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Industrial Revolution Started in Britain in the mid-1700’s Two phases in US: 1. Early 1800’s 2. After Civil War Mrs. Alls
Industry and transportation fueled nationalism, western expansion, and isolationism Economic Development United States role in World Affairs
Industrial Revolution 4 The change from making things by hand to making things by machine. 4 A period of time marked by the rise of factories that used machines to produce goods. 4 Economic shift from farming to Manufacturing which meant people moved from the farms to the cities
Industries Take Root Industrial Revolution in Britain affected textile industry first. Factory system
Britain 4 British Parliament passed laws making it illegal for any machines, plans for machines, or skilled workers to leave Britain. 4 Disobeying these laws brought severe punishment.
How might your life be different if industries did not exist?
Revolutionary Inventions 4 James Hargreaves – spinning jenny 4 Richard Arkwright – water frame 4 Edmund Cartwright – water-powered loom for weaving cotton 4 Eli Whitney – cotton gin (cotton exports grew from 140, 000 lbs. to 1, 600, 000 lbs. ) 4 James Watt – improved the design of steam engines 4 Oliver Evans – 1 st high pressure steam engine for powering machinery.
James Hargreaves Spinning Jenny, 1765 4 Produced 8 times as much thread and yarn as the spinning wheel
Richard Arkwright’s Water Frame, 1769 4 His machine held 100 spindles of thread. It was too heavy to operate by hand so it used water power to turn it. 4 He built the 1 st English mill since it had to be near a water source.
Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom, 1785
Patent 4 1790 – Congress passed a patent law to protect the rights of those who developed “useful and important inventions. ” 4 A patent gives an inventor the sole legal right to the invention and its profits for a certain period of time. 4 One of the first patents went to Jacob Perkins for a machine to make nails.
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1793 http: //www. edinformatics. com/inventions_inventors/300 px-Cotton-gin. jpg
Cotton Gin 4 It cleaned up to 50 lbs of cotton a day versus 1 lb of cotton by hand. 4 Larger ones cleaned 1, 000 pounds. 4 Cotton exports grew from 40, 000 lbs. to 1. 6 million lbs. 4 1790 – England imported cotton –> 30 million lbs. a year
James Watt -1796 4 James Watt's improvements to the steam engine transformed the Newcomen engine, which had hardly changed for fifty years, and initiated a series of improvements in generating and applying power, which transformed the world of work, and was a key innovation of the Industrial Revolution. 4 http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Jame s_Watt 4 Ancient Egyptians and Greeks had an inventor who built a small steam turbine between the 1 st and 3 rd centuries.
Oliver Evans - 1802 4 Built 1 st high pressure steam engine for powering machinery 4 This meant that mills no longer had to be close to water for a power source.
Factory System 4 Capitalists - people with capital (money) to invest in business to make a profit. 4 Factory system brought workers and machines together in one place to produce goods. Sixteen Tons
Textile Mills 1. 2. 3. 4. Clean raw cotton and turn loose cotton into crude yarn Spinning process transforms the yarn into thread. At the weaving stage, power looms interlace threads into coarse cloth or fabric. Fabric is measured and batched for dyeing. Vegetable dyes were the earliest known dyes. Page 307 of your textbook
Industrial Revolution took root in New England around 1800. 4 Massachusetts 4 Rhode Island 4 Connecticut 4 Vermont 4 New Hampshire 4 Due to poor soil and difficulty in farming 4 Close to resources like coal and iron from PA
Samuel Slater 4 Nicknamed “Father of the American Factory System” 4 21 yr old apprentice in Arkwright’s textile mill in England 4 Memorized design of machinery and under disguise left Britain 4 Moses Brown – a wealthy Quaker who owned an inefficient cotton mill in Pawtucket, RI
Francis Cabot Lowell 4 Lowell and several partners formed the Boston Associates. 4 Factory town: Waltham, Massachusetts changed to Lowell, Massachusetts when Lowell died.
