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Innovation and Technology As with all students, the opportunity for students with learning disabilities to compete for college admissions, succeed in college and in the global market place depends upon the quality of their educational preparation and the systems they rely upon. Enhancing the effectiveness depends upon technology and innovation. Richard Varn will describe the challenges of relevance and innovation in technology that must be confronted in order for students with learning disabilities to achieve their goals in preparing for college. Varn will discuss how technology will reshape the schools and education systems that students with learning disabilities rely upon for preparation and the colleges and university environments that they will be entering. He will discuss issues that policymakers, educators and others must confront to close gaps in preparation and college access for students with learning disabilities.
Innovation and Technology Two Key Ingredients for Improving Preparation and Transition to College Richard J. H. Varn
"Whoever desires constant success must change his conduct with the times. "
CIO "There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in its success, than to take the lead in the introduction of a new order of things. Because the innovator has for enemies all those who have done well under the old conditions, and lukewarm (indifferent, uninterested) defenders in those who may do well under the new. "
Some Change Attempt Examples ü 1990 World Wide Web… üDNA forensics üBroadband üVideo History Archive üIowa Electronic University üIndoor playgrounds üGovernment services card ü 1 -to-1 computing ü E-medical records ü Health care pooling ü Courseware camps ü Ad supported e-mail ü 100% E by 2003 ü IP video and telephony ü GIS/GPS criminal tracking
Dominant Private Practice for Change High Value New Process Leap and Reap Rapidly Low Value Current Process High Cost Low Cost
Government Failure to Precipitate High Value New Process Creep and Weep Over a Much Longer Time Keep the Old Process But Do Less of It Low Value Current Process High Cost Current Process Low Cost
Where we passionately and methodically search for new insight into how the brain functions, how we learn, and the factors and methods of human organization and success. . .
SO WE CAN IGNORE IT ALL WHEN IT COMES TO OUR OWN PROGRAMS!
Education and Government: Resistant to Change üPushing change in education and government is like trying to run through a wall of spandex… ü…coated with Teflon so nothing sticks… üAnd imbued with the universal element “Bureaucratium, ” an amazing substance that seems indestructible and repels everything…
Examples of the Kind of Questions That I Intend to Ask As a Way of Infecting You With Viral Ideas No Birds Are Involved In Transmission…
Do You Remember? Plop Pop Cop
Technological Ethics üWould it be unethical to make learning addictive? üHint: TV, music, game, drug, pornography, gambling and other industries do not understand the question üTime=Value=Mind Share=Learning: where the time goes, the mind goes
Technological Ethics üWhich does not fit: Licentiousness, Extremes, Titillation, Comfort or Learning? üWe try to do analog replication and combination of these “easier” things to help learning - like with games that teach or a dramatization of an idea such as with Les Miserables.
Technological Ethics ü What about when we can digitally and elementally duplicate the pleasurable to achieve the difficult? ü As we identify the electrochemical processes and stimulants that are involved with pleasure, spirituality, comfort, fun, etc. , will the vice and commercial industries be the only ones willing and able to use them? ü If we can make learning to solve quadratic equations feel like eating junk food, gaming, and skateboarding all at once, what is wrong with that?
Creative Deconstruction Destruction üModern science and technology üHumanity’s Great Quest: Being able to observe, identify, model, manipulate, create, form and combine the parts of anything üCosmos, atoms, genes, cells, brains, bodies, ecosystems, knowledge, work, processes, markets and institutions
Key Effects of IT Age ü Digitalization ü Automation ü Robotization ü Miniaturization ü Specialization ü Customization ü Globalization ü Mutation ü Commoditization ü Disintermediation ü Modularization ü Technological Determinism ü Acronymization or TCCTA – Tendency to Create Colorful Technical Acronyms. – If you have a problem with that, join SPAM or Society to Prevent Acronym Memorization.
