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Information and international biodiversity conventions Eliezer Frankenberg Nature and Parks Authority
What is meant by biodiversity? 'Biological diversity', or biodiversity, means the variability among living organisms that derives from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part. This includes diversity within species (at a genetic level), between species and of ecosystems. Biodiversity at each of these levels of complexity is characterized by: • Variety, the number of different types • Quantity, the number or total biomass s of any type • Distribution, the extent and nature of geographic spread of different types In general terms, biodiversity conveys the biological richness of planet Earth.
The CBD Entered into force in 1994 and have three goals: Conservation of biodiversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources. Combining conservation with economy and social justice.
In the CBD text, Article 7: Each Contracting Party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate, in particular for the purposes of Articles 8 to 10: a. Identify components of biological diversity important for its conservation and sustainable use having regard to an indicative list of categories; b. Monitor, through sampling and other techniques, the components of biological diversity identified, paying particular attention to those requiring urgent conservation measures and those which offer the greatest potential for sustainable use; c. Identify processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, and monitor their effects through sampling and other techniques; and d. Maintain and organize, by any mechanism data, derived from identification and monitoring activities.
What is a successful indicator? • Scientifically valid: a) there is an accepted theory of the relationship between the indicator and its purpose, with agreement that change in the indicator does indicate change in the issue of concern; b) the data used is reliable and verifiable. • Based on available data: - so that the indicator can be produced over time. • Responsive to change in the issue of interest. • Easily understandable: a) conceptually, how the measure relates to the purpose, b) in its presentation, and c) the interpretation of the data. • Relevant to user’s needs. • It is used: - for measuring progress, early-warning of problems, understanding an issue, reporting, awareness-raising, etc.
The five core key questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. What is changing and to what extent? (state); Why is it changing? (pressure); Why is it important? (use); What has been done and what can be done about it? (response); 5. Do we have the means to formulate and implement response measures? (capacity).
indicators for assessing progress Status and trends of the components of biological diversity 1. Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems, and habitats 2. Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species 3. Coverage of protected areas 4. Change in status of threatened species 5. Trends in genetic diversity of domesticated animals, cultivated plants, and Fish species of major socioeconomic importance
Sustainable use 6. Area of forest, agricultural and aquaculture ecosystems under sustainable management 7. Proportion of products derived from sustainable sources 8. Ecological footprint and related concepts
Threats to biodiversity 9. Nitrogen deposition 10. Trends in invasive alien species
Ecosystem integrity and ecosystem goods and services 11. Marine Trophic Index 12. Water quality of freshwater ecosystems 13. Trophic integrity of other ecosystems 14. Connectivity / fragmentation of ecosystems 15. Incidence of human-induced ecosystem failure 16. Health and well-being of communities who depend directly on local ecosystem goods and services 17. Biodiversity for food and medicine
Status of traditional knowledge, innovations and Practices: 18. Status and trends of linguistic diversity and numbers of speakers of indigenous languages 19. Other indicator of the status of indigenous and traditional knowledge Status of access and benefit-sharing: 20. Indicator of access and benefit-sharing Status of resource transfers; 21. Official development assistance provided in support of the Convention 22. Indicator of technology transfer
What is monitored? Of all this, the only available data relates to the three following topics: 2. Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species 3. Coverage of protected areas 4. Change in status of threatened species And becomes irrelevant when we try to evaluate ecosystem services.
classification of ecosystem services Service category Provisioning Service types 1. Food 2. Water 3. Raw materials 4. Genetic resources 5. Medicinal resources 6. Ornamental resources Regulating 7. Air quality regulation 8. Climate regulation (including carbon sequestration) 9. Moderation of extreme events 10. Regulation of water flows 11. Waste treatment 12. Erosion prevention 13. Maintenance of soil fertility 14. Pollination 15. Biological control Habitat/Supporting 16. Lifecycle maintenance (e. g. migratory species, nursery habitat) 17. Maintenance of genetic diversity Cultural [provide opportunities for: 18. Aesthetic enjoyment 19. Recreation and tourism 20. Inspiration for culture, art and design 21. Spiritual experience 22. Cognitive development
Where are we? • There is no Biological Survey and no funding agency that targets biodiversity surveys. • The NBS states that current monitoring involves only few species and selected ecosystems and cannot answer the needs of management. • There is no regular monitoring at the habitat or ecosystem level, but monitoring is held by several bodies for various purposes. • Development of a National Biodiversity Monitoring Framework is now considered.
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