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 Insight on Property Valuation Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 1 Insight on Property Valuation Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 1

Your Instructor Today Laurie Infantino, CIC, AFIS, CISC, ACSR, CISC, CRIS President and Co-Founder Your Instructor Today Laurie Infantino, CIC, AFIS, CISC, ACSR, CISC, CRIS President and Co-Founder of The Insurance Community Center Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com

California Department of Insurance New Regulation on Valuation Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. California Department of Insurance New Regulation on Valuation Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com

The Regulation is Long Overdue • The discussions began as far back as 2005 The Regulation is Long Overdue • The discussions began as far back as 2005 when SB 2 was added to Section 1749. 85 to the California Insurance Code (CIC). • The regulation is in response to the “chronic” problem of underinsurance most notably in the area of residential properties. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 4

The Regulation is Long Overdue • The State Insurance Commissioner, Steve Poizner, initially proposed The Regulation is Long Overdue • The State Insurance Commissioner, Steve Poizner, initially proposed these regulations as a result of major wildfires most notably in the San Diego area that destroyed 1600 homes and a reported 35, 000 claims according to the L. A. Times. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 5

The Regulation is Long Overdue • A major issue following the loss was underinsurance The Regulation is Long Overdue • A major issue following the loss was underinsurance and who should be held responsible. Many homeowners publically complained that they felt they had been mislead by their insurers. • United Policyholders, an insurance consumer group, called on the commissioner to take action. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 6

The Regulation is Long Overdue • California courts have ruled that homeowners have the The Regulation is Long Overdue • California courts have ruled that homeowners have the primary responsibility for ensuring that they have enough insurance on their property. • Insurers are brought into the actions because they are supplying the valuation tools that they require be completed for acceptance Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 7

The Regulation is Long Overdue • The agent certainly has been held responsible but The Regulation is Long Overdue • The agent certainly has been held responsible but errors, omissions, negligence are not that easy to prove • The regulation is a heightened responsibility on the agent/broker Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 8

An Agent is the Eyes and Ears of the Company they represent AND Insurance An Agent is the Eyes and Ears of the Company they represent AND Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 9

Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • (b) On or after June 27, 2011, Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • (b) On or after June 27, 2011, every California resident fire and casualty broker-agent and personal lines broker-agent who has not already taken a homeowners' insurance valuation training course must satisfactorily complete one three-hour training course on homeowners' insurance valuation meeting the requirements of this section prior to estimating the replacement value of structures in connection with, or explaining the various levels of coverage under, a homeowners' insurance policy. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 10

Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • For resident broker-agents, this requirement shall be Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • For resident broker-agents, this requirement shall be part of, and not in addition to, the continuing education requirements of Insurance Code section 1749. 3. The homeowners' insurance valuation training course needs to be taken only once in order to satisfy the requirements of this subdivision • http: //www 20. insurance. ca. gov/epubacc/REG /151771. htm Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 11

Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • This class must only be taken once Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • This class must only be taken once and does qualify for three hours of CE • An individual who no longer has to take CE in California due to their age still MUST take this class if they are involved in residential insurance • The regulation is for California resident fire and casualty broker-agent and personal lines broker-agents ONLY Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 12

Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • If individuals who primarily write commercial lines Overview (2188. 65 and 1749. 85) • If individuals who primarily write commercial lines also offer advice and provide any information on estimations on residential insurance then they should attend this class, as well to avoid any future problems Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 13

Section 2695. 182. Documentation of Person Making Estimate • This section is VERY important Section 2695. 182. Documentation of Person Making Estimate • This section is VERY important and discusses the new requirements for documenting estimations. The section should be read in its totality, communicated to the entire office staff and procedures should be put in place for compliance and monitoring of the systems. We will discuss some of the key requirements later in the course. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 14

Course Objective • Be able to differentiate between a homeowners policy and a dwelling Course Objective • Be able to differentiate between a homeowners policy and a dwelling property form • Be able to estimate the value of an insured’s property by having basic knowledge of its value • Know the valuation principles and methods • Know the value of the components of a dwelling to access its replacements cost or value Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 15

Course Objective • Have the ability to recognize other factors influencing the replacement cost Course Objective • Have the ability to recognize other factors influencing the replacement cost • Have knowledge of endorsements used in relation to the insuring of replacement costs of homeowners’/dwelling policy; and, • Understand the process used in determining the value of an insured’s property Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 16

No Two Homes Are Exactly Alike Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com No Two Homes Are Exactly Alike Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 17

No Two Homes Are Exactly Alike For Sure Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. No Two Homes Are Exactly Alike For Sure Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 18

Property Valuation • “Value is a matter of opinion”, according to a New Jersey Property Valuation • “Value is a matter of opinion”, according to a New Jersey court. “Not only in the eyes of the courts is value indeterminate, but appraisers differ in their opinions and contractors bidding on the same job vary widely in their cost estimates”. » Practical Risk Management Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 19

Property Valuation Practical Risk Management • “Further, values for insurance purposes differ significantly from Property Valuation Practical Risk Management • “Further, values for insurance purposes differ significantly from values for other purposes”. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 20

Differences between Homeowners and Dwelling Property Policies Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. Differences between Homeowners and Dwelling Property Policies Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 21

Insurance Policies • A dwelling is considered a residential property of up to four Insurance Policies • A dwelling is considered a residential property of up to four units, whether occupied by the insured or not • There are several forms of insurance for residential properties • The type of policy that should be written on a residence depends on the underwriting considerations discussed in this course Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 22

Insurance Policies • A Homeowner’s policy is for a dwelling that is owner occupied Insurance Policies • A Homeowner’s policy is for a dwelling that is owner occupied • In general the major considerations that determine the type of policy to be issued include: – – – Type of Residence Ownership Occupancy Age, Condition and Protection Values • Insurance Companies all have different eligibility requirements for different insurance forms Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 23

Insurance Policies Difference in property coverage forms Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. Insurance Policies Difference in property coverage forms Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 24

DP Forms Available Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 25 DP Forms Available Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 25

Reasons to Write the Dwelling Fire Program • Home does not qualify for a Reasons to Write the Dwelling Fire Program • Home does not qualify for a Homeowners Policy • Residence is NOT owner-occupied • Residence is in a designated brush hazard area • Residence is under construction • Home is vacant • Differences in property coverages available on the DP series necessitates different coverage levels and valuation triggers Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 26