Centers Are Shifting ü Center of Proximity and Concentration ü Center of Culture/Entertainment ü Center of Production Past (Settled) ü Center of Application ü Center of Global Scale Future (Frontier) ü Center of Excellence ü Center of Integration ü Center of Creativity ü Center of Discovery ü Center of Brokering ü Center of Service (Concierge At Large)
The Postman Proviso Automation increases probability but decreases possibility. - Lewis Mumford Technology or Technique is Not Neutral… We conform to it, it does not conform to us. But perhaps it can be Subversively Helpful. Technological determinism means that if you change a part of an interconnected system, the rest of the system WILL eventually and inevitably change to reflect the speed, power or capabilities of the part that was changed. -Richard J. H. Varn © 2005 Center for Digital Government. All Rights Reserved. Quote with Attribution Only Technology is ultimately a friend but mostly it is a "dangerous enemy" that "intrudes" into a culture "changing everything“ and even "eliminates alternatives to itself. "
Determinism: A Short Cut ü The long term sneaky way to change the world without ever asking permission or having to try to convince those who will be forced to change and already hate the idea, whatever it is and no matter what it is, before you even thought of it. ü Change key, interconnected tools, and the rest of the system will change.
Technological Determinism üTechnological systems are interconnected webs. üThe history of such systems shows a consistent repeating pattern. üChanges in the speed, power or complexity of one part causes comparable changes in all other parts to which it is connected.
One Word: Database ü Tools are viral containers of ideas. ü How we think differently from their use is often even more important than what they actually do. – Do you remember the first time you clicked instead of typed? – Do you remember pocket protector wearers saying GUI was a waste of time and resources, and was the SAME AS TYPING COMMANDS? – The viral idea was the connection between interface, function and data, and they could not see it. ü The dominant tool, metaphor, idea of our time is the database.
Convergence ü The coming together or merging of: – Jurisdictions – Industries – Companies – Tools and technologies – Products and devices – Professions and skills – Jobs ü The viral spread of IT across and within industries and elements of life
Analog: Standardization üNut, screws and bolts üRails üElectricity üAuto tires üPaper üPlumbing and lumber üDrove the greatest expansion of human productive capacity in history and a lot of extinctions
Digital: Standardization üData (XML in every industry) üNetworks (IP everything) üSoftware (Web Services and SOA) üStorage (the one file holy grail) üHuman Computer Interface (see me, feel me) üProcessing (Gird for the Virtual Grid) üAnd the effect will be at least as large… üTechnological bow waves…
Government and Education As A Service Public Developers Private Developers Domestic, Global and Open Source Object Market Functional and Software Lego Bricks Web Services Concierge Layer Customer Agents Personalized and Automated Human, Software and Hardware Services Bit Niche Function Industry Cross-Industry Subject Matter Expert Layer Government Integrated Into Other Software and Services One Stop Gove rnme nt Subject and Industry Specific Human, Software and Hardware Services Public Entities Both Public Only Both Private Only For-Profit Entities Public Private Only Both Public Only Non-Profit Entities and Associations Domestic and Global Economy of Scale Layer Common, Interchangeable, Customizable Software and Hardware Services
Steps to GAAS UP üConsolidate (across boundaries and industries) üBroker (think “Plastics…”) üStandardize (what and how) üAutomate (no human can…) üInnovate (no machine used to…)
Steps to GAAS UP üDocument rules (rules are made to be coded) üVirtualize (it happens somewhere) üEliminate (processes and systems) üRe-deploy resources (harvest)
E-Forms Functional Summary Forms Engines to: “COUNT” Citizens • Submit Data First Form • Extract Data “COUNT” Businesses First Form • Apply Business Rules • Validate • Sign • Submit “COUNT” Customer Agents First Form • Route A u t h e n t i c a t i o n • Apply Business Rules • Sign • Submit Data to Agencies to: • Accept • Share • Route • Reuse Data Analysis, Sharing and Public Access • Query Direct Data Transfers • Manage • Safeguard Privacy
Data Management Improvement Process Select Industry or Government Function Scope Industry Segment or Government Function Work With: • Business and Industry Associations • Industry Solutions Vendors • Federal, State and Local Governments • Customer Agents • Industry XML and Data Standards Bodies Customer Agents Private Industry Solutions, Systems, Services and Software Modules Identify Forms and Paperwork Processes Within Segment or Function Select Forms and Processes to Be Addressed Harmonize and Reduce Determine Core Data Elements and Business Rules Harmonize Data Elements and Business Rules; Coordinate With Industry Standards Finalize and Publish XML Schema for Data Elements, Business Rules and Presentation Formats Publish Data Routing Processes Create Harmonized Forms Agency Processing, Applications, Databases and Legacy Systems
