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Inserción de la Biblioteca Digital en la Educación Superior, Formación de Profesionales y Cientificos Inserción de la Biblioteca Digital en la Educación Superior, Formación de Profesionales y Cientificos Universidad de Buenos Aires May 19, 2004 Edward A. Fox [email protected] edu http: //fox. cs. vt. edu

Acknowledgements (Selected) • Sponsors: ACM, Adobe, AOL, IBM, Microsoft, NASA, NLM, NSF, OCLC, SUN, Acknowledgements (Selected) • Sponsors: ACM, Adobe, AOL, IBM, Microsoft, NASA, NLM, NSF, OCLC, SUN, US Dept. of Ed. (FIPSE) • VT Faculty/Staff: Debra Dudley, Weiguo Fan, Gail Mc. Millan, Manuel Perez, Naren Ramakrishnan, Layne Watson, … • VT Students: Yuxin Chen, Shahrooz Feizabadi, Marcos Goncalves, Nithiwat Kampanya, S. H. Kim, Bing Liu, Paul Mather, Fernando Das Neves, Unni. Ravindranathan, Ryan Richardson, Rao Shen, Ricardo Torres, Wensi Xi, Baoping Zhang, …

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (NDLTD) • NDLTD Board of Directors, previous Steering Committee + other NDLTD committees; ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS (NDLTD) • NDLTD Board of Directors, previous Steering Committee + other NDLTD committees; those running Electronic Thesis & Dissertation (ETD) initiatives in universities, regions, countries • Helpful sponsorship by many organizations, especially Adobe (new initiative!), CONACy. T, DFG, FIPSE (US Dept. Education), IBM, Microsoft, NSF (IIS-9986089, 0086227, 0080748, 0325579; DUE 0121679, 0136690, 0121741, 0333601), OCLC, SOLINET, SUN, SURA, UNESCO, VTLS, many governments (Australia, Germany, India, …), … • Colleagues at Virginia Tech (faculty, staff, students), and collaborators at many universities • Slides included from: Vinod Chachra, Thom Hickey, Joan Lippincott, Gail Mc. Millan, Axel Plathe, Hussein Suleman, …

Other Collaborators (Selected) • • • Brazil: FUA, UFMG, UNICAMP Case Western Reserve University Other Collaborators (Selected) • • • Brazil: FUA, UFMG, UNICAMP Case Western Reserve University Emory, Notre Dame, Oregon State Germany: Univ. Oldenburg Mexico: UDLA (Puebla), Monterrey College of NJ, Hofstra, Penn State, Villanova University of Arizona University of Florida, Univ. of Illinois University of Virginia • Endowment: VTLS

UNESCO • Cláudio Menezes [cmenezes@unesco. org. uy] • Purpose: • Reinforce local solutions, commitments UNESCO • Cláudio Menezes [[email protected] org. uy] • Purpose: • Reinforce local solutions, commitments • Emphasize: • • • ETD does not need many resources. Open source and free software is available. International cooperation can help. Local training is crucial. => Inclusion of ETD in practices, processes => Schedule for ETD projects

Part 1 Digital Libraries and Higher Education Part 1 Digital Libraries and Higher Education

Virginia Tech Background • Largest university in Virginia, land-grant, football, town population 35 K Virginia Tech Background • Largest university in Virginia, land-grant, football, town population 35 K plus 26 K students • Blacksburg Electronic Village, since 1992, with > 80% of community on Internet • Net. Work. Virginia, with sites for education, research, government • LMDS, Local Multipoint Distribution Service, gigabit wireless networking - 1/3 of Virginia • Math Emporium, 500 workstations • Faculty Development Initiative, round 3 • Torgersen Hall, $30 M Advanced Communications and Information Technology Center, with DLRL

Fox at VT • Professor, Dept. of Computer Science • 1/3 time report to Fox at VT • Professor, Dept. of Computer Science • 1/3 time report to Erv Blythe, VP for Info. Tech. • Director, Digital Library Research Laboratory • • Location: 2030 Torgersen Hall Students: typically about 20 Visitors: India: 2, S. Korea: 1, Brazil: 1, … Grants: 9 active • Director of University Center: Internet Technology Innovation Center at VT

Internet Technology Innovation Center Supported by Virginia’s Center for Innovative Technology Statewide University Partners Internet Technology Innovation Center Supported by Virginia’s Center for Innovative Technology Statewide University Partners - Governing Board: • Christopher Newport University • William Winter, William Muir, Virginia Electronic Commerce Technology Center / Southeastern Virginia Network (VECTEC/SEVAnet) • George Mason University • Steven Ruth, International Center for Applied Studies in IT (ICASIT) • Old Dominion University – Kurt Maly (CS Head), … • University of Virginia • Alf Weaver, Internet Commerce Group (Inter. Com) • Jim French, Internet Digital Library • VCU – Information Systems, plus connection with telemedicine etc. • Virginia Tech • Edward Fox, Digital Library Research Laboratory (DLRL), CC, CS • Scott Midkiff, Center for Wireless Telecomm. (CWT), VTISC, ECp. E

ITIC @ VT Research Areas • • Collaboration (e. g. , group decision support) ITIC @ VT Research Areas • • Collaboration (e. g. , group decision support) Community networking (e. g. , BEV) Internet access (e. g. , statewide network) Information services (e. g. , digital libraries) Modeling and simulation (e. g. , Web traffic) Usability (e. g. , human factors engineering) Virtual environments (e. g. , CAVE, visualization)

