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Information Warfare: The Warriors 1 Information Warfare: The Warriors 1

Overview n Information Warriors ¡ ¡ Who Are They What Do They Do n Overview n Information Warriors ¡ ¡ Who Are They What Do They Do n n n n Types of Threat Psy. Ops Civil Affairs Electronic Warfare Hackers/Crackers Cyber Terror Defenders 2

References http: //www. cert. org Info. War: http: //www. iwar. org. uk/index. htm http: References http: //www. cert. org Info. War: http: //www. iwar. org. uk/index. htm http: //infowar. freeservers. com/index. html http: //www. nmrc. org/links/ Culture: http: //www. eff. org/pub/Net_culture/ Terrorism: http: //www. terrorism. com/terrorism/links. shtml Books : Sterling - The Hacker Crackdown Stoll - The Cuckoo’s Egg Honeynet Project – Know Your Enemy Schneier – Beyond Fear 3

Information Warriors n Information Warfare much more than Computer Network Operations (CNO) ¡ ¡ Information Warriors n Information Warfare much more than Computer Network Operations (CNO) ¡ ¡ ¡ Psychological Operations Civil Affairs Electronic Warfare Ops Computer Warriors Counter-IW Specialists (Defenders) 4

Threats n National Security n n n Cyber Crime n n n Critical National Threats n National Security n n n Cyber Crime n n n Critical National Infrastructure Cyber-Warfare/Computer Network Operations Organized Crime Identity Theft Extortion Fraud Non-State Actors n n Terrorists Political Activists 5

Threats n Nation States ¡ ¡ Information Warfare is recognized as a part of Threats n Nation States ¡ ¡ Information Warfare is recognized as a part of military strategy and doctrine around the world The study and practice of military usage of Information Warfare is taught in military academies and educational facilities 6

Threats n Organized Crime ¡ Utilized Information Warfare in various forms for centuries n Threats n Organized Crime ¡ Utilized Information Warfare in various forms for centuries n n ¡ ¡ Extortion is a form of Information Warfare New technologies breed new criminals Technology creates trans-national criminal organizations In certain nations, the lines between state actions and organized crime can be blurred 7

Transnational Organized Crime Organized crime Insider crime Cyber-crime Hacktivism Hackers/ Crackers 8 Transnational Organized Crime Organized crime Insider crime Cyber-crime Hacktivism Hackers/ Crackers 8

Example -Transnational Organized Crime Individual crime may be difficult to differentiate from organized crime: Example -Transnational Organized Crime Individual crime may be difficult to differentiate from organized crime: ¡ ¡ Distribution and Coordination tools Mass exploitation methods Organized crime exploits Information technologies ¡ ¡ ¡ Enhanced efficiencies – on-line management of illegal gambling schemes Intelligence tool for risk management – Cali organization in 1995 had state of the art equipment Force multiplier – GPS for sea drops New channels and new targets for crime 9

Threats n Non-State Actors ¡ ¡ n n Terrorists Hacktivists Sometimes different sides of Threats n Non-State Actors ¡ ¡ n n Terrorists Hacktivists Sometimes different sides of the same page As with organized crime, sometimes the lines between state and nonstate actors is blurred 10

Example - Hacker to Terrorism? n Defaced Health-care web site in India ¡ ¡ Example - Hacker to Terrorism? n Defaced Health-care web site in India ¡ ¡ n n "This site has been hacked by ISI (Kashmir is ours), we want a hospital in Kashmir" and signed by Mujahideen-ul-dawat Linked to G-Force Pakistan Global Hactivism linked to Mid. East conflict Information Warfare successfully utilized in Chiapas conflict with Mexican gov’t 11

Examples - Cyber-Intifada n Prolonged campaign ¡ ¡ ¡ n Counter-campaigns ¡ ¡ n Examples - Cyber-Intifada n Prolonged campaign ¡ ¡ ¡ n Counter-campaigns ¡ ¡ n Palestinian hackers/web defacers Targeting Israeli and Israel-supporting organizations Low innovation level Publicity Counter-hacking: 2 x. S. co. il Recent resurgence? 12