Reasons to Write the Dwelling Fire Program • Residence value is less then the Reasons to Write the Dwelling Fire Program • Residence value is less then the minimum or maximum allowable by the company • Residence is a “seasonal” or secondary • Residence is not up to the “physical” standards • Residence may be owned in a name different from the “home owners” such as a partnership, joint venture or corporation Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 27

Reasons to Write the Dwelling Fire Program • The insured may prefer having their Reasons to Write the Dwelling Fire Program • The insured may prefer having their home issued on a Dwelling Program because: – The insured might not want or need the full range of homeowners coverages – The Homeowners Program might be more expensive than the insured chooses to pay Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 28

California FAIR Plan • The California FAIR plan policy is written on a DP California FAIR Plan • The California FAIR plan policy is written on a DP 1 basis • The policy is written on an ACV basis and Replacement Cost is optional on the Dwelling Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 29

CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) • Dwelling coverage - The coverage limit is the insured CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) • Dwelling coverage - The coverage limit is the insured value of your home stated on your companion homeowner policy. • Additional Coverages Limited Building Code Upgrade In most California communities, repairing or rebuilding a home after an earthquake must be done according to current building codes. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 30

CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) • In addition to providing funds for repairing or replacing CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) • In addition to providing funds for repairing or replacing your home, the CEA base policy includes an additional $10, 000 in Building Code Upgrade coverage. Option to Increase Building Code Upgrade Coverage For policies that renew or become effective on or after July 1, 2006, homeowners can choose to increase Building Code Upgrade coverage by an additional $10, 000, for a total Building Code Upgrade coverage limit of $20, 000. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 31

CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) • Your CEA policy excludes some items from dwelling coverage. CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) • Your CEA policy excludes some items from dwelling coverage. A partial list of items that are not covered includes: • Detached garages and most other structures that are not part of the dwelling • Land damage (other than $10, 000 in coverage for land stabilization) • Swimming pools and spas • Awnings and patio coverings Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 32

CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) Fences, landscaping, and irrigation systems Antennas and satellite dishes Patios CEA (www. earthquakeauthority. com) Fences, landscaping, and irrigation systems Antennas and satellite dishes Patios and decks Walkways and driveways not needed for pedestrian or disabled access to your home • Certain decorative or artistic items such as mirrors, chandeliers, stained glass, or mosaics • • Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 33

California Earthquake Authority (CEA) Section 10081 • That coverage may be provided in the California Earthquake Authority (CEA) Section 10081 • That coverage may be provided in the policy of residential property insurance itself, either by specific policy provision or endorsement, or in a separate policy or certificate of insurance which specifically provides coverage for loss or damage caused by the peril of earthquake alone or in combination with other perils. • http: //www. leginfo. ca. gov/cgibin/displaycode? section=ins&group=1000111000&file=10081 -10089. 4 Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 34

Homeowners • Homeowners Policies are the premier policy for the owner of a home Homeowners • Homeowners Policies are the premier policy for the owner of a home who occupies it as their residence. • It is a package policy of Property and Liability and includes a lot of enhanced coverages and numerous endorsements. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 35

Homeowners • Every company has their own eligibility and their own form and endorsements Homeowners • Every company has their own eligibility and their own form and endorsements • ISO provides a guideline for homeowners coverages Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 36

Homeowners Forms Available Homeowner s Basic Form HO 0001 Not widely used Homeowner s Homeowners Forms Available Homeowner s Basic Form HO 0001 Not widely used Homeowner s Broad Form HO 0002 Not widely used Homeowners Special Form HO 0003 Coverage A, B, C, D Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 37

Homeowners Forms Available Contents Broad Form Homeowners Comprehensive Form Homeowners Unit Owners Insurance Community Homeowners Forms Available Contents Broad Form Homeowners Comprehensive Form Homeowners Unit Owners Insurance Community University HO 0004 Coverage C, D HO 0005 Coverage A, B, C, D HO 0006 Coverage A, C, D www. Insurance. Community. University. com 38

Homeowners Forms Available Homeowner s Modified Form HO 0008 Coverage A, B, C, D Homeowners Forms Available Homeowner s Modified Form HO 0008 Coverage A, B, C, D HO 04 81 05 96 Actual Cash Value Changes the valuation on all building losses to ACV. Endorsement used for homeowners who do not want to carry enough insurance to comply with valuation provision Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 39

What Types of Properties Are Insured On A Homeowner’s Policy • A Single Family What Types of Properties Are Insured On A Homeowner’s Policy • A Single Family Dwelling • A Multiple Family Dwelling (1 -4 units) • A Townhouse Unit Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 40

Basic Concepts of Property Valuations Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 41 Basic Concepts of Property Valuations Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 41

Loss Settlement Provisions • Loss Settlement Provisions are contained in each type of property Loss Settlement Provisions • Loss Settlement Provisions are contained in each type of property policy • Loss Settlement Provisions in terms of how it applies indicates how a loss will be settled and on what basis: – Valuation trigger – What will happen if there is underinsurance – What will happen if the insured does not repair or replace Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 42

What effect does underinsurance have on a settlement • Insurance companies require that a What effect does underinsurance have on a settlement • Insurance companies require that a home be insured to replacement cost in order for them to qualify for a homeowners policy • Estimators are required as minimum indicators of coverage • In the event of underinsurance the insured will NOT receive the total loss that they claim Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 43

What effect does underinsurance have on a settlement • There is no “coinsurance” requirement What effect does underinsurance have on a settlement • There is no “coinsurance” requirement on a Homeowners Policy but there is an “Insurance to Value Clause” Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 44

Insurance To Value Clause on a Homeowners Policy Buildings covered under Coverage A or Insurance To Value Clause on a Homeowners Policy Buildings covered under Coverage A or B at replacement cost without deduction for depreciation, subject to the following: a. If, at the time of loss, the amount of insurance in this policy on the damaged building is 80% or more of the full replacement cost of the building immediately before the loss, we will pay the cost to repair or replace, after application of any deductible and without deduction for depreciation, but not more than the least of the following amounts: Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 45