Digital Libraries Projects (other selected) • • TULIP (Elsevier, OCLC) BEV History Base (NSF, Digital Libraries Projects (other selected) • • TULIP (Elsevier, OCLC) BEV History Base (NSF, Blacksburg) DL for CS Education - EI (NSF, ACM) WATERS (NSF) WCA (Log) Repository (W 3 C) NSDL (NSF): DL-in-a-Box, Get. Smart, OCKHAM …

DL Examples • • • IBM Digital Library Virtua (www. vtls. com) Greenstone (www. DL Examples • • • IBM Digital Library Virtua (www. vtls. com) Greenstone (www. greenstone. org) Eprints (www. eprints. org) Many systems in NSF DLI projects VT systems: CITIDEL, CSTC, DL-in-a-box, ETANA, MARIAN, NCSTRL, NDLTD

Digital Libraries --- Objectives • World Lit. : 24 hr / 7 day / Digital Libraries --- Objectives • World Lit. : 24 hr / 7 day / from desktop • Integrated “super” information systems: 5 S: streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies • Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost • Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery • Disintermediation -> Collaboration • Universities Reclaim Property • Interactive Courseware, Student Works • Scalable, Sustainable, Useful

Benefits • Ease of use • Effectiveness • “The benefits of digital libraries will Benefits • Ease of use • Effectiveness • “The benefits of digital libraries will not be appreciated unless they are easy to use effectively. ” - IITA Workshop report

DLs: Why of Global Interest? • National projects can preserve antiquities and heritage: cultural, DLs: Why of Global Interest? • National projects can preserve antiquities and heritage: cultural, historical, linguistic, scholarly • Knowledge and information are essential to economic and technological growth, education • DL - a domain for international collaboration • • wherein all can contribute and benefit which leverages investment in networking which provides useful content on Internet & WWW which will tie nations and peoples together more strongly and through deeper understanding

Application Domain E d F o x Examples Technical Challenges Benefit / Impact Publishing Application Domain E d F o x Examples Technical Challenges Benefit / Impact Publishing Publishers, Eprint archives OAI Quality control, openness Aggregation, organization Education Schools, colleges, universities NSDL, NCSTRL Knowledge management, reuseability Access to data Art, Culture Museum AMICO, PRDLA Digitization, describing, cataloging Global understanding Science Government, Academia, Commerce NVO, PDG, Swiss. Prot, UK e. Science, European Union Commission Data models reproducibility, faster reuse, faster advance (e) Government Agencies (all levels) Census Intellectual property rights, privacy, multi-national Accountability, homeland security (e) Commerce, (e) Industry R e a g a n M o o r e Related Institutions Legal institutions Court cases, patents Developing standards Standardization, economic development History, Heritage Foundations Crosscutting Library, Archive American Memory Web, personal collections Content, context, interpretation Multi-language, preservation, scalability, interoperability, dynamic behavior, workflow, sustainability, ontologies, distributed data, infrastructure Long term view, perspective, documentation, recording, facilitating, interpretation, understanding Reduced cost, increased access, pereservation, democratization, leveling, peace, competitiveness J u n e 2 0 0 2 f o r N S F

DL Challenges • Preservation - so people with trust DLs • Supporting infrastructure - DL Challenges • Preservation - so people with trust DLs • Supporting infrastructure - networks, . . . • Scalability, sustainability, interoperability • DL industry - critical mass by covering libraries, archives, museums, corporate info, govt info, personal info - “quality WWW” integrating IR, HT, MM, . . . • Need tools & methods to make them easier to build

Libraries of the Future JCR Licklider, 1965, MIT Press World Nation State City Community Libraries of the Future JCR Licklider, 1965, MIT Press World Nation State City Community

Info. Literacy (1995) NSF DLI (1994) Improving Education Digital Libraries WWW (1994) PDF (1992) Info. Literacy (1995) NSF DLI (1994) Improving Education Digital Libraries WWW (1994) PDF (1992) Library Cancellations (1988) Internet (1984) SGML (1985) Multimedia (1986) University Scholarly Electronic Pub. (1988)

Synchronous Scholarly Communication Same time, Same or different place Synchronous Scholarly Communication Same time, Same or different place

ous, Digital Library Mediated Scholarly Com Different time and/or place ous, Digital Library Mediated Scholarly Com Different time and/or place

Information Life Cycle Borgman et al. : Workshop Report on Social Aspects of Digital Information Life Cycle Borgman et al. : Workshop Report on Social Aspects of Digital Libraries: http: //www-lis. gseis. ucla. edu/DL/

Information Life Cycle Authoring Modifying Using Creating Retention / Mining Organizing Indexing Accessing Filtering Information Life Cycle Authoring Modifying Using Creating Retention / Mining Organizing Indexing Accessing Filtering Storing Retrieving Distributing Networking

Communications (bandwidth, connectivity) Locating Digital Libraries in Computing and Communications Technology Space Digital Libraries Communications (bandwidth, connectivity) Locating Digital Libraries in Computing and Communications Technology Space Digital Libraries technology trajectory: intellectual access to globally distributed information Computing (flops) Digital content less more

Integrated CCLINC Translingual Information System 2 -way Speech Transation Bu CCLINC SERVER g. H Integrated CCLINC Translingual Information System 2 -way Speech Transation Bu CCLINC SERVER g. H an Bal I Il. Bo Sa. H n. E an Ddo Deu Mi. S s H a a. Da Il. Eul ion o Inf n ea or ine? k l t th or fron n e he th is in t nk ? of pan at nt h us ja W eme tat inst v s a mo the ag h is at unc h la W le i iss m Translation DARPA ct ete D Extraction Sum mar izat ion It seems that North Korea launch a missile again After North Korea launched a Daipodong missile last month, NK is perceived to proceed to an additional test launch. Korea, US and Japan enter into an alert state, and prepare for a joint response policy. Korea estimates that the additional launch will be on 09/05. Japan estimates that NK’s missile range is short. US information says that there is no sign of launch yet.