The Warriors n. Sociology n n Morale Vigilance vs. assumed invulnerability Organization Motivation of The Warriors n. Sociology n n Morale Vigilance vs. assumed invulnerability Organization Motivation of warriors n n of warriors Accountability vs. anarchy Delayed vs. immediate gratification Internal vs. external gratification Preparation of warriors n n Training Tool selection Intelligence Strategy 13

The Warriors n Psychological Operations Warriors ¡ Specialize in using information warfare to change The Warriors n Psychological Operations Warriors ¡ Specialize in using information warfare to change an enemy’s state of mind n Propaganda (Not limited to Psy. Ops) ¡ ¡ n Non-threatening Threatening Computer Network Operations ¡ ¡ Goal is to eliminate confidence Impacts decision-making and C 2 14

The Warriors n Civil Affairs ¡ Winning the Hearts and Minds! n n ¡ The Warriors n Civil Affairs ¡ Winning the Hearts and Minds! n n ¡ Essential to military operations Utilizes Information Warfare strategies to calm and utilize populations Specialists must understand subtleties of language and culture n n Research begins long before the battle Operations last long after the battle is won 15

The Warriors n Electronic Warfare Ops ¡ Goal is to utilize electronic information infrastructure The Warriors n Electronic Warfare Ops ¡ Goal is to utilize electronic information infrastructure against your enemy n n ¡ Information lost or modified Make the enemy blind, deaf, and dumb Restrict or control electronic information sources 16

The Warriors n Computer Warriors ¡ Computer Network Operations n n ¡ Offensive attacks The Warriors n Computer Warriors ¡ Computer Network Operations n n ¡ Offensive attacks against enemy information/computer networks Utilization of sophisticated attack tools and malware Newest form of Information Warfare n Principles are the same 17

Attack Sophistication vs. Intruder Technical Knowledge Cross site scripting “stealth” / advanced scanning techniques Attack Sophistication vs. Intruder Technical Knowledge Cross site scripting “stealth” / advanced scanning techniques High packet spoofing Staged attack distributed attack tools www attacks automated probes/scans denial of service sniffers Intruder Knowledge Tools sweepers GUI back doors network mgmt. diagnostics disabling audits hijacking burglaries sessions Attack Sophistication exploiting known vulnerabilities password cracking self-replicating code Low password guessing Attackers Time 18

Examples – Response Time to CNO Conficker 2009? 19 Examples – Response Time to CNO Conficker 2009? 19

Cyber Terrorism n Cyberterror is still emerging ¡ ¡ ¡ n n No verified Cyber Terrorism n Cyberterror is still emerging ¡ ¡ ¡ n n No verified example of cyber terror attack to date Evolving threat Integrating critical missions with general Internet Increasing damage/speed of attacks Continued vulnerability of off-the-shelf software Much confusion of descriptions and definitions Technology widely viewed as critical weakness of Western nations 20

Defenders n Highly trained specialists ¡ n n n Part detective, intelligence analyst, technologist, Defenders n Highly trained specialists ¡ n n n Part detective, intelligence analyst, technologist, and bad guy Red Teams/Tiger Teams Vulnerability / Risk Analysts Intrusion Response Teams 21

Defense Flow Analysis & Assessment Remediation Indications & Warnings Yes Threshold? No Mitigation Response Defense Flow Analysis & Assessment Remediation Indications & Warnings Yes Threshold? No Mitigation Response Reconstitution 22

Intrusion Response teams n Types: ¡ ¡ ¡ n Why? ¡ ¡ ¡ n Intrusion Response teams n Types: ¡ ¡ ¡ n Why? ¡ ¡ ¡ n Automated Local dedicated or volunteer team Contracted team Single-point of contact for fast response Provide for consistent response Provide for collateral relationships Problems: ¡ ¡ ¡ Resources Authorization to act Trust 23

Summary n Information Warriors are the same as warriors have always been ¡ Utilize Summary n Information Warriors are the same as warriors have always been ¡ Utilize different weapon n ¡ Have to react faster n ¡ Long-bow or Computer? Aircraft or Data packets? New skills n Hand-to-Hand or Computer Network Operations? 24

Summary n Increasingly diverse threat n Ongoing challenge to track, trend, pursue n Who Summary n Increasingly diverse threat n Ongoing challenge to track, trend, pursue n Who may be as important as what 25