Insurance To Value Clause on a Homeowners Policy (1) The limit of liability under Insurance To Value Clause on a Homeowners Policy (1) The limit of liability under this policy that applies to the building; (2) The replacement cost of that part of the building damaged with material of like kind and quality and for like use; or (3) The necessary amount actually spent to repair or replace the damaged building. If the building is rebuilt at a new premises, the cost described in (2) above is limited to the cost which would have been incurred if the building had been built at the original premises. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 46

Loss Settlement Provisions – – Market Value—Fair Market Value Jefferson Decision ACV Replacement Cost Loss Settlement Provisions – – Market Value—Fair Market Value Jefferson Decision ACV Replacement Cost • Under normal situations • Under catastrophic situations – Reproduction Cost • Historical buildings – Inflation Guard – Functional Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 47

Market Value/Fair Market Value • A term used in the Real Estate industry to Market Value/Fair Market Value • A term used in the Real Estate industry to represent the price a property can be sold at based on what the market will pay at any given time. • The price at which the property is being sold normally includes the land value and area consideration. • This is NOT appropriate to determine the amount of insurance to be carried. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 48

Bank Requirement Changed 2009 California Civil Code Section 2947 -2955. 5: Article 2. Mortgage Bank Requirement Changed 2009 California Civil Code Section 2947 -2955. 5: Article 2. Mortgage of Real Property http: //law. justia. com/codes/california/2009/civ/29 47 -2955. 5. html • 2955. 5. (a) No lender shall require a borrower, as a condition of receiving or maintaining a loan secured by real property, to provide hazard insurance coverage against risks to the improvements on that real property in an amount exceeding the replacement value of the improvements on the property. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 49

Actual Cash Value (ACV) • There is NO specific definition of this word in Actual Cash Value (ACV) • There is NO specific definition of this word in the insurance policies • It is broadly interpreted to mean the cost to repair or replace the property with material of like, kind and quality minus depreciation. • The insured need not repair or replace the damaged property to be indemnified on the contract-- it is a cash settlement and a “holdback” in terms of allowing for the full Replacement Cost. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 50

Actual Cash Value (ACV) – Physical deterioration – Functional obsolescence – Economic obsolescence due Actual Cash Value (ACV) – Physical deterioration – Functional obsolescence – Economic obsolescence due to causes independent of the property – Effective age as compared with other properties considering renovations and reconstruction – Future life expectancy Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 51

ACV And Obsolescence • Obsolescence can become a major factor in determining ACV. • ACV And Obsolescence • Obsolescence can become a major factor in determining ACV. • Although not an element of physical depreciation, obsolescence does reduce the market value and actual cash value of the property. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 52

ACV And Obsolescence • There are two basic types of obsolescence: – Functional – ACV And Obsolescence • There are two basic types of obsolescence: – Functional – Economic • This is a significant consideration in Commercial Lines Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 53

Replacement Cost less Depreciation of age, wear and tear • Factors that enter into Replacement Cost less Depreciation of age, wear and tear • Factors that enter into depreciation – Age – Usage – Wear and Tear – Obsolescence • Depreciation guides are available through some insurance companies AND there are sites that have important information such as: www. claimspages. com Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 54

Depreciation (Holdback) • There is a requirement under the Replacement Cost provision of a Depreciation (Holdback) • There is a requirement under the Replacement Cost provision of a Homeowners Policy to actually repair or replace or they will HOLDBACK the additional dollars available under the Loss Settlement Provision. • The policy reads as follows: Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 55

Depreciation (Holdback) We will pay no more than the actual cash value of the Depreciation (Holdback) We will pay no more than the actual cash value of the damage until actual repair or replacement is complete. Once actual repair or replacement is complete, we will settle the loss as noted in 2. a. and b. above. However, if the cost to repair or replace the damage is both: (1) Less than 5% of the amount of insurance in this policy on the building; and (2) Less than $2, 500; we will settle the loss as noted in 2. a. and b. above whether or not actual repair or replacement is complete. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 56

Depreciation (Holdback) • You may disregard the replacement cost loss settlement provisions and make Depreciation (Holdback) • You may disregard the replacement cost loss settlement provisions and make claim under this policy for loss to buildings on an actual cash value basis. You may then make claim for any additional liability according to the provisions of this Condition D. Loss Settlement, provided you notify us, within 180 days after the date of loss, of your intent to repair or replace the damaged building. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 57

Jefferson Decision vs. ACV • Since 1970 California has been referred to as a Jefferson Decision vs. ACV • Since 1970 California has been referred to as a “Fair Market Value” State or a Jefferson Decision State. • The case is Cheeks v. California Fair Plan. 61 Cal. APP. 4 th 423 (1998) • In the case, Cheeks’ home was severely damaged in the Northridge Earthquake of l 994 Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com » Claims Magazine July 2000 58

Jefferson Decision vs. ACV • It was insured on a policy with the California Jefferson Decision vs. ACV • It was insured on a policy with the California Fair Plan that promised: “Covered property losses are settled at Actual Cash Value at the time of loss, but not more than the amount required to repair or replace the damaged property. ” • Cheeks sued, contended that the ACV of his home, based on its market value, was more then the insurer’s estimate Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 59

Jefferson Decision vs. ACV • The basic test is what would a willing buyer Jefferson Decision vs. ACV • The basic test is what would a willing buyer pay for a property irrespective of land consideration Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 60

Replacement Cost • This is the cost to repair or replace the property with Replacement Cost • This is the cost to repair or replace the property with materials of "like, kind and quality" without depreciation. • Replacement cost is based on what it would cost to replace the structure on the same premises and for the same purpose without the requirement to do so. • Replacement cost would be different based on different types of structures; construction; square footage; upgrades Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 61

Replacement Cost • Replacement Cost applies to different types of structures including – Dwelling Replacement Cost • Replacement Cost applies to different types of structures including – Dwelling – Detached Garage – Detached buildings other than garages – Structures such as swimming pools, cabanas, etc • CIC Code 10102 has language precluding the use of Guaranteed Replacement Cost Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 62

Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • 2051. 5. (a) Under an Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • 2051. 5. (a) Under an open policy that requires payment of the replacement cost for a loss, the measure of indemnity is the amount that it would cost the insured to repair, rebuild, or replace thing lost or injured, without a deduction for physical depreciation, or the policy limit, whichever is less Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 63

Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • If the policy requires the Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • If the policy requires the insured to repair, rebuild, or replace the damaged property in order to collect the full replacement cost, the insurer shall pay the actual cash value of the damaged property, as defined in Section 2051, until the damaged property is repaired, rebuilt, or replaced. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 64

Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • Once the property is repaired, Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • Once the property is repaired, rebuilt, or replaced, the insurer shall pay the difference between the actual cash value payment made and the full replacement cost reasonably paid to replace the damaged property, up to the limits stated in the policy. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 65

Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • (c) In the event of Replacement Cost CIC Section 2051 and 2051. 5 • (c) In the event of a total loss of the insured structure, no policy issued or delivered in this state may contain a provision that limits or denies payment of the replacement cost in the event the insured decides to rebuild or replace the property at a location other than the insured premises. However, the measure of indemnity shall be based upon the replacement cost of the insured property and shall not be based upon the cost to repair, rebuild, or replace at a location other than the insured premises. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 66

Replacement Cost • There is, however, the requirement to actually rebuild, repair, or replace Replacement Cost • There is, however, the requirement to actually rebuild, repair, or replace in order to be indemnified on the contract. • Is the insured required to build at the same site? • Is the insured required to build the same home/building? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 67

Replacement Cost and Different Types of Structures • • Dwelling Attached Garage Detached Garage Replacement Cost and Different Types of Structures • • Dwelling Attached Garage Detached Garage Carport Fence Patios Greenhouse Insurance Community University • • Swimming Pools Jacuzzis Gazebos Guest Houses Barns Fire pits Docks Tennis Courts www. Insurance. Community. University. com 68

Additional costs associated with single or custom home • Estimators only provide basic information Additional costs associated with single or custom home • Estimators only provide basic information and “estimates” of value • Broker/Agents should always inspect a home, take pictures and do an on site evaluation for any costs associated with customization Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 69

Is that a house or a Garage? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. Is that a house or a Garage? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 70

Size and Type of Attached Garage • Garages vary in type, size, usage and Size and Type of Attached Garage • Garages vary in type, size, usage and construction (specialty finishes) • Often times the garage is overlooked in the overall valuation and must be considered as a separate line item Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 71

What’s that fence made out of? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com What’s that fence made out of? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 72

Replacement Cost and Different Types of Structures • Homeowners Estimators are only as good Replacement Cost and Different Types of Structures • Homeowners Estimators are only as good as the questions we ask your insured • We must identify ALL structures that they have to include in the value and insure properly Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 73

Other Costs relating to evaluating Replacement Cost • Cost of demolition and debris removal Other Costs relating to evaluating Replacement Cost • Cost of demolition and debris removal – The policy is silent on Demolition and would be construed to be covered under “Replacement Cost” – Debris Removal is included in a Homeowners Policy but the limit of insurance MUST include the costs associated with the coverage Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 74

Debris Removal • This expense is included in the limit of liability that applies Debris Removal • This expense is included in the limit of liability that applies to the damaged property. If the amount to be paid for the actual damage to the property plus the debris removal expense is more than the limit of liability for the damaged property, an additional 5% of that limit is available for such expense Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 75

Debris Removal And if there any Pollutants? ? And there probably are! Insurance Community Debris Removal And if there any Pollutants? ? And there probably are! Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 76

Other Costs relating to evaluating Replacement Cost We will also pay your reasonable expense, Other Costs relating to evaluating Replacement Cost We will also pay your reasonable expense, up to $1, 000, for the removal from the "residence premises" of: (1) Your trees felled by the peril of Windstorm or Hail or Weight of Ice, Snow or Sleet; or (2) A neighbor's trees felled by a Peril Insured Against under Coverage C; Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 77

Other Costs relating to evaluating Replacement Cost • Other costs that must be included Other Costs relating to evaluating Replacement Cost • Other costs that must be included when considering the amount for Replacement Cost would be: – Architect’s Plans – Engineering Studies – Building Permits Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 78

Replacement Cost and Additional Living (CIC 2051. 5) • (2) In the event of Replacement Cost and Additional Living (CIC 2051. 5) • (2) In the event of a covered loss relating to a state of emergency, as defined in Section 8558 of the Government Code, coverage for additional living expenses shall be for a period of 24 months, but shall be subject to other policy provisions, provided that any extension of time required by this paragraph beyond the period provided in the policy shall not act to increase the additional living expense policy limit in force at the time of the loss. This paragraph shall become operative on January 1, 2007. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 79

Functional Replacement Cost Loss Settlement - HO 05 30 10 00 • Allows for Functional Replacement Cost Loss Settlement - HO 05 30 10 00 • Allows for functionally equivalent building to replace the original structure. • Buildings under Coverages A or B are eligible. – Must be insured at least 80% to functional value. • Must contract to rebuild within 180 days of loss. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 80

Reproduction Cost • This is the cost to reproduce with identical types of materials Reproduction Cost • This is the cost to reproduce with identical types of materials rather than a functional equivalent. • It is used for special types of construction where reproducing the structure identically is necessary based on its value, function, or aesthetic quality. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 81

Reproduction Cost • If you own an historic building, whether it is a stately Reproduction Cost • If you own an historic building, whether it is a stately home or an ancient cottage, a standard policy from a general insurance provider could fall well short of expectations if you need to make a claim. If your building is also listed, it is protected by law, limiting repair options and making some higher costs unavoidable: it is the responsibility of the owner to insure it properly. www. buildingconservation. com Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 82

California Residential Property Insurance Disclosure Statement California Insurance Code (CIC) 10102 http: //www. leginfo. California Residential Property Insurance Disclosure Statement California Insurance Code (CIC) 10102 http: //www. leginfo. ca. gov/cgibin/displaycode? section=ins&group=1000 1 -11000&file=10101 -10107 Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 83

California Residential Property Insurance Disclosure Statement • This is a disclosure required by California California Residential Property Insurance Disclosure Statement • This is a disclosure required by California Law under section 10102 of the Insurance Code • For policies issued on or after July 1, 1993, the agent or insurer shall obtain the applicant's signature acknowledging receipt of the disclosure form within 60 days of the date of the application Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 84

California Residential Property Insurance Disclosure Statement • There is a checkmark required on the California Residential Property Insurance Disclosure Statement • There is a checkmark required on the Disclosure Form indicating the following valuation triggers – – Actual Cash Value Replacement Cost Value Extended Replacement Cost Guaranteed Replacement Cost • With limited building code upgrade • With unlimited/full building code upgrade – Building Code Upgrade Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 85

