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INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM “Left Brain” Analysis Logical Reasoning Affectively Neutral Universalistic Specific Achievement Oriented INDIVIDUALISM / COLLECTIVISM “Left Brain” Analysis Logical Reasoning Affectively Neutral Universalistic Specific Achievement Oriented Individualistic “Right Brain” Synthesis Intuition and emotion Affective Particularistic Diffuse Ascription oriented Collectivistic Individualism Culture of Separateness Separation from ingroups Self reliance and hedonism Ties among individuals loose Self interest (immediate family) High individual freedom Collectivism Culture of relatedness Interdependence Family integrity Ties among individuals tight Ingroup interest Loyalty to ingroup Low individual freedom Values: Comfortable life Competition Pleasure & social recognition High in achievement Motivation, alienation, anomie, loneliness Self reliance with competition Low concern for ingroups Distance from ingroups Subordination of ingroup Goals to personal goals Values: Cooperation Equality Honesty Receives more and better quality social support Strong ingroup-outgroup distinction Group harmony Avoid ingroup conflict Subordination of personal goals to ingroup goals 1

technology & structure Cultural context administrative system The organization goals Culture as external Independent technology & structure Cultural context administrative system The organization goals Culture as external Independent variable (culture and comparative management) production system, etc. Culture as internal variable (corporate culture) Culture and the systems theory framework From Smircich (1983) 2

Defining the Hofstede Dimensions Dimension Items Power Distance 1. Employees are afraid to disagree Defining the Hofstede Dimensions Dimension Items Power Distance 1. Employees are afraid to disagree with their managers. 2. My manager is autocratic, OR persuasive/paternalistic. 3. I prefer managers who are autocratic or participative, but not those who consult and then make their own decision. Uncertainty Avoidance 1. Company rules should not be broken, even when the employee thinks it is in the company’s best interest. 2. I intend to stay with the company for at least five years. 3. I feel nervous and tense at work. Individualism (versus Collectivism) It is important for me to have: Personal time, Freedom to use my approach. Challenge. Less important for me: Good physical conditions, Training opportunities, Use of all my skills. Masculinity (versus Femininity) It is important for me to have: High earnings, Recognition for good work, Advancement, Challenge. Less important for me: Good relations with manager, Cooperating with others, Desirable living area, Job security. Hofstede (1980) 3

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Hofstede, 1980 9 Hofstede, 1980 9

MASCULINITY 10 UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE MASCULINITY 10 UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE

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GLOBE PROJECT findings http: //www. grovewell. com/pub-GLOBE-intro. html In-group & Family Collectivism The degree GLOBE PROJECT findings http: //www. grovewell. com/pub-GLOBE-intro. html In-group & Family Collectivism The degree to which individuals express loyalty, cohesiveness in their families. 13

Organizational Collectivism The degree to which organizational practices encourage and reward collective distribution of Organizational Collectivism The degree to which organizational practices encourage and reward collective distribution of resources and collective action. 14

Uncertainty Avoidance The degree to which individuals rely on social norms, rules and policies Uncertainty Avoidance The degree to which individuals rely on social norms, rules and policies to alleviate unpredictability of future events. 15

Performance Orientation The degree to which a collective encourages and rewards members for performance Performance Orientation The degree to which a collective encourages and rewards members for performance improvement and excellence. 16

Gender egalitarianism: The degree to which gender inequalities are minimized. 17 Gender egalitarianism: The degree to which gender inequalities are minimized. 17

Leadership: What is it? For Whom? • “Arabs worship their leaders – as long Leadership: What is it? For Whom? • “Arabs worship their leaders – as long as they are in power” • “The Dutch place emphasis on egalitarianism and are skeptical about the value of leadership. Terms like leader and manager carry a stigma. If a father is employed as a manager, Dutch children will not admit it to their schoolmates…” • “Russians seek power, strength and authority in their leaders. ” • “The Malaysian leader is expected to behave in a manner that is humble, modest and dignified. ” 18

 • “Americans appreciate two kinds of leaders. They seek empowerment from leaders who • “Americans appreciate two kinds of leaders. They seek empowerment from leaders who grant autonomy and delegate authority to subordinates. They also respect the bold, forceful, confident, and risk-taking leader as personified by John Wayne. ” • “For Europeans, everything seems to indicate that leadership is an unintended and undesirable consequence of democracy. ” • “Indians prefer leaders who are nurturant, caring, dependable, sacrificing and yet demanding, authoritative, and strict disciplinarian. ” • “German leaders / managers are expected to have the expertise in resolving technical problems. There is no need to ‘motivate’ workers; all they need to do is to answer all the questions. ” 19