Structured Video Browser (making video into hypermedia) www. learn. umd. edu • IBrowse • Structured Video Browser (making video into hypermedia) www. learn. umd. edu • IBrowse • Expository multimedia • Narrative Structures

t MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. Architecture Video Data Description Generator Description Schemes Design t MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. Architecture Video Data Description Generator Description Schemes Design Tool Player Video Database Retrieval Server Module Presentation Module Meta Database ICU Information and Communication University

American. South. Org – Roles, Content SOLINET Libraries (Data Providers) Scholars Intellectual Organization Collection American. South. Org – Roles, Content SOLINET Libraries (Data Providers) Scholars Intellectual Organization Collection Decisions Controlled Selection Criteria vocabulary Metadata extension development Selection Criteria Controlled vocabulary Central Server Maintenance Local Server Maintenance Provision of Context Metadata Repository Metadata Organizational Creation/Maintena Structure and nce Annotation Tools Central Interface Design/Maintenanc e Local Interface Selection of Other Design/Maintenan Annotation ce Tools Central Indices Creation/Maintena nce Local Indices Selection of Thesauri Coordination of Metadata Gateway Development Gateway Implementation Concept Mapping

Content Area Description Audio Digital Finding Aid MSS Other Photo Video MF Print Total Content Area Description Audio Digital Finding Aid MSS Other Photo Video MF Print Total African-American cultural life 6 4 6 9 4 12 3 10 18 72 Agricultural crisis of late 19 th century 1 1 3 1 1 4 8 19 Codification of segregation laws 1 3 2 1 8 16 Configuration of white supremacy 1 3 3 1 9 20 Cultural values and activities 3 5 17 4 15 1 5 20 71 Disenfranchising movements 1 2 2 1 6 15 Educational movements 6 1 18 6 21 3 27 98 1 1 7 10 1 1 Emergence of Holiness & Pentecostal Groups Emergence of new musical forms 3 3 1 1 9 3 1 2 8 2 2 3 5 1 1 Emergence of organized groups expressing farmers concerns Expansion of Southern evangelical Protestant Churches 1 1 8 13 9 11 23 59

Content Area Description Audio Digital Forms of inter-racialism 1 Other Photo 12 5 10 Content Area Description Audio Digital Forms of inter-racialism 1 Other Photo 12 5 10 1 2 Video MF Print Total 5 14 52 4 10 3 1 MSS 6 Expansion of industrial activity Finding Aid 3 5 15 52 2 18 57 1 Great Migration & its relationship to worsened race relations in the South Growth of business 1 Growth of cities & towns 1 Interplay of economic interest among regions 1 Local literature 3 Lost Cause monument movement Political relationships between Populist & other groups 5 1 1 13 5 12 4 13 1 1 12 4 1 2 1 6 16 2 17 4 7 3 31 68 3 8 4 9 3 1 2 2

Content Area Description Audio Digital Reactions of African-American leaders to Segregation 1 Other 2 Content Area Description Audio Digital Reactions of African-American leaders to Segregation 1 Other 2 1 2 4 1 Photo Total 17 35 1 10 24 1 1 8 15 2 1 Print 13 2 Video MF 1 2 MSS 2 Popular magazines & newspapers Finding Aid 9 25 Relationship among Southern Populists & those in the West Relationship between new racial system of 1890 s and other 2 4 Role of immigration 1 1 2 6 4 Survival of African-American communities & Culture 2 2 1 5 7 1 2 13 33 Women’s Groups 2 1 10 1 5 1 4 9 33 Total Each Format 41 51 161 38 133 13 79 301 831 14

Case Study: NCSTRL Costs/Benefits Stakeholders Sample Potential Cost Sample Potential Benefit Providers Faculty Lower Case Study: NCSTRL Costs/Benefits Stakeholders Sample Potential Cost Sample Potential Benefit Providers Faculty Lower value for P&T Faster publishing Students Less recognition Broader set of outlets Practitioners Limited relevance Ease of publishing, > quantity Faculty Lower quality of work Broader access to resources Students Higher access costs (vs. department available material) Lower access costs (vs. journal available material) Departments New maintenance costs Broader visibility University libraries Additional access costs Access to new resources Practitioners More difficult access Access to new resources Users

Definitions • Library ++ (library+archive+museum+…) • Distributed information system + organization + effective interface Definitions • Library ++ (library+archive+museum+…) • Distributed information system + organization + effective interface • User community + collection + services • Digital objects, repositories, IPR management, handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase, annotation

Definition: Digital Libraries are complex systems that • • • help satisfy info needs Definition: Digital Libraries are complex systems that • • • help satisfy info needs of users (societies) provide info services (scenarios) organize info in usable ways (structures) present info in usable ways (spaces) communicate info with users (streams)