The Next 50 Years ü Devices per chip continue to double every 12 months. ü The pace of change continues to accelerate. ü 100 years happens in 20 at the current rate. * ü Use to ubiquity. ü Distinctive to disposable. ü Peripheral to integral. *Ray Kurzweil, The Age of Spiritual Machines
The Pace of Change Is Accelerating
Four Ways to IT Wireless Services and Content Processing Storage
Universal Access üAnyone, anywhere, anytime will be able to instantaneously talk, write and send visual and audio information to anyone else. üIP replaces Esperanto. üPlease put my universal translator engine in my cell phone in my ear rather than a Babel Fish…
The Digital Majority Watch the Third Screen Like Starbucks' relentless attempts to sell itself as the "third place, " the wireless industry is trying to sell itself as the "third screen. " 2010: • 500 Million Broadband Users • 2. 3 Billion Cell Phones
Spare Parts Availability dates: ü Artificial Brain Cells ü Artificial Brain ü Artificial Eyes ü Artificial Eye Implant ü Permanent Mechanical Heart ü Synthetic Muscles ü Lungs And Kidneys 2017 2035 2010 2024 2010 2019 2015 DATA: BRITISH TELEPHONE LABS in Business Week, March 200 and in The Register, February 2005
Now Picking Up a Spare… ü Over 100, 000 Cochlear Ear Implants ü Bionic limbs moved by thought ü Exoskeletons ü Limbs, joints and bones ü Carbon nanotubes
Brain Computer Interface ü A Brain. Gate, enabled paralyzed Matthew Nagle, to move a computer cursor, change TV channels and operate fingers on a prosthetic hand. ü Long-term goal of the study was to develop brain computer interfaces (BCIs).
Unlocking Eric ü Eric Ramsey has been "locked-in" since 1999. “A locked-in patient is somebody who is basically alert and intelligent, but they cannot communicate. ” ü “His thinking brain is intact, but he cannot move, he can hardly move his eyes, he cannot speak, he gets spasms from time to time. " ü They are presently detecting the pattern of firing in signals and the pattern is associated with particular phonemes or word sounds that he is trying to produce. They have done that mapping and are trying to detect them and send them back to him, so that he can actually produce the phonemes or sounds of words. The result will be a computer synthesizing Eric's attempts to speak.
More Than the Sum of Our Parts ü Beyond alleviating the effects of disabilities, normal functioning humans could upgrade to improve intelligence, sensory awareness or simply to counter the effects of aging. ü Disability becomes ability? ü Ampl-ability (ability becomes amplified)? ü Eubility (good things beyond human ability)? ü Malability (things we wish humans could never do)?
Computer Tipping Point ü Computers reach the speed of 20 quadrillion instructions per second, equal to the human brain – In accordance with Moore's law, we expected to reach the computational capacity of the human brain---20 million billion neuron connection calculations per second (100 billion neurons times an average of 1, 000 connections to other neurons times 200 calculations per second per connection)---in a super computer by 2010 and in a standard personal computer by the year 2020. Ray Kurzweil
Kurweil’s Vision üBy the year 2040 a super computer reaches the collective brain speed of all the human brains alive. üBy 2050 global brain speed is available on a $1, 000 laptop.
Before You Retire or Die üCumulative machine intelligence becomes larger than cumulative human intelligence. üGNR (Genetic, Nanotechnology and Robotics) combine to remake civilization as we know it.
Hi, HAL üNon-invasive brain scanning capabilities are growing exponentially. üReverse engineering of the brain and other software techniques make machines more than human in many ways. ü“Will I dream, Doctor? ”
Convergence in Learning Information Technology Assessment Learners Neuroscience Diagnosis, Response and “Treatment”
Inherent IT Advantages in Education? üCustomization and individualization üDemocratization of access, content and tools üNon-linearity üPlace indifference üAvailability of changeable content üThe elimination of rote tasks in teaching and learning
Inherent IT Advantages in Education? üMore time to focus on only that which a human can do well üInstant access human knowledge in all forms üOverlaying data on our experiences üSharing üCollaboration üInput and outcome analysis
Are We Taking Advantage of the Inherent Advantages of IT in Education? Ummm…No
What Is Most Out of Whack? üThe Carnegie Unit credit hours üLinearity üGrades üSubjects üLearning to remember rather than learning to learn üEducation is expected to cure all with out concomitant resources
What Is Most Out of Whack? üAssessment is misapplied with too many high-stakes low-yield tests and not enough low-stakes high-yield tests. üThe policy response is inadequate to the amount of change, the size of the challenge and the importance of the outcome.