‘Universal’ definition of Leadership (GLOBE project; House et al. , 2004) • The ability ‘Universal’ definition of Leadership (GLOBE project; House et al. , 2004) • The ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization of which they are members. 20

Influence of Culture on Leadership: Illustration 1 Culture Y Culture X (high power distance) Influence of Culture on Leadership: Illustration 1 Culture Y Culture X (high power distance) (low power distance) “Employees want Participation” Ask opinions of employees “He is testing us” or “He doesn’t do what to do” Silence Not reinforce = no culture fit: no leader acceptance & effectiveness 21

Influence of Culture on Leadership: Illustration 2 Culture Y Culture X (low PD & Influence of Culture on Leadership: Illustration 2 Culture Y Culture X (low PD & individualistic) (high PD & collectivistic) “Employees want care and guidance in their personal & professional life” Ask how employees are doing in their family life “He is violating our privacy” or “Why is he asking this? What is his/her intentions? ” Silence Not reinforce = no culture fit: no leader acceptance & effectiveness 22

Paternalistic Leadership signifies a hierarchical relationship in which the leader guides the subordinates in Paternalistic Leadership signifies a hierarchical relationship in which the leader guides the subordinates in their professional and personal lives in a manner resembling a parent, and, in exchange, expects loyalty and deference from the subordinates (Aycan, 2006) • ‘Paternalism…. mediates between humanity and economic exploitation. Between the awfulness of one alternative and the ineffectiveness of the other, paternalism is a model that is worth re-examining”. • Anthony (1986, p. 77) 23

Paternalistic Leadership is prevalent § § Pasific Asia (e. g. , Dorfman & Howell, Paternalistic Leadership is prevalent § § Pasific Asia (e. g. , Dorfman & Howell, 1988; Kim, 1996; Lee & Yoo, 1987) Middle-East (e. g. , Ali, 1993; Aycan, et al. , 2000; Ayman & Chemers, 1991; Latin America (e. g. , Osland, Franco, & Osland, 1999) Africa (e. g. , Jackson, 2005) Kabasakal & Bodur, 2004) 24

Preference for Paternalistic Leadership: A crosscultural comparison (Aycan et al. , 2000) India Pakistan Preference for Paternalistic Leadership: A crosscultural comparison (Aycan et al. , 2000) India Pakistan China Turkey Russia Israil Germany Romania USA Canada 25

Diagnosis • Schizophrenia – US : 62% – UK : 34% • Depression – Diagnosis • Schizophrenia – US : 62% – UK : 34% • Depression – US : 5% – UK : 24%

Language Self Structure Symptoms “Objective Culture” Abstract Language Individuated Self Structure Affective /Cognitive “Subjective Language Self Structure Symptoms “Objective Culture” Abstract Language Individuated Self Structure Affective /Cognitive “Subjective Culture” Metaphorical Language Communal Self Structure Somatic

Psychotherapy • Patient (Client) • Therapist • Society Share common culture in indigenous therapy Psychotherapy • Patient (Client) • Therapist • Society Share common culture in indigenous therapy • In intercultural therapy, they do not share common culture.

Common Core • Prince: Mobilizing the healing forces within the patient. Common Core • Prince: Mobilizing the healing forces within the patient.

Culture, Parenting and the Development of COMPETENCE Culture, Parenting and the Development of COMPETENCE

DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCE Importance of Proximal Environment Parenting in low SES homes Child Outcome DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCE Importance of Proximal Environment Parenting in low SES homes Child Outcome Korenman (1995) Low level of emotional support and cognitive stimulation account for Eccles and Harold (1993); Epstein (1990) Variations in parental involvement lead to Gottfried, Fleming and Gottfried (1998) Cognitively stimulating home environment significant above and beyond SES Leseman (1993) Van Tuijl & Leseman (2004) Amount of mother-child verbal interaction for account for 1/3 to 1/2 of the disadvantage in verbal and math skills disparities in achievement Child cognitive development vocabulary/concept formation of Turkish immigrant children in Holland.