Case Study: Education • Refactoring Scholarly Communication: • Creating, Sharing, Reviewing, Teaching, Learning, … Case Study: Education • Refactoring Scholarly Communication: • Creating, Sharing, Reviewing, Teaching, Learning, … • • Physics: Phys. Net OCKHAM CSTC, CITIDEL, NSDL NDLTD

Digital Libraries Shorten the Chain from Editor Reviewer Publisher A&I Consolidator Library Digital Libraries Shorten the Chain from Editor Reviewer Publisher A&I Consolidator Library

DLs Shorten the Chain to Author Teacher Digital Reader Editor Reviewer Learner Librarian Library DLs Shorten the Chain to Author Teacher Digital Reader Editor Reviewer Learner Librarian Library

Phys. Net Phys. Net

PACS Automatic Classification PACS Automatic Classification

OCKHAM • Simplicity (a la OCCAM’s razor) • Support by Mellon and DLF • OCKHAM • Simplicity (a la OCCAM’s razor) • Support by Mellon and DLF • Four main ideas: 1. Components 2. Lightweight protocols 3. Open reference models (e. g. , 5 S, OAIS) 4. Community perspective and involvement • Now funded by NSF in NSDL, with P 2 P

OCKHAM Library Network OCKHAM Library Network

CS -> CSTC -> CRIM • NSF and ACM Education Committee are funding a CS -> CSTC -> CRIM • NSF and ACM Education Committee are funding a 2 year project “A Computer Science Teaching Center” - CSTC - http: //www. cstc. org/ • College of NJ, U. Ill. Springfield, Virginia Tech • Focus initially on labs, visualization, multimedia • Multimedia part is also supported by a 2 nd grant to Virginia Tech and The George Washington University: http: //www. cstc. org/~crim/ (with curricular guidelines also under development)

CS Teaching Center (CSTC) • Instead of building large, expensive multimedia packages, that become CS Teaching Center (CSTC) • Instead of building large, expensive multimedia packages, that become obsolete and are difficult to re-use, concentrate on small knowledge units. • Learners benefit from having well-crafted modules that have been reviewed and tested. • Use digital libraries to build a powerful base of support for learners, upon which a variety of courses, self-study tutorials & reference resources can be built. • ACM support led to Journal of Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC), accessible from www. cstc. org

Browsing (1) Browsing (1)

Browsing (2) Browsing (2)

Computing and Information Technology Interactive Digital Educational Library (CITIDEL) • Domain: computing / information Computing and Information Technology Interactive Digital Educational Library (CITIDEL) • Domain: computing / information technology • Genre: one-stop-shopping for teachers & learners: courseware (CSTC, JERIC), leading DLs (ACM, IEEE-CS, DB&LP, Cite. Seer), Planet. Math. org, NCSTRL (technical reports), … • Submission & Collection: sub/partner collections www. citidel. org

www. CITIDEL. org • Led by Virginia Tech, with co-PIs: • Fox (director, DL www. CITIDEL. org • Led by Virginia Tech, with co-PIs: • Fox (director, DL systems) • Lee (history) • Perez (user interface, Spanish support) • Partners • College of New Jersey (Knox) • Hofstra (Impagliazzo) • Villanova (Cassel) • Penn State (Giles)

Overview of CITIDEL architecture Overview of CITIDEL architecture

Distributed repository structure Distributed repository structure

Digital library architecture for local and interoperable CITIDEL services Digital library architecture for local and interoperable CITIDEL services

CITIDEL: Computing & Information Technology Interactive Digital Education Library CITIDEL: Computing & Information Technology Interactive Digital Education Library

Cluster Search Results from CITIDEL Cluster Search Results from CITIDEL

Cluster NDLTD-Computing Cluster NDLTD-Computing

CITIDEL -> NSDL • A collection project in the • National STEM (science, technolgy, CITIDEL -> NSDL • A collection project in the • National STEM (science, technolgy, engineering, and mathematics) education Digital Library – NSDL • National Science Digital Library • www. nsdl. org

A Learning Environments and Resources Network for SMET Education (LEARNS) “The network is the A Learning Environments and Resources Network for SMET Education (LEARNS) “The network is the library. ”

LEARNS Connects: Users: students, educators, life-long learners Content: structured learning materials; large real-time or LEARNS Connects: Users: students, educators, life-long learners Content: structured learning materials; large real-time or archived datasets; audio, images, animations; primary sources; digital learning objects (e. g. applets); interactive (virtual, remote) laboratories; . . . Tools: search; refer; validate; integrate; create; customize; publish; share; notify; collaborate; . . .