New methods of production 4 Interchangeable parts - invented by Eli Whitney because gov’t wanted to buy large # of muskets for army 4 Division of labor 4 Mass production
Working Conditions in the Industry 4 Women and children made up a large percentage of workers 4 12 to 14 hours, 6 days a week 4 Bad lighting, poor ventilation 4 Labor unions
Working Conditions in the Industry 4 Crammed into noisy, dirty, and poorly ventilated factories 4 Inhaling tiny cotton fibers which led to cancer and other diseases 4 No safety devices -- OSHA
Why were laws not passed limiting the power of owners and guaranteeing certain rights to workers? Laissez – faire
Tenements http: //www. tenement. org/
Factory Conditions Early 1800’s Today
Decide if the statement is about Industry before or after the Industrial Revolution 4 Most work was done in the home or in small shops. 4 Power-driven tools replaced hand tools. 4 Steam engines powered machinery. 4 Most workers enjoyed skilled work and showed pride in their handcraft. 4 Most workers did 1 or 2 simple tasks.
Cause and Effect 4 British ideas of a spinning mill and power loom reach America. 4 Factory system spreads. 4 Young women and children from nearby 4 Eli Whitney invents Industrial farms work in mills. cotton gin. Revolution 4 Growing cities face in 4 War of 1812 prompts problems: fire, Americans to make sewage, garbage, and own goods. diseases. 4 Eli Whitney introduces idea of interchangeable parts.
Urban Population Growth in America, 1800 -1850 4 3 2 1 0 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850
Good and Bad sides of the Industrial Revolution Good side Bad side 4 Wonderful advances in 4 Robbed skilled machinery, transportation, and communications workers of their pride and craftsmanship 4 They were forced to work in mines and mills.
City Life Dangers Advantages 4 Fire 4 Plays 4 Dirt and gravel streets 4 Museums 4 No sewers 4 Hot air balloons 4 Garbage in streets 4 Fashions from Europe 4 Disease spread rapidly due to the houses being so close arrived here first
Mother Elizabeth Seton 4 Widowed at age 29 with 5 children 4 1 st native born American to be canonized (made a saint) by the Roman Catholic Church. 4 Saw the need for free education, helping the sick and establishing orphanages 4 Founded religious order – the Sisters of Charity 4 Founder of the Catholic parochial or private church sponsored school system in the US
Elizabeth Ann Seton
Census 4 Sample 2000 document 4 Taken every 10 years 4 Began in 1790 4 Census over the years
Pathways to the West Conestoga wagons Daniel Boone…Cumberland Gap Wilderness Road Turnpikes Toll National Road
Conestoga Wagon 4 Developed by PA’s German Americans during the colonial era 4 Thought to have been introduced by the Mennonites. 4 Named after a valley in Lancaster Co. , PA 4 Transports up to 8 tons 4 Usually went about 15 miles a day 4 Drawn by 4 to 6 oxen or mules
40¢ an acre 4 Rich, black soil, blue-green grass, and clear streams were the descriptions that Daniel Boone gave to KY. 4 He told people that they could buy land for 40 cents an acre. Many families came. 4 The Lincolns were one of these families. They came in 1782 and settled along the Green River. A dispute over ownership led them to move again and they settled in Indiana. Then into Illinois…
Improving Roads 4 Turnpikes--Lancaster Turnpike 4 Corduroy Roads 4 Bridges 4 National Road---Cumberland, Maryland to Wheeling, VA through MD, PA, OH, IN, IL
Corduroy Roads (log roads) Used in low or swampy areas
Lancaster Turnpike 4 The first engineered and planned road in the United States was the Lancaster Turnpike, a privately constructed toll road built between 1793 and 1795. Connecting Philadelphia and Lancaster in Pennsylvania, its 62 -mile length had a maximum grade of 7 percent and was surfaced with broken stone and gravel in a manner initially uninfluenced by the work of Telford and Mc. Adam 4 http: //www. britannica. com/eb/article-71904/roadsand-highways
The National Road
National Road 4 Congress approved government funds to finance the building of the national road in 1806. 4 $7 million and 7 years to complete 4 Crushed stone surface with large stone bridges 4 1830 -Congress voted to lengthen the road to Columbus, Ohio then later into Indianapolis
Waterways 4 John Fitch – steam boat 4 Robert Fulton – improved on Fitch’s design, Clermont 4 Canal…. . Erie Canal 4 “Clinton’s Ditch” – De Witt Clinton
John Fitch 4 After he was captured and released by Delaware Indians, Fitch was haunted by dreams of canoes chasing him. These dreams inspired his first steamboat design, which didn't have a paddle wheel but a moving rail that lifted a series of paddles much like those on the Indian canoes.
Robert Fulton’s Clermont
Erie Canal 4 A canal is a channel dug out and filled with water to allow boats to cross a stretch of land. 4 Tolls on the Erie Canal were abolished in 1882. Some $121 million had been collected…. larger then the some $7 million it took to build the canal.