Courseware ü 1: Each academic program has an articulated curriculum. ü 2: Each class has specified goals and objectives. ü 3: Standards and the method of assessment are agreed upon. ü 4: Student achievement level and learning style are assessed.
More Courseware Steps. . . ü 5: Learning and instruction plan is customized and matched to goals, objectives and student learning style. ü 6: Search for, acquire and develop courseware to meet the learning and instruction plans. ü 7: Training in the use of the courseware and courseware tools is delivered.
Final Courseware Steps ü 8: Courseware is delivered. ü 9: Continuous assessment based on standards is used to determine level of achievement of goals and objectives. ü 10 --Results of the assessment are fed back into the curriculum articulation and writing process. ü Repeat the cycle.
Courseware Layers ü Experience, Information and Knowledge ü Objects ü Modules ü Units ü Courses or Competencies ü Degrees, Certificates and Documented Achievement
Digital Content—Essential Raw Material ü Why have states not mandated that all text books and educational materials purchased must be in both analog (paper) or digital form? ü Furthermore, since most of the cost of paper materials is NOT in the content development but in the manufacture and distribution, states should pay less for the digital copy and subscribe to updates like other software maintenance. ü If you feel lonely, put a trigger to make sure 10 or some number of states pass it before it goes into effect.
Searching for Optimal Efficiency and Quality High Personal Tutor Discussion/Class Cost Courseware Lecture Low Book Self-Study Mode and level of personalization of delivery
Do What Students Do ü Games and simulation ü Mix, mash and create ü IM ü Txt ü Cell ü MP 3/Podcasts ü Stream-of-consciousness surfing ü Blogging ü Email ü Collaborate ü Music ü TV ü DVD’s ü Viral advertising
Where Can We Go From Here?
Data-Based Decisions ü Being able to see and use allowable data in multiple formats: – Textual – Tabular – Spatial – Simulation ü The ability to know actual outcomes of programs from enterprise data and other private data sources.
What and Where Is Work and Who or What Does It? Machine Race Human Race Workplace Workers Distributed Workers Computers and Robots Work Neither and Both Workplace Machines Distributed Machines Play Outsourced Workers Outsourced Machines Crowd Sourced Workers Distributed Processing
Unbundling the Teaching Profession ü One job category ü Job description? ü Do it all and do it well. ü What does that mean? ü We need to face up to our teaching disabilities.
Job Description for a Teacher ü Teaching ü Assessment expert ü Diagnostic expert ü Curriculum designer ü Advisor ü Mentor ü Researcher/Writer ü Public servant ü Social worker ü Community and Parent Liaison ü Bureaucrat ü Policymaker ü Medical manager ü Content expert ü Technology integrator ü Disciplinarian ü Disability manager ü Secretary and data entry clerk ü And did I mention you have a life?
Converged Science ü Neuroscience – Psychometrics ü Biology ü Psychology – Communication and Persuasion ü Chemistry ü Physics ü How these will be applied to the teaching and learning process
Consider the Medical Model and Distributed Work ü How the health care work force is organized: – We pay doctors a lot but there is still a huge supporting cast of specialist and professionals. – They have insurance and customers shilling for them and occasionally annoying them. ü Consider how the converging sciences of information technology, neurology, assessment and so on can be used to diagnose successful and unsuccessful learning strategies and activities and vary how we approach education.