Components of a Structure Necessary to Estimate Replacement Cost Including a discussion on how Components of a Structure Necessary to Estimate Replacement Cost Including a discussion on how the various components contribute to Fire Hazard Identification Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 86

One of the Best Lessons in Construction Laguna Fires October 1993 http: //www. finehomebuilding. One of the Best Lessons in Construction Laguna Fires October 1993 http: //www. finehomebuilding. com/howto/articles/fire-resistant-details. aspx Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 87

Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 88 Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 88

Laguna Fires • That was the scene in October 1993 after a fire storm Laguna Fires • That was the scene in October 1993 after a fire storm destroyed nearly 400 homes in Laguna Beach, California. The fires started several miles inland swept to the sea at a brisk 2 mph to 4 mph, consuming increasingly thick vegetation along the way. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 89

Laguna Fires • Frequently, the flames boiled 50 ft. or 60 ft. into the Laguna Fires • Frequently, the flames boiled 50 ft. or 60 ft. into the air, and they reached temperatures of 2, 000°F or greater • The most obvious question homeowners, builders, architects and code officials asked as they combed the rubble for clues was how did a precious few structures survive such an inferno while houses on all sides vanished in the fire? What they learned was a number of lessons that likely will work their way into local building codes and should help to reduce the damage of future fires. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 90

Laguna Fires • The home of To Bui and Doris Bender was called a Laguna Fires • The home of To Bui and Doris Bender was called a "miracle house" by the Los Angeles Times because of its dramatic survival in a neighborhood almost totally devastated by the fire. Why did this trilevel structure and a few others like it survive while neighbors' homes on all sides, sometimes no more than 10 ft. or 15 ft. away, burned to the ground? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 91

Laguna Fires • Laguna Fires • "It's in the details, " Bui insists. He knows about such details. Originally from Vietnam, he lived and worked as a structural engineer in Germany for more than 10 years. There, the predominant building materials are concrete, stone, brick and steel. "In Germany, structures are designed to last hundreds of years, " he said. "I built my house to last. " Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 92

 • To prevent heat buildup, this house was constructed without eave overhangs, which • To prevent heat buildup, this house was constructed without eave overhangs, which also eliminates soffit vents. Cornices are built up with 2 x 12 s and 2 x 8 s and covered with 1 -in. stucco. The class-A fireretardant roof tiles are plugged with metal bird stop. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 93

Dormer Type Roof Vent Insurance Community University Minimal Gable End Vent www. Insurance. Community. Dormer Type Roof Vent Insurance Community University Minimal Gable End Vent www. Insurance. Community. University. com 94

Wooden deck surfaces are troweled over with several layers of fire-resistant coating. Undersides of Wooden deck surfaces are troweled over with several layers of fire-resistant coating. Undersides of all decking are stuccoed over with a 1 -in. layer of cement. The glassed-in deck rails are further protection against fire. Insurance Community University The owner of this Laguna Beach house stuccoed the undersides of all wooden deck surfaces to a maximum thickness of about 1 in. , virtually eliminating any exposed wood. www. Insurance. Community. University. com 95

Types of Basic Building Construction Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 96 Types of Basic Building Construction Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 96

Types of Construction • • • Tilt Up Cinderblock Wood Frame Brick & Masonry Types of Construction • • • Tilt Up Cinderblock Wood Frame Brick & Masonry Metal Frame Insurance Community University • Superior Construction – Non Combustible – Masonry Non Combustible – Fire Resistive www. Insurance. Community. University. com 97

Types of Foundations • Determining the types of foundations is very important for purposes Types of Foundations • Determining the types of foundations is very important for purposes of loss settlement and determination of value • If a foundation is cracked due to excessive heat, for example in a fire, then the loss is considered a constructive total loss and the foundation must be replaced • Often times the foundation may not be up to code such as in the example of the Oakland Fires Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 98

Types of Foundations • Type of Foundation – Depending on when and where a Types of Foundations • Type of Foundation – Depending on when and where a house was built, the foundation may be made of stone, brick, preservative-treated lumber, concrete block, or poured concrete. By far the most common material for foundations is concrete – There are three types of conventional concrete foundations: poured concrete, concrete block, and post-and-pier. Size and acceptable types are regulated by building codes Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 99

Foundations and the Homeowners To determine the amount of insurance required to equal 80% Foundations and the Homeowners To determine the amount of insurance required to equal 80% of the full replacement cost of the building immediately before the loss, do not include the value of: (1) Excavations, footings, foundations, piers, or any other structures or devices that support all or part of the building, which are below the undersurface of the lowest basement floor; (2) Those supports described in (1) above which are below the surface of the ground inside the foundation walls, if there is no basement; and (3) Underground flues, pipes, wiring and drains. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 100

Roofing Materials • Roofing Materials are very important in terms of fire hazard • Roofing Materials • Roofing Materials are very important in terms of fire hazard • Many older types of roofs are no longer acceptable, such as wood shake, due to their susceptibility to fire. • Example is the Laguna Fires where the roofs caught on fire and created explosions that was a major cause in spreading the loss to other homes. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 101

Roofing Materials • Roofing materials can be a significant cost factor in replacement of Roofing Materials • Roofing materials can be a significant cost factor in replacement of homes – – – – Shingles—Asphalt, Shingles Architectural Wood Shake, Wood Victorian Scallop Tile—Clay Concrete Tar & Gravel Slate Tin Copper Foam Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 102

That’s a roof? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 103 That’s a roof? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 103

That’s a roof? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 104 That’s a roof? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 104

Siding Materials • • Stucco Stone Veneer Cement Fiber Wood Clapboard Brick Veneer Cedar Siding Materials • • Stucco Stone Veneer Cement Fiber Wood Clapboard Brick Veneer Cedar Shingle Siding Engineered Wood Siding Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 105

Hazards There are checklists that are useful to help identify hazards and mitigate them Hazards There are checklists that are useful to help identify hazards and mitigate them such as: www. befiresmart. com/protect Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 106

Slope • The Slope on which a home is built enters into the per Slope • The Slope on which a home is built enters into the per square footage replacement cost. • As relates slope, various schemes for rating fire hazard have been developed • Five elements chosen by many agencies are: vegetation, canopy cover, slope, aspect, and elevation • Slope and Other Fire Hazard Considerations http: //grayback. com/applegate-valley/fireplan/how-freq. htm Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 107