How did the Erie Canal affect the economic growth to the Great Lakes region?
Nationalism and Sectionalism
Era of Good Feelings 4 Election of 1816 4 Republican candidates: James Monroe (VA) and William Crawford (GA) 4 Federalists chose Rufus King of NY
Sectionalism 4 Henry Clay (KY) - War Hawk, spoke for the West 4 John C. Calhoun (SC) - War Hawk, spoke for the South 4 Daniel Webster (Mass. ) - “Black Dan”, spoke for the North
John C. Calhoun
In what ways is our section of the country different from the other sections of the US?
The American System 4 Henry Clay’s program 4 Another National Bank - inflation 4 Trade Protection – protective tariff -- Tariff of 1816 (25%)
“The American System” 4 1. Higher tariffs – would encourage growth of US industries by protecting them from foreign competitors 4 2. Bank of the US – would establish control over state banks, provide federal gov’t with safe place to store funds 4 3. Internal improvements such as roads, bridges, canals – would improve movement of goods from producers to markets, allow federal gov’t to maintain control over distant areas of the country
How would these items strengthen the national economy and increase the power of the federal government?
Effect of Protective Tariff In Britain In American made cloth sells for $6 per roll. British made cloth sells for $5 per roll. Shipped to America British made cloth sells for $6. 25 per roll. Add 25% tariff of $1. 25 per roll
Nationalism and the Supreme Court 4 Fletcher v. Peck - acts of a state gov’t could be declared void if they violated provisions of the Constitution (1810) 4 Mc. Cullough v. Maryland - Maryland can’t tax the Bank of the US b/c it was property of national gov’t (1819) 4 Gibbons v. Ogden - Only Congress has the power to make laws governing interstate commerce or trade between states (1824)
Missouri Compromise 4 Applying for Statehood 4 Clay proposes that Maine enter as a free state and Missouri as a slave state 4 36° 30 parallel
How did the Missouri Compromise temporarily solve the sectional conflict over slavery?
Monroe and Foreign Affairs
Canada Population was made up of Indian, French, and English. The 1 st white settlers were French.
Canada: A Divided Nation Yet, it was owned by Great Britain. English Canada French Canada 4 Spoke English 4 Spoke French 4 Protestant 4 Catholics 4 Upper Canada (area 4 Lower Canada (region around the Great Lakes) along the St. Lawrence River)
Lord Durham 4 Governor of Canada 4 Recommended that Upper and Lower Canada be united 4 Give control of local affairs to Canadians and control of foreign affairs to Britain 4 This was the basis for selfrule.
Dominion of Canada 4 1867 - - provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Quebec joined into the Dominion of Canada. 4 Joined later by Prince Edward Island, Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia
Canadian Government 4 Similar to Great Britain 4 Elected a Parliament and a Prime Minister
Independence in Latin America 4 Simon Bolivar - 4 Mexico wins known as the “George Washington of South America” 4 Jose de San Martin -helped Argentina win freedom in 1816 as well as Chile, Peru, and Ecuador independence in 1821 thanks to Father Miguel Hidalgo and Jose Morelos 4 1821 - Central America 4 1822 - Brazil (Portugal)
What are the advantages of the addition of Florida to the US?
Florida 4 Adams-Onís Treaty -- Spain ceded FL to US in return the US had to pay $5 million to American citizens who had claims against Spain for property damage.
Monroe Doctrine 4 Diplomatic recognition 4 Holy Alliance: Russia, Prussia, Austria, Spain, and France 4 British proposal -- a joint statement from Britain and US 4 US made its own statement: Monroe Doctrine 4 Reactions: startled Europe and didn’t challenge US
Holy Alliance Prussia was dissolved in 1947.
Monroe Doctrine cartoon
How involved in the affairs of other nations should the US be?
Election of 1824 4 Republican candidates: John Quincy Adams (Mass), William Crawford (GA), Henry Clay (KY), and Andrew Jackson (TN) 4 Corrupt Bargain
Election of 1824 Electoral Vote Popular Vote House Vote Jackson 99 153, 544 7 Adams 84 108, 740 13 Crawford 41 46, 618 4 Clay 37 47, 136 - Candidate
Of the first Five Presidents, Four were born in VA and 3 died on the 4 th of July. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died on July 4, 1826 without having made peace with one another.