Converged Learning Management ü Student portfolios to document learning ü New evaluation methods ü The link between material use, brain research and real-time monitoring ü Diagnostics with physical capabilities ü Formative assessments can be: – Technology like Web Ex, Groupsystems. com, and audience response systems – Or cheap and simple • Red dot, green dot • A-E letters
The Old New Key Questions ü Who teaches it? ü What is taught? ü When is it taught? ü Where is it taught? ü Why is it taught? ü How do we measure teaching? ü Who learns it? ü What is learned? ü When is it learned? ü Where is it learned? ü Why is it learned? ü How do we measure learning?
Put Simply. . . ü What aspects of teaching and learning do we want to: – Augment? – Replace? – Automate? – Decentralize? – Reform?
Example: Note Taking ü Is this the reason we go to school? ü It is the most practiced act. ü Granted: it has the benefit for some learners of reinforcing and as a memory aid. ü It is not part of the curriculum, evaluated, credited, improved. ü Alternatives – Notes in advance – Lecture capture, preview, or synopses – Real-time voice to text – Moving on to the next level of discourse rather than recording the sage on the stage
Questions and Answers üPolicy implications üPractice recommendations üProduct recommendations
Questions and Answers Richard J. H. Varn [email protected] com
Education Technology Objectives ü Classroom and Institution Management – You want the grading and paperwork processes of teaching to be easier and more automated. – You want learners and their families to be able to do self-service on classroom and institutional processes. – You want to know more about your learners before they show up for class. You want to know the results of your specific programs and effort with as much cause and effect analysis as possible. – You want your results based system to roll its results up to various mandated reports like NCLB and to teachers, researchers, educational leaders, policy makers and the public.
Education Technology Objectives ü Better Lectures and Presentations – You want to hold the attention of learners during lectures and presentations and appropriately use various media to enhance learning rather than just entertain. ü Reflect Work Conditions – You want your learners to learn using the same tools, techniques and systems they will use in the workplace.
Education Technology Objectives üRemediation – You want to spend less class time on bringing everyone up to the same level and on addressing general study skill issues, subject matter gaps and literacy problems.
Education Technology Objectives ü Technical Training – You want learners to learn to use tools and systems that are not in themselves part of the curriculum by using self-paced, virtual and hands-on tutorials. ü Customized Learning – You want use technology to match the teaching and learning methods and materials to be tailored to the individual knowledge, skills, learning styles and objectives of each learner.
Education Technology Objectives ü Diagnostic Model of Education – You want to use brain research, assessment, real time feedback and (if it becomes commonly available) physical indication of learning activity in the brain to know if a learner is in fact learning and responds accordingly. ü Extended Learning – You want the exceptional and the motivated learners to go beyond what is required in the class or program and beyond what you have time to teach them.
Education Technology Objectives üSelf-Directed Learners – You want learners who can and will learn on their own to be able to do so and receive credit for what they learn. You want to be able to spend more time being a mentor, motivator, creator, guide, evaluator and/or expert learner.
Education Technology Objectives üCollaborative Learning – You want your learners to work in collaborative teams and networks that are not bound by the walls and grounds of your location. üMore Learning – You want your learners to learn more than previously possible through print technology and gain greater mastery over the subject matter.
Education Technology Objectives üMore Cost-Effective Learning – You want learning the amount of learning per dollar spent to be greater.
Education Technology Objectives üDifferentiating Roles and Specializing – You want to allow each person to focus more on the more narrowly defined role, specialize, and improve the quality of their work on their areas of expertise (e. g. , assessment, curriculum development, discussion, administrative processes, lecture, mentoring, counseling, etc. ) and use technology to help free up time and reorganize the work to make this possible.
Education Technology Objectives üVirtual Reality – You want to be able to simulate real environments that are too dangerous, expensive and/or remote to provide at your school.
Education Technology Objectives üCourseware Development – You want to do what was once only the province of textbook companies, moviemakers and computer specialists: make multimedia courseware.
Education Technology Objectives üReach New Markets – You want to export your unique and high quality programs into areas beyond the magic 30 -minute, 30 -mile barrier.
Education Technology Objectives üExpand Offerings – You want to be able to increase your offerings beyond what is possible and/or affordable with conventional educational delivery systems. You want to do this to attract and keep more students and increase the value of your programs.
Education Technology Objectives üSurvival – You want to make sure you are not bypassed by other delivery systems and that your school is equal to or better than the competition in the use and availability of education materials and information technology.