LEARNS Supports: Learning communities Users (profiles) Application services Tools Customizable collections Content (metadata) (protocols) LEARNS Supports: Learning communities Users (profiles) Application services Tools Customizable collections Content (metadata) (protocols)

LEARNS Enables: Environments for • Discovery • Communication • Stability • Collaboration • Reliability LEARNS Enables: Environments for • Discovery • Communication • Stability • Collaboration • Reliability • Creation AND • Reusability • Validation • Interoperability • Evaluation • Customizability • Recognition • . . . of Resources

Expectations of NSDL Program. Tracks • Core Integration: coordinate a distributed alliance of resource Expectations of NSDL Program. Tracks • Core Integration: coordinate a distributed alliance of resource collection and service providers; and ensure reliable and extensible access to and usability of the resulting network of learning environments and resources • Collections: aggregate and actively manage a subset of the digital library’s content within a coherent theme / specialty • Services: increase the impact, reach, efficiency, and value of the digital library in its fully operational form • Targeted (Applied) Research: have immediate impact on one or more of the other three tracks

Collections • • Discovery of content Classification and cataloguing Acquisition and/or linking; referencing Disciplinary-based Collections • • Discovery of content Classification and cataloguing Acquisition and/or linking; referencing Disciplinary-based themes define a natural body of content, but other possibilities are also encouraged • Access to massive real-time or archived datasets • Software tool suites for analysis, modeling, simulation, or visualization • Reviewed commentary on learning materials and pedagogy

Services • Help services, frequently asked questions, etc. • Synchronous/asynchronous collaborative learning environments using Services • Help services, frequently asked questions, etc. • Synchronous/asynchronous collaborative learning environments using shared resources • Mechanisms for building personal annotated digital information spaces • Reliability testing for applets or other digital learning objects • Audio, image, and video search capability • Metadata system translation • Community feedback mechanisms

NSDL Information Architecture Essentially as developed by the Technical Infrastructure Workgroup Portals & Clients NSDL Information Architecture Essentially as developed by the Technical Infrastructure Workgroup Portals & Clients & Portals Clients NSDL Collections referenced items Special & items & collections Databases collections User Interfaces Core NSDL “Bus” Collection Building Core Services: Core Collectionmetadata gathering Building Services Core Collectionprotocols Building Services harvesting NSDL Services Other NSDL Services Usage Enhancement Core Services: CI Services information retrieval CI Services browsing CI Services authentication CI Services personalization CI Services discussion annotation

A Digital Library Case Study • Domain: graduate education, research • Genre: ETDs=electronic theses A Digital Library Case Study • Domain: graduate education, research • Genre: ETDs=electronic theses & dissertations • Submission: http: //etd. vt. edu • Collection: http: //www. theses. org Project: Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertations (NDLTD) http: //www. ndltd. org

NDLTD Grad Program IT Library Ed. (Tech) NDLTD Grad Program IT Library Ed. (Tech)

Key Ideas: Scalability Networked infrastructure University collaboration Workflow, automation Education is the rationale Maximal Key Ideas: Scalability Networked infrastructure University collaboration Workflow, automation Education is the rationale Maximal Access 8 th graders vs. grads Authors must submit Standards PDF, SGML, MM, MARC, DC, URNs, Federated search

The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations www. NDLTD. org Training Authors Expanding The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations www. NDLTD. org Training Authors Expanding Access Preserving Knowledge Improving Graduate Education Enhancing Scholarly Communication Empowering Students & Universities Leader of the Worldwide ETD (Electronic Thesis and Dissertation) Initiative

Main Message • Digital libraries can help advance education. • Argentina is invited to Main Message • Digital libraries can help advance education. • Argentina is invited to engage in NDLTD, as well as CITIDEL, NSDL, and other DL ventures. • UNESCO Analytical Survey on Digital Libraries in Education is recommending DLE in each nation. • Local and national support can • • stimulate activities, including collaboration promote a sharing culture, especially in research and teaching leverage others’ investments (networking, computing, …) encourage / facilitate learning • Please join NDLTD!

What led to today’s meeting? • 1987 mtg in Ann Arbor: UMI, VT, … What led to today’s meeting? • 1987 mtg in Ann Arbor: UMI, VT, … • 1992 mtg in Washington: CNI, CGS, UMI, VT and 10 universities with 3 reps each • 1993 mtg in Atlanta to start Monticello Electronic Library (regional, US Southeast): SURA, SOLINET • 1994 mtg at VT: std: PDF + SGML + multimedia objects • 1996 funding by SURA, US Dept. of Education (FIPSE) • 1997 meetings in UK, Germany, . . . • 1998 – 1 st symposium – Memphis (20) • 1999 – 2 nd symposium – Blacksburg (70) • 2000 – 3 rd symposium – St. Petersburg (225) • 2001 – 4 th symposium – Caltech (200) • 2002 – 5 th syposium – BYU, Provo, Utah • 2003 – 6 th syposium – Berlin (215) • 2004 – 7 th syposium – U. Kentucky • 2005 – 8 th syposium – Sydney, Australia

What are the long term goals? • 400 K US students / year getting What are the long term goals? • 400 K US students / year getting grad degrees are exposed / involved • 200 K/yr rich hypermedia ETDs that may turn into electronic portfolios (images, video, audio, …) • Dramatic increase in knowledge sharing: literature reviews, bibliographies, … • Services providing lifelong access for students: browse, search, prior searches, citation links • Hundreds/thousands of downloads / year / work

ETDs: Library Goals • Improve library services • Better turn-around time • Always available ETDs: Library Goals • Improve library services • Better turn-around time • Always available • Reduce work • catalog from e-text • eliminate handling: mailing to Pro. Quest, bindery prep, check-out, check-in, reshelving, etc. • Save space

What are we doing? • Aiding universities to enhance graduate education, publishing and IPR What are we doing? • Aiding universities to enhance graduate education, publishing and IPR efforts • Helping improve the availability and content of theses and dissertations • Educating ALL future scholars so they can publish electronically and effectively use digital libraries (i. e. , are Information Literate and can be more expressive)