Slope and Other Fire Hazard Considerations • Vegetation directly influences rate of spread, • Slope and Other Fire Hazard Considerations • Vegetation directly influences rate of spread, • Canopy cover and ladder fuels are closely related when it comes to hazard rating. A greater percentage of ladder fuels means a greater likelihood of a surface fire moving into the crown canopy, increasing the difficulty of suppressing the fire. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 108

Slope and Other Fire Hazard Considerations • Gravity dictates that many if not most Slope and Other Fire Hazard Considerations • Gravity dictates that many if not most things travel downhill faster than uphill. As the slope becomes steeper, fire increases in speed. On flat terrain, the spread of fire relies more on wind. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 109

Slope • Slope is graded in the following broad categories – Flat to Slight Slope • Slope is graded in the following broad categories – Flat to Slight – Moderate – Steep Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 110

Age of the structure or the year it was built • The age of Age of the structure or the year it was built • The age of the structure is important for valuation from a couple of aspects – Building could be substantially out of code – Building may be able to be built as it was prior to the loss – The building my be “historical” or have unique building items that must be included in Replacement Cost Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 111

CAT Losses make a big difference San Diego Fires 2007 Oakland Fires Laguna Beach CAT Losses make a big difference San Diego Fires 2007 Oakland Fires Laguna Beach Fires Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 112

Oakland Fires 1991 The destructive Oakland fires were an eye-opener when it came to Oakland Fires 1991 The destructive Oakland fires were an eye-opener when it came to rebuilding costs in the Bay Area. With the steep slopes in the Oakland hills, the bill came in at $400 per square foot rather than the $100 national average. www. paloaltoonline. com Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 113

Effects of Catastrophes on Replacement Cost • Under Normal Situations Repair and Replace • Effects of Catastrophes on Replacement Cost • Under Normal Situations Repair and Replace • Following a CAT loss the costs of construction can sky rocket – Cost of permits – Change in building codes – Supply and demand (Building Supplies) – Fuel Charges – Inability to replace at the same site— especially a consider in flood prone areas – Construction Labor Sources Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 114

Review of Significant Endorsements • • Guaranteed Replacement Cost Extended Replacement Cost Inflation Guard Review of Significant Endorsements • • Guaranteed Replacement Cost Extended Replacement Cost Inflation Guard Building Ordinance Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 115

Guaranteed Replacement Cost • The limit of insurance is suspended on the described property. Guaranteed Replacement Cost • The limit of insurance is suspended on the described property. • In the event of a total loss, the recovery is the actual amount of the loss. • In the event of a partial loss, the policy pays replacement cost or ACV if the property is not replaced. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 116

Guaranteed Replacement Cost • Many homeowner policies prior to 1991 provided this enhanced coverage. Guaranteed Replacement Cost • Many homeowner policies prior to 1991 provided this enhanced coverage. • In the aftermath of a catastrophic fire in the Berkeley Hills above Oakland, most homeowner policies revised this provision. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 117

CIC Code as relates Guaranteed Replacement Cost 10102 • Significant misuse of the “Guaranteed CIC Code as relates Guaranteed Replacement Cost 10102 • Significant misuse of the “Guaranteed Replacement Cost Endorsement” and Extended Replacement Costs have resulted in law suits following losses. • Specifically the term Guaranteed was misused leading the insured to believe that the full cost of replacement was “guaranteed” without restriction. According the code makes specific reference to this. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 118

Guaranteed Replacement Cost Section 10102 of CIC • e) No policy of residential property Guaranteed Replacement Cost Section 10102 of CIC • e) No policy of residential property insurance may be initially issued on and after January 1, 1993, as guaranteed replacement cost coverage if it contains any maximum limitation of coverage based on any set dollar limits, percentage amounts, construction cost limits, indexing, or any other preset maximum limitation for covered damage to the insured dwelling. The limitations referred to in this section are solely applicable to dwelling structure coverages. Endorsements covering additional risks to the insurer's dwelling structure coverage may have internal limits as long as those endorsements are not called guaranteed replacement cost coverage. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 119

Extended and Guaranteed • Misuse of Extended Replacement Cost AND Guaranteed Replacement Cost does Extended and Guaranteed • Misuse of Extended Replacement Cost AND Guaranteed Replacement Cost does NOT remove the obligation to insure to value and it is inappropriate and harmful to an insured to underinsure their property and rely on either of these endorsements as remedies. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 120

Extended Replacement Cost • Most homeowner policies today provide coverage for the dwelling at Extended Replacement Cost • Most homeowner policies today provide coverage for the dwelling at an increased percentage of the specified amount on the policy. • This provision has in the past been misused in setting value Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 121

Extended Replacement Cost • Commonly at 125% of the specified amount. • Requires the Extended Replacement Cost • Commonly at 125% of the specified amount. • Requires the home to be insured to 100% of the insurance company’s replacement value. • Must report any remodeling or additions that increase the reconstruction cost above $5, 000 or 5%, whichever is less. • What does it really mean anyway? ? ? Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 122

Catastrophe Coverages and Types of Replacement Cost • Following a Catastrophe loss there will Catastrophe Coverages and Types of Replacement Cost • Following a Catastrophe loss there will be increased costs of construction due to such issues as: construction labor, building supplies, fuel, transportation issues and permit restriction. • All of these can contribute to demand surge and the cost of rebuilding • Replacement Cost estimators do not take into account these increased costs • This is the purpose of the Extended Replacement Cost Endorsement Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 123

Inflation Guard • An Inflation Guard is usually a built in feature on a Inflation Guard • An Inflation Guard is usually a built in feature on a Homeowners and Commercial Property Form. • The Inflation Guard may appear as a percentage on the Declarations Page • The intent of the Inflation Guard is to provide coverage during the policy period to increase by a percentage for inflation of building costs. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 124

Inflation Guard • Example: If the insured has a $100, 000 limit for the Inflation Guard • Example: If the insured has a $100, 000 limit for the dwelling and a 5% Inflation Guard they will get 1/360 th of a 5% increase on a daily basis in the event of a total loss. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 125

