © 2003 50

Applying ELL Principles to Reading Instruction § § ELL Principle: Provide “think-alouds” and modeling Applying ELL Principles to Reading Instruction § § ELL Principle: Provide “think-alouds” and modeling Instructional Objective of Reading Lesson: Monitoring and clarifying § After reading, ”Coyote was sitting peacefully in the meadow when he saw Rabbit run past, quick as an arrow. ” § Say, “We know that good readers clarify while they read to check their understanding. I don’t know what quick as an arrow means. Let’s keep reading and look for story clues to help us figure this out. Coyote says “If Rabbit’s running that fast, there must be hunters after him. ” That helps us understand that quick as an arrow means “to run very fast. ” Baker and Thompson © 2003 51

Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § ELL Principle: Set clear goals Instructional Objective Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § ELL Principle: Set clear goals Instructional Objective of Reading Lesson: PA instruction: Final phoneme segmentation § Tell the students that for today’s game, the puppet wants them to repeat only the very last sound of each word you say. § Teacher: beach § Teacher: race Puppet: /ch/ Puppet: /s/ § After a few demonstrations, let students speak for the puppet, repeating only the last phoneme of each word you say. § After giving students their cue to speak, invite students to speak in place of the puppet with the following words: mouse, cave, mash, him, mouth, case, math, hiss, cheese, cage, man, hip, cheap, came, map, mug, cheek, cake, mad, much Baker and Thompson © 2003 52

Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § ELL Principle: Tap students prior knowledge Instructional Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § ELL Principle: Tap students prior knowledge Instructional Objective of Reading Lesson: Reading Folktales § Tell students that you are going to read a folktale about animals in a chase. Help students recall other folktales they are familiar with that have animals characters, for example, ”The Three Little Pigs. ” § Ask the students what a chase is. Ask them whether they’ve ever seen animals chase one another before, why would animals chase one another? Baker and Thompson © 2003 53

Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Use visuals and manipulatives Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Use visuals and manipulatives Instructional Objective of Reading Lesson: previewing a story Browse: Have students look at the illustrations on page 30 -31. Ask a volunteer to tell what coyote is looking at. Then have students browse several pages and name other animals they see. Baker and Thompson © 2003 54

Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Teach key vocabulary Instructional Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Teach key vocabulary Instructional Objective of Reading Lesson: Building vocabulary Write the following words on the board and pronounce them. § Coyote § Rabbit Point out to students that these words name animals. Ask students to name other animals they will meet in the story. Then talk about other animal characters students have met in stories and poems. Baker and Thompson © 2003 55

Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Adjusting Speech Instructional Objective Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Adjusting Speech Instructional Objective of Reading Lesson: PA: Hearing initial sounds Initial consonant sounds § Write hamburger on the board. Touch the word, and tell students that this word is hamburger. Have them say the word. § Then tell the students that you will change the word by changing the first sound. § Erase the h and tell them that now the word will begin with /s/. Ask what the new word is (samburger). Have the students say the new word. § Continue by erasing the first letter and substituting with other consonant sounds such as /b/, /g/, /k/, /sh/, and /t/. Pronounce each sound. Then write the letters. Ask the students what each new word is. § Other words that can be used for this activity include visitor, cinnamon, railroad, building, sailboat, and garbage. Baker and Thompson © 2003 56

Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Provide practice and application Applying ELL Principles Reading Instruction § § § ELL Principle: Provide practice and application Instructional Objective of Reading Lesson: PA: Hearing initial sounds Initial /s/: Tell students that you are going to say some words. Tell them to signal thumbs-up when they hear the /s/ sound at the beginning of a word and to do nothing when they do not hear the sound. Some words are: § Say, see, kite, sun, sit, time, suit, sight, boot, song, soap, note § Ask students to suggest other words that begin with /s/. Baker and Thompson © 2003 57

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § As we look at the following Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § As we look at the following example lessons from different core reading programs, think about the following: § Identify possible concern areas for ELLs. § How to enhance the lesson so ELLs can be more successful. Baker and Thompson © 2003 58

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Alphabetic principle: Blending and Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Alphabetic principle: Blending and Review with Long “e” § Use whole-word blending when blending the words in this line. Ask students to tell you how many syllables are in each word. Point out that all the words have the long e sound spelled e. we he § she me Blend the words by breaking them into syllables (compete, complete, concrete, athlete) (lesson continues on next slide) Baker and Thompson © 2003 59

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective (cont. ): Alphabetic principle: Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective (cont. ): Alphabetic principle: Blending and Review with Long “e” § Ask why all the words begin with a capital letter. Help the students see that they are names of people. Do whole-word blending for this word line: Gene Steve § Pete Eve Review the high-frequency word s before writing the sentences. Have the students reread the sentences to promote fluency. § The athlete competes for a prize. § Eve and Pete mix concrete. Baker and Thompson © 2003 60

Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there areas of concern for ELLs § Underline concern areas How could the lesson be enhanced to meet the learners needs? Baker and Thompson © 2003 61

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Developing Oral Language and Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Developing Oral Language and Vocabulary § For each clue call on someone to erase the corresponding word in the line and use the word in a sentence. Ask another child to extend the sentence by asking them questions such as When? , Where? , What? , and Which? § What is the name of a person who is skilled in sports? § What is it called when one team plays against another? § What word is a name for a material used to build roads or sidewalks? Baker and Thompson © 2003 62

Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there areas of concern for ELLs § Underline concern areas How could the lesson be enhanced to meet the learners needs? Baker and Thompson © 2003 63

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Building Background knowledge § Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Building Background knowledge § Activate Prior Knowledge § Invite students to tell you what they know about sleet, hail, and hurricanes. Baker and Thompson © 2003 64

Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there areas of concern for ELLs § Underline concern areas How could the lesson be enhanced to meet the learners needs? Baker and Thompson © 2003 65

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Connected text reading, getting Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Connected text reading, getting ready to read § Browse § Demonstrate how to browse and have students preview a few pages by browsing them. Ask students to activate prior knowledge relevant to this section. Ask the students what they think they will learn about weather by listening to these pages. Encourage them to predict what it is about. § Set Purposes § After browsing encourage students to set the purpose for reading. § Encourage students to ask questions they would like to have answered when they listen to the selection. Write the students’ purposes and questions on the board. Baker and Thompson © 2003 66

Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there areas of concern for ELLs § Underline concern areas How could the lesson be enhanced to meet the learners needs? Baker and Thompson © 2003 67

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Building vocabulary § Write Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Instructional Objective: Building vocabulary § Write the following words on the board and say them: § Sleet hurricane tornados ground ocean § Invite students to tell what they like about the words. If necessary explain what they mean. § Invite volunteers to use the words in sentences. Baker and Thompson © 2003 68

Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there areas of concern for ELLs § Underline concern areas How could the lesson be enhanced to meet the learners needs? Baker and Thompson © 2003 69

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § § Instructional Objective: Comprehension strategies (monitoring Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § § Instructional Objective: Comprehension strategies (monitoring and clarifying, making connections, asking questions) Model the use of the following comprehension strategies: monitoring and clarifying, making connections, and asking questions while reading the text “Some storms bring sleet, a mixture of rain and snow. ” § Clarifying: Model by saying, “We learned the word sleet before reading the selection. We learned that it is an icy mixture of rain and snow. This first sentence tells us what sleet is. It says that it’s a mixture of rain and snow. Sometimes the definitions of words are written in selections like this one. ” (lesson continues) Baker and Thompson © 2003 70

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § § § Monitoring and clarifying (continued): Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § § § Monitoring and clarifying (continued): Read, “ You have to walk very carefully, because sleet can make the sidewalks icy and slippery. ” Read, “I wonder what the word slippery means. I’m going to use clues from the text to figure it out. In the text it says that you have to walk carefully and that sleet can make the sidewalks icy. Usually you have to walk carefully when there is some kind of danger, and I know that the word icy means ‘very slick, ’ like ice. Slippery must mean that the surface is slick and the danger is that your feet might slide and you might fall down. ” (lesson continues) Baker and Thompson © 2003 71

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Asking Questions (continued): Read, “In a Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Asking Questions (continued): Read, “In a hailstorm, raindrops freeze into ice before they reach the ground. Hail can be as big as this. ” Model, “I wonder if hail is always this big. Maybe I will learn more about hail if I read on. If you think of questions as we read, please share them with the class. ” § Making Connections: Read, “the rain’s so heavy that they cause floods…the waves so high that they wash houses and sandy beaches into the sea. ” Model, “I have seen floods on television. I know how strong they are. ” (lesson continues) Baker and Thompson © 2003 72

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Discussing and Expanding Comprehension (cont. ): Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Discussing and Expanding Comprehension (cont. ): Engage students in a discussion to determine whether they have grasped the following ideas: § § What is sleet? Why should you walk carefully on a sidewalk covered with sleet? What are hailstones? What are two of the worst kinds of storms? § To aid understanding, have students discuss the main idea of each picture on the pages of this selection. § Have students discuss what they learned about hailstorms and hurricanes from this selection. (lesson continues) Baker and Thompson © 2003 73

Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Reviewing Vocabulary (cont. ): Write the Applying ELL Principles to Core Reading Programs § Reviewing Vocabulary (cont. ): Write the words sleet, hurricanes, tornados, ground, and ocean on the board. § Ask students what word they would use to answer the following questions: § § § What storms form over the ocean? What is a mixture of rain and snow? What is the name of a very large body of water? What storms travel in a funnel cloud? What is another name for the hard surface of Earth? § Have students use these words in oral sentences. Then have them copy the words in the vocabulary words section of their “Writer’s Notebook” and write a sentence or draw a picture for each word. Baker and Thompson © 2003 74

Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there Enhancing the Reading Lesson § § Evaluate the previous lesson to identify if there areas of concern for ELLs § Underline concern areas How could the lesson be enhanced to meet the learners needs? Baker and Thompson © 2003 75

General Recommendations to Support ELLs within Core Reading § Stay focused on the lesson General Recommendations to Support ELLs within Core Reading § Stay focused on the lesson objective. § Ensure that students can complete the task prior to instruction. § If necessary, introduce a new task that may need additional modeling or vocabulary instruction for a lesson ahead of time. § Be careful in your assessment of students’ phonics knowledge; non-native pronunciation of a word does not necessarily indicate lack of phonics knowledge. Baker and Thompson © 2003 76

Application Activity § What information do you want to share with your school team Application Activity § What information do you want to share with your school team members? Baker and Thompson © 2003 77