NDLTD Incorporation • Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations incorporated May 20, 2003 NDLTD Incorporation • Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations incorporated May 20, 2003 in Virginia, USA • Charitable and educational purposes (501 c 3) • Can accept donations, collect dues, receive funds • Le. Clair Ryan provides legal counsel • Officers • Executive Director (Ed Fox) • Secretary (Gail Mc. Millan) • Treasurer (Scott Eldredge)

Initial Board of Directors • • • • Suzie Allard (ETD 2004, U. Kentucky) Initial Board of Directors • • • • Suzie Allard (ETD 2004, U. Kentucky) Denise A. D. Bedford (World Bank) Julia C. Blixrud (ARL, SPARC) José Luis Borbinha (National Lib Portugal) Alex Byrne (ETD 2005, ADT: Australia) Vinod Chachra (VTLS) Peter Diepold (Humboldt) Scott Eldredge (Treasurer, ETD 2002, BYU) Edward Fox (Exec Director, Virginia Tech) Jean-Claude Guédon (U. of Montréal) John H. Hagen (West Virginia U. ) Thomas B. Hickey (OCLC) Sarantos Kapidakis (Ionian U. , Greece) • • • • Delphine Lewis (Pro. Quest) Joan K. Lippincott (CNI) Gail Mc. Millan (Secretary, Virginia Tech) Claudio Menezes (UNESCO, Uruguay) Joseph Moxley (ETD 2000, USF) Ana Pavani (PUC Rio, Brazil) Axel Plathe (UNESCO, Paris) Sharon Reeves (National Library Canada) Peter Schirmbacher (ETD 2003, Humboldt) Mohsen Tawfik (UNESCO, India) Shalini R. Urs (U. Mysore, India) Felix N Ubogu (U. Witwatersrand, S. Africa) Eric F. Van de Velde (ETD 2001, Caltech)

National / Regional Projects • Australia • • U. New South Wales (lead) U. National / Regional Projects • Australia • • U. New South Wales (lead) U. of Melbourne U. of Queensland U. of Sydney Australian National U. Curtin U. of Technology Griffith U. • Germany • Humboldt University (lead) • 3 other universities • 5 learned societies: Math, Physics, Chemistry, Sociology, Education • 1 computing center • 2 major libraries • Ohio. LINK: 79 colleges/univs • Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya, as group, www. cbuc. es: 9 sites • India • Korea • Brazil • UK (British Library, JISC, Edinburgh) • UNESCO (especially Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa)

Some Countries • • • • Australia Belgium Brazil Canada China Columbia Finland France Some Countries • • • • Australia Belgium Brazil Canada China Columbia Finland France Germany India Italy Korea Mexico • • • Netherland Norway Russia Singapore S. Africa S. Korea Spain Sudan Sweden Taiwan UK USA

Some Institutional Members • • • • • British Library Cinemedia Coalition for Networked Some Institutional Members • • • • • British Library Cinemedia Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya Diplomica. com Dissertationen Online (Germany) ETDweb, a Division of Answer 4. com Ibero-American Science & Technology Education Consortium (ISTEC) National Documentation Centre (NDC), Greece National Library of Portugal (for all universities) OCLC Online Computer Library Center Ohio. LINK Organization of American States (SEDI/OAS) Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) UNESCO (www. unesco. org/webworld/etd)

UNESCO and ETDs (by Axel Plathe at ETD 2003) • Promoting the use of UNESCO and ETDs (by Axel Plathe at ETD 2003) • Promoting the use of the Internet as a tool for disseminating scientific knowledge • Facilitating the transfer of ETD expertise from developed to developing countries • 1998: Member of the NDLTD Steering Committee • 1999: First UNESCO ETD meeting on ETD internationalisation • 2002: “UNESCO Guide to Electronic Theses and Dissertations” • 2003: Model training programmes and training courses • 2003: Sponsor pilot projects • 2003: Pilot projects (Africa, Europe, Latin-America)

ETD Initiative (and Pro. Quest) Students Learn about DL, EPub TDs become more expressive ETD Initiative (and Pro. Quest) Students Learn about DL, EPub TDs become more expressive Global TDs become more accessible, archived Universities Pro. Quest N. Amer. (T)Ds are accessible, archived

How can a university get involved? • Select planning/implementation team • • Graduate School How can a university get involved? • Select planning/implementation team • • Graduate School Library Computing / Information Technology Institutional Research / Educ. Tech. • Join online, give us contact names • www. ndltd. org/join • Adapt Virginia Tech or other proven approach • • Build interest and consensus Start trial / allow optional submission

Convene Local Planning Group ETD Convene Local Planning Group ETD

ETD project participants • • Academic administrators Faculty Students Staff Graduate school / provost ETD project participants • • Academic administrators Faculty Students Staff Graduate school / provost / registrar Information technologists Librarians

Build Local ETD Site ETD Workshop/Training Digital Library Policies Inspection/Approval Build Local ETD Site ETD Workshop/Training Digital Library Policies Inspection/Approval

Student Prepares Thesis/Dissertation NDLTD Literature Computer Resources Research Student Prepares Thesis/Dissertation NDLTD Literature Computer Resources Research

Student Defends & Finalizes ETD My Thesis ETD Student Defends & Finalizes ETD My Thesis ETD

Multimedia Use in ETD Collection File ty p e Examples Co u n t Multimedia Use in ETD Collection File ty p e Examples Co u n t Still BMP, DXF, i GIF, JPG, m TIFF ag e 328 Video AVI, MOV, MPG, QT 58 Audi o AIFF, WAV 18 Text PDF, HTML, TXT, DOC, XLS 760 1

Student Gets Committee Signatures and Submits ETD Signed Grad School Student Gets Committee Signatures and Submits ETD Signed Grad School

Graduate School Approves ETD, Student is Graduated Ph. D. Graduate School Approves ETD, Student is Graduated Ph. D.