Inflation Guard HO 04 46 • For an additional premium, the limits of liability Inflation Guard HO 04 46 • For an additional premium, the limits of liability for Coverages A, B, C and D will be increased annually by %*, applied pro rata during the policy period. • *Entries may be left blank if shown elsewhere in this policy for this coverage. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 126

Building Ordinance Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com Building Ordinance Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com

Regulate Everything About “How” A Building Is To Be Constructed • • Plumbing Electrical Regulate Everything About “How” A Building Is To Be Constructed • • Plumbing Electrical Structural support Grading Sloping Roofing Parking Spaces Set Backs Insurance Community University Flooring Insulation Landscaping Signs - placement, size and type • Materials used vs. Occupancy • ADA • Miscellaneous • • www. Insurance. Community. University. com 128

Sprinkler Code • California State Fire Marshal Information Bulletin • http: //osfm. fire. c. Sprinkler Code • California State Fire Marshal Information Bulletin • http: //osfm. fire. c. gov • http: //osfm. fire. ca. gov/pdf/firemarshal/ taskforcefinalrepord. pdf • Section R 313 and R 313. 3 Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 129

Building Code Upgrades • Building Code upgrades deal with the size and construction of Building Code Upgrades • Building Code upgrades deal with the size and construction of the entire structures and separately for the square footage of the living space. Valuation must be done to determine the amount necessary under the Building Ordinance Endorsements • This is not only important for older homes but is part of insurance company’s eligibility. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 130

Building Code Upgrades • If a home is over a certain age then it Building Code Upgrades • If a home is over a certain age then it must have required upgrades which would include such items as electrical, plumbing, and roofing. The company is specifically asking these questions to mitigate the fire exposure and exposure to other types of losses. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 131

Building Code Upgrades www. bsc. ca. gov Building codes regulate how a building has Building Code Upgrades www. bsc. ca. gov Building codes regulate how a building has to be reconstructed following a loss. • Types of construction and costs attached thereto can vary based on many factors: • Size of the building and at what point it must be sprinklered. • Number of stories and nonstandard interior wall heights is a factor. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 132

Building Code Upgrades www. bsc. ca. gov • There is a point with damage, Building Code Upgrades www. bsc. ca. gov • There is a point with damage, when the building must be ripped down and replaced in its entirety rather than simply repairing damage. • There always additional costs associated with building a custom home. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 133

Building Code Upgrades www. bsc. ca. gov • Geographic location in terms of set Building Code Upgrades www. bsc. ca. gov • Geographic location in terms of set backs, brush hazard and proximity to other hazards • Construction costs differ tremendously based on where the home is being built. This differs state by state and city by city. • Cost of demolition and debris removal are often written for a separate limit from the increased cost of construction. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 134

Homeowners Policy • Section I – Exclusions • We do not insure for loss Homeowners Policy • Section I – Exclusions • We do not insure for loss caused directly or indirectly by any of the following. Such loss is excluded regardless of any other cause or event contributing concurrently or in any sequence to the loss. • Ordinance or Law, meaning enforcement of any ordinance or law regulating the construction, repair, or demolition of a building or other structure, unless specifically provided under this policy. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 135

Building Ordinance Issues • Tearing down undamaged dwelling • Removing Debris • Building the Building Ordinance Issues • Tearing down undamaged dwelling • Removing Debris • Building the home as to updated building codes Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 136

Ordinance or Law • You may use up to 10% of the limit of Ordinance or Law • You may use up to 10% of the limit of liability that applies to Coverage A for the increased costs you incur due to the enforcement of any ordinance or law which requires or regulates – This is new to the 2000 series. – This can be increased with the HO 04 77 Ordinance or Law Increased Amount of Coverage. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 137

CIC Section #10103 • (5) Whether the policy provides coverage for the increased costs CIC Section #10103 • (5) Whether the policy provides coverage for the increased costs of repairing or replacing damage to the insured dwelling caused by a covered loss because of building ordinances or laws regulating the repair. In the event that no coverage is provided for repairs that result from new building ordinances or laws, the insurer shall include in no less than 10 -point typeface the following statement: "THIS POLICY DOES NOT INCLUDE BUILDING CODE UPGRADE COVERAGE. " Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 138

CIC Section #10103 • In the event that the policy does include code upgrade CIC Section #10103 • In the event that the policy does include code upgrade coverage, it shall either: (1) State this on the declaration page, and denote any applicable limits. (2) State this on a separate disclosure form attached to the declarations page, if the separate disclosure form meets the following standards: Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 139

Methodology of Determining Values Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 140 Methodology of Determining Values Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 140

Proprietary Valuation Tools • Valuation tools provide a mere indicator of minimum values. Agent/Brokers Proprietary Valuation Tools • Valuation tools provide a mere indicator of minimum values. Agent/Brokers should pay particular attention to individual home components and values • • • Insurance Company Evaluations On Line Marshall Swift www. marshallswift. com Data Quick www. dataquick. com Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 141

Proprietary Valuation Tools • • Zellow Real Quest Netroline Google Maps Insurance Community University Proprietary Valuation Tools • • Zellow Real Quest Netroline Google Maps Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 142

Why Values Are So Important • Accurate values avoid – Over insuring – Under Why Values Are So Important • Accurate values avoid – Over insuring – Under insuring – Ultimately used to establish a fair premium for the property at risk Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 143

Responsibility • Whose responsibility is it to establish property values for the personal lines Responsibility • Whose responsibility is it to establish property values for the personal lines client. – The responsibility is the property owner’s not the insurance agent or insurance company – IF the insurance client asks to be “fully” insured then a heightened responsibility exists. – The insurance agent has guidelines such as estimators but these are only minimum limits that should be carried Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 144

How Are Values Established? ? • Purchase Price of the home – Insureds often How Are Values Established? ? • Purchase Price of the home – Insureds often want to insure for what they purchased the property for • Bank’s requirements – Banks often want the insurance to equal the amount of the loan Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 145

Methodology of Determining Value • Prior Policies – New buyers may assume the coverage Methodology of Determining Value • Prior Policies – New buyers may assume the coverage of the prior homeowner • Property Owner – Property owners typically only know what they paid for the property or the comps – The property owner typically does not understand how the policy will pay in the event of a loss. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 146