Library Catalogs ETD, Access is Opened to the New Research WWW NDLTD Library Catalogs ETD, Access is Opened to the New Research WWW NDLTD

http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses/available/etd-2227102539751141/ http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses/available/etd-2227102539751141/

Status of the VT Project • Approved by university governance Spring 1996; required starting Status of the VT Project • Approved by university governance Spring 1996; required starting 1/1/97 • Submission & access software in place • Submission workshops for students (and faculty) occur often: beginner/adv. • Faculty training as part of Faculty Development Initiative • Over 5000 ETDs in collection – some have audio, video, large images, software, …

Archiving ETDs • Every 15 minutes back-ups made of not-yet -approved submissions • Hourly Archiving ETDs • Every 15 minutes back-ups made of not-yet -approved submissions • Hourly back-ups of newly approved ETDs • Weekly back-ups of entire ETD collection • Copies stored on-site and off-site

VT ETD Cataloging • same as current cataloging policies, except: • author-assigned keywords (not VT ETD Cataloging • same as current cataloging policies, except: • author-assigned keywords (not LCSH) • generic (not LC) call no. • fields/subfields as required for computer files • full abstracts • time savings • cataloger familiar with computer files • equipment, software for word processing • 5 minutes avg. (10 -15 minutes for paper TDs)

Library Resources • Hardware: with Apache web server • Maintenance and security • Started Library Resources • Hardware: with Apache web server • Maintenance and security • Started small; now: Sun 2 -processor Enterprise 250 --Solaris 2. 7 • Software • Submission scripts written by DLA • Includes e-mail notifications to authors, advisors, UMI • Use it too: http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/ETD-db/ • Log files analyzed with Analog • Survey scripts written by DLA • Data from authors and readers • Use it too: http: //lumiere. lib. vt. edu/surveys/ • Search Engine • Started small; now: Info. Seek’s ULTRASEEK

Digital Library Benefits: Low margin, high use • Incorporate ETDs with other digital library Digital Library Benefits: Low margin, high use • Incorporate ETDs with other digital library activities • Ejournals, online class materials, digital images, etc. • Additional equipment, staff may not be necessary • http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses/data/setup. html • Use VT programs, scripts, etc. • http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/ETD-db/ • Online accesses vs. circulation of copies • 1990 -1994, average circulation per copy per year: • 2. 2 for theses, 3. 2 for dissertations

Access to VT’s ETDs http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses/ Access to VT’s ETDs http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses/

Info Available at VT • Information http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses • Automated submission Info Available at VT • Information http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses • Automated submission system ready for customization http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/ETD-db/ • Student guidelines, training materials, FAQ's, multimedia educational materials http: //etd. vt. edu

Access Possibilities Web search engines www. theses. org Virginia MIT National Tech Library of Access Possibilities Web search engines www. theses. org Virginia MIT National Tech Library of Portugal www. library openarchives. catalog org clients CBUC (Spain) Ohio Link 3 rd Party Services (e. g. , UMI) National Projects: AU, GE, …

ETD Union Collection (OAI) ETD Union Collection (OAI)

Union catalog: OCLC • OCLC will expand OAI data provider on TDs. • Is Union catalog: OCLC • OCLC will expand OAI data provider on TDs. • Is getting data from World. Cat (so, from many sites!). • Will harvest from all others who contact them. • Need DC and either ETD-MS or MARC. • Has a set for ETDs.

Union catalog: VTLS, VT • VTLS will enhance search/browse service for ETDs • Will Union catalog: VTLS, VT • VTLS will enhance search/browse service for ETDs • Will harvest from OCLC’s set of ETD records • Will receive through other mechanisms • Will work with MARC-21 and ETD-MS • VT will continue to offer experimental services

NDLTD Union Catalog Content Languages n The VTLS NDLTD Union Catalog has data in NDLTD Union Catalog Content Languages n The VTLS NDLTD Union Catalog has data in 6 different languages. These are: n English n German n Greek n Korean n Portuguese n Spanish n Examples follow

Language = German; hits = 137 Language = German; hits = 137

Full record display Full record display

For professional societies • Like “writing across the curriculum”, e. g. , Chemical Markup For professional societies • Like “writing across the curriculum”, e. g. , Chemical Markup Language, Math. ML, … • Besides writing: computing/communications, information literacy, personal digital library management, tool use, research methods, collaboration, archiving/preservation • Data sets, communities of users of them • Classification systems / browsing / searching • NRC’s “Issues for Science and Engineering Researchers in the Digital Age”, 57 pages

Relationship with publishers • Concern of faculty and students that still wish to publish Relationship with publishers • Concern of faculty and students that still wish to publish books or journal articles, voiced: campus, Chronicle, NPR, Times • Solution: Approval Form gives students, faculty choices on access, when to change access condition; use IPR controls in DL • Solution: by case, work with publishers and publisher associations to increase access • • AAP, AAUP AAAS, ACM, ACS, Elsevier, . . .