Methodology of Determining Value • Real Estate Appraisals – Real estate appraisals are sometimes Methodology of Determining Value • Real Estate Appraisals – Real estate appraisals are sometimes done by insurance agents utilizing independent companies. These appraisals, while they cost money, are a very good indicator of value • Insurance Company’s Valuation Software – Almost all insurance carriers provide estimators through their portal Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 147

Methodology of Determining Value • Contractor’s and Expert’s estimates or opinions – The same Methodology of Determining Value • Contractor’s and Expert’s estimates or opinions – The same comment applies here as with independent appraisals • Cost per square footage Estimates – This is a beginning mark for determining value Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 148

Documentation of Person Making Estimate • There are specific requirements in the DOI Regulations Documentation of Person Making Estimate • There are specific requirements in the DOI Regulations relating to the requirements of an individual who is making an estimate on Residential Properties. • All of this documentation must be in a retrievable format • The website should be consulted • The regulations provide as follows Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 149

Documentation of Person Making Estimate (2695. 182) a) In the event an estimate of Documentation of Person Making Estimate (2695. 182) a) In the event an estimate of replacement cost is provided or communicated by a licensee to an applicant or insured in connection with an application for or renewal of a homeowners' insurance policy that provides coverage on a replacement cost basis, the licensee shall document and maintain in the applicant's or insured's file the following information: Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 150

Documentation of Person Making Estimate (2695. 182) 1. Status of person preparing estimate 2. Documentation of Person Making Estimate (2695. 182) 1. Status of person preparing estimate 2. Name, job title, address, telephone number, license number of person preparing estimate 3. Source of estimate 4. Copy of any reports, inspection reports, contractor’s estimates Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 151

Documentation of Person Making Estimate (b) In the event the estimate of replacement cost Documentation of Person Making Estimate (b) In the event the estimate of replacement cost is provided by a licensee to an applicant or insured in connection with an application for or renewal of a homeowners' insurance policy that provides coverage on a replacement cost basis, the licensee shall maintain in the insured's file the records specified in subdivision Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 152

Documentation of Person Making Estimate (g)(1) If a licensee communicates an estimate of replacement Documentation of Person Making Estimate (g)(1) If a licensee communicates an estimate of replacement cost to an applicant or insured in connection with an application for or renewal of a homeowners' insurance policy that provides coverage on a replacement cost basis, the licensee must provide a copy of the estimate of replacement cost to the applicant or insured at the time the estimate is communicated. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 153

Section 2695. 183. Standards for Estimates of Replacement Value • However, in the event Section 2695. 183. Standards for Estimates of Replacement Value • However, in the event the estimate of replacement cost is communicated by a licensee to an applicant to whom the licensee determines an insurance policy shall not be issued, then the licensee is not required pursuant to the preceding sentence to provide a copy of the estimate of replacement cost. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 154

Section 2695. 183. Standards for Estimates of Replacement Value • In the event the Section 2695. 183. Standards for Estimates of Replacement Value • In the event the estimate of replacement cost is communicated by telephone to an insured, the copy of the estimate shall be mailed to the insured no later than three business days after the time of the telephone conversation. In the event the estimate of replacement cost is communicated by telephone to an applicant, the copy of the estimate shall be mailed to the applicant no later than three business days after the applicant agrees to purchase the coverage. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 155

Documentation of Person Making Estimate (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2695. Documentation of Person Making Estimate (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Section 2695. 182, this section shall impose no duty upon a broker-agent to obtain from the insurer and maintain any information or document that in the absence of this section would not come into the possession of the broker-agent in the ordinary course of business. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 156

Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • This section of the regulations is also found at: http: //www 20. insurance. ca. gov/epubacc/REG/1 51771. htm • The regulations deal with the requirements and standards of communication of what must be included in the estimation submitted to the insured • Follows is the regulation language Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 157

Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • No licensee shall communicate an estimate of replacement cost to an applicant or insured in connection with an application for or renewal of a homeowners' insurance policy that provides coverage on a replacement cost basis, unless the requirements and standards set forth in subdivisions (a) through (e) below are met: (a) The estimate of replacement cost shall include the expenses that would reasonably be incurred to rebuild the insured structure(s) in its entirety, including at least the following: Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 158

Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • (1) Cost of labor, building materials and supplies; (2) Overhead and profit; (3) Cost of demolition and debris removal; (4) Cost of permits and architect's plans; and (5) Consideration of components and features of the insured structure, including at least the following: Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 159

Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost (b) Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost (b) The estimate of replacement cost shall be based on an estimate of the cost to rebuild or replace the structure taking into account the cost to reconstruct the single property being evaluated, as compared to the cost to build multiple, or tract, dwellings. (c) The estimate of replacement cost shall not be based upon the resale value of the land, or upon the amount or outstanding balance of any loan. (d) The estimate of replacement cost shall not include a deduction for physical depreciation. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 160

Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • Section 2695. 183 Standards to be used when a licensee estimates Replacement Cost • (e) The licensee shall no less frequently than annually take reasonable steps to verify that the sources and methods used to generate the estimate of replacement cost are kept current to reflect changes in the costs of reconstruction and rebuilding, including changes in labor, building materials, and supplies, based upon the geographic location of the insured structure. The estimate of replacement cost shall be created using such reasonably current sources and methods. Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 161

Summary of Retention • Prospects, applicants and renewals – Name, position, license number , Summary of Retention • Prospects, applicants and renewals – Name, position, license number , address, telephone number – Source of estimate and additional reports – Copy to customer immediately • If by phone – within three days • If prospect, but not customer – no need to send copy • Five years retention Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 162

Disclaimer Insurance forms and endorsements vary based on insurance company; changes in edition dates; Disclaimer Insurance forms and endorsements vary based on insurance company; changes in edition dates; regulations; court decisions; and state jurisdiction. This instructional materials provided by Insight is intended as a general guideline and any interpretations provided by Insight do not modify or revise insurance policy language. The authors of these materials, Insight Insurance Consultants is a division of Insight Consulting and Management Inc. In providing these materials, Insight assumes neither liability nor responsibility to any person or business with respect to any loss that is alleged to be caused directly or indirectly as a result of the instructional materials provided. Copyright 2010 - 2011 All Rights Reserved www. insurancecommunitycenter. com Laurie: 714. 803. 5830 [email protected] com Marjorie: 714. 206. 9583 [email protected] com Insurance Community University www. Insurance. Community. University. com 163