Some responses from publishers • • • ACM: need to acknowledge copyright Elsevier: need Some responses from publishers • • • ACM: need to acknowledge copyright Elsevier: need to acknowledge copyright IEEE-CS: endorse initiative ACS: After first publication, can release Textbook publishers: different market, manuscript significantly reworked • General: restricting access to local campus will not cause any problems

Summary: ETDs and Publishing • Early controversies waning • Faculty: prior publication? • Protective Summary: ETDs and Publishing • Early controversies waning • Faculty: prior publication? • Protective of future academics • Surveys of publishers • No specific policies largely • Consider submissions individually • VT ETD Alumni • None had problems getting published • Authors • Retain some rights, e. g. , link to curriculum vitae, online course materials

ETDs and Copyright • Author’s rights • Reproduction, modification, distribution, public performance, public display ETDs and Copyright • Author’s rights • Reproduction, modification, distribution, public performance, public display • Retain rights • Share non-exclusive rights: • Permit library to store / provide access • Author’s obligations: fair use • Balance factors or get permission • Notification: optional Copyright 2002 by Gail Mc. Millan ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Registration: optional • Possibly receive greater compensation, with less documentation, if filing infringement law suit

ETDs and Long-term Preservation • Concerns: Access without paper • Long term preservation • ETDs and Long-term Preservation • Concerns: Access without paper • Long term preservation • Standard multimedia formats • PDF Reader: open source • http: //scholar. lib. vt. edu/theses/archive. html • Addressed Concerns • Cooperatives, e. g. , Ohio. Link • Why not: OCLC, NDLTD? • Commercial options • Pro. Quest: traditional microfilming • Frequent, regular back-ups available on, off-site

ETD-MS • ETD Metadata Standard • XML-encoded metadata standard (content and encoding) for Electronic ETD-MS • ETD Metadata Standard • XML-encoded metadata standard (content and encoding) for Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) • in part conforming to Dublin Core (DC) • using RDF • using UNICODE • Will specify relationship with MARC

Complex to Simple MARC ($50) Dublin Core (DC) + thesis Complex to Simple MARC ($50) Dublin Core (DC) + thesis

Recent Added Support by NDLTD • Links from NDLTD site • ETD individuals support Recent Added Support by NDLTD • Links from NDLTD site • ETD individuals support – submit ETD • ETD discussion (e-prints) – community activities • Conference papers and presentations – community activities http: //www. ndltd. org/WVUproc. htm • Automated support to “join NDLTD” • Marcel Dekker book in press • Edward A. Fox, Shahrooz Feizbadi, Joseph M. Moxley, and Christian R. Weisser, eds. , The ETD Sourcebook: Theses and Dissertations in the Electronic Age, New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004

Two Approaches to an ETD Progam Characteristic View 1 View 2 Who Staff Students Two Approaches to an ETD Progam Characteristic View 1 View 2 Who Staff Students When Now Soon: Pilot to option to reqrmnt Focus Increase univer. visibility Education of students What Scan in prior works first Students submit own works

Why ETD? Short Answer • For Students: • Gain knowledge and skills for the Why ETD? Short Answer • For Students: • Gain knowledge and skills for the Information Age • Richer communication (digital information, multimedia, …) • For Universities: • Easy way to enter the digital library field and benefit thereby • For the World: • Global digital library – large, useful, many services • General: • Save time and money • Increased visibility for all associated with research results

The Process? Short Answer • For Students: • Plan on ETD from day 1 The Process? Short Answer • For Students: • Plan on ETD from day 1 • Secure knowledge from: workshops, online info, colleagues • Work with faculty to plan approach • PDF? XML? TEI? Multi/hypermedia? Data sets? Viz? • Get signed approval form: access, ©, proxy assignment • After defense and approval, submit ETD to university • For Universities: • Form team • Adapt solution from work at other universities, attend ETD conference • Pilot -> Option -> Requirement

Some Potential Barriers • Lethargy; Not invented here • Frustration/Anger: Technology! More work! • Some Potential Barriers • Lethargy; Not invented here • Frustration/Anger: Technology! More work! • Lack of experience in working together: graduate school, library, computing staff • Lack of interest in (quality of) student work • More loyalty to discipline than to campus • Unwillingness to accept responsibility for financial problems with libraries, or to accept need for changes regarding electronic publishing

Spirit of NDLTD • • • Help make a better (smaller) world Win-win (everyone Spirit of NDLTD • • • Help make a better (smaller) world Win-win (everyone can benefit) Have fun helping others Helpers/teachers learn more than those they work with Build on standards ETDs are preservable, popular, expressive, “better” • Doable, feasible, learnable, affordable, sharable • Please join NDLTD!

Selected Links - http: //fox. cs. vt. edu • CITIDEL (computing education resources) • Selected Links - http: //fox. cs. vt. edu • CITIDEL (computing education resources) • www. citidel. org • NCSTRL (computing technical reports) • www. ncstrl. org • NDLTD (electronic theses and dissertations worldwide) • www. ndltd. org and etdguide. org • NSDL (National Science Digital Library) • www. nsdl. org • OAI (Open Archives Initiative) • www. openarchives. org • Virginia Tech Digital Library Research Laboratory (DLRL, www. dlib. vt. edu) • 5 S, American. South. Org, CSTC, DL-in-a-box, ENVISION, ETANA, MARIAN, NDLTD, NSDL, OAD, ODL, …)

Questions/Discussion? Questions/Discussion?