DIVERSITY OF DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME WITHIN SIMILAR CONTEXTS RESEARCHER Carvioto (1981) FINDINGS A Mexican village: DIVERSITY OF DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME WITHIN SIMILAR CONTEXTS RESEARCHER Carvioto (1981) FINDINGS A Mexican village: Mother’s listening to radio predicts children’s nutritional status Kotchabhakdi and others (1987) Early stimulation of child in Tai villages contributes to child nutritional health and development Ford Foundation (1990) Java: Mother-child interaction level contributes to child’s nutritional status, physical and cognitive development. Zeitlin, Ghassemi, Results from 16 studies: and Mansour (1990) - psychological stress decreases the effective use of nutritients - positive psychological situation stimulates growth hormones - interaction of nutrition—health—psychological factors is important Lee and Croninger Home support variables (mother’s educational expectations, literate (1994) home environment) reduce the negative effect of poverty on reading achievement by more than half in the US.

The policy implications have to do with early cognitive enrichment and education programs to The policy implications have to do with early cognitive enrichment and education programs to support parents and other caretakers to provide more stimulating environments to young children. A very important issue here is social change – The world’s population is fast becoming less rural and more urban. – Another issue is immigration What was adaptive in rural context may not be adaptive in urban life.

Urbanization of Populations Urbanization of Populations

Draw a Person Test Results Draw a Person Test Results

An “Optimal developmental Model” implies that we can set standards (criteria/ yardsticks/ benchmarks/ norms) An “Optimal developmental Model” implies that we can set standards (criteria/ yardsticks/ benchmarks/ norms) for optimal development. These can be used as reference points in evaluating or judging whethere is “healthy” development or not. Such an approach would help contribute to efforts toward supporting human well-being. This is a ‘hands on’ prescriptive stance.

A ‘hands-off’ orientation is particularly strong in the cultural relativist perspective which for example A ‘hands-off’ orientation is particularly strong in the cultural relativist perspective which for example considers any cultural childrearing practice to be in line with culturally defined developmental goals. Therefore it rejects universal standards.

Consider the constrasting approaches of a cultural psychologist/ anthropologist and a nutrition scientist regarding: Consider the constrasting approaches of a cultural psychologist/ anthropologist and a nutrition scientist regarding: – Relativistic norms (hands off) – Universalistic norms (hands on)

A universalist perspective, can ask two basic policy relevant questions: 1. Is there an A universalist perspective, can ask two basic policy relevant questions: 1. Is there an optimal fit between children’s developmental trajectories and cultural/home childrearing values/practices? 2. If there is a misfit, can something be done about it? If the answer is NO to 1 and YES to 2, then this is a call for INTERVENTION and POLICY.

 • Given the increasing similarity in urban life styles in the world, and • Given the increasing similarity in urban life styles in the world, and particularly with the expansion of public education, some common standards of competence are emerging • We can contribute significantly to the enhancement of the developmental trajectories of children and youth.

IMPLICATIONS FOR APPLICATION: EARLY ENRICHMENT as AN EXAMPLE Concerted efforts have been expended in IMPLICATIONS FOR APPLICATION: EARLY ENRICHMENT as AN EXAMPLE Concerted efforts have been expended in many countries to provide deprived children with early enrichment that would enhance their ability to benefit from formal schooling. The research program from Turkey and its resultant program applications to be presented here derive from a 22 -year longitudinal study, including an original 4 -year longitudinal study and its first and second follow-up, known as the Turkish Early Enrichment Project (TEEP).

THE TURKISH EARLY-ENRICHMENT PROJECT (TEEP) Mediating variable Mother-Child Interaction Background • Low SES • THE TURKISH EARLY-ENRICHMENT PROJECT (TEEP) Mediating variable Mother-Child Interaction Background • Low SES • Low Education • Direct attention given to the child • Communication with the child • Satisfaction with the child • Expectation of obedience/autonomy Mother Training • • Promoting child’s cognitive development Promoting child’s socioemotional development Empowerment of the mother Building communication skills Outcome: Child’s cognitive development, school performance, socioemotional development

DESIGN OF TEEP STUDY Number of subjects in each group Educational Day-care Custodial Day-care DESIGN OF TEEP STUDY Number of subjects in each group Educational Day-care Custodial Day-care Home Care Total Age of child 3 yr. 5 yr. Mother training 11 16 23 17 16 7 90 No Mother training 18 19 30 35 34 29 165 Total 29 35 53 52 50 36 255

FOURTH YEAR ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES ED 5. 13 2. 69 2. 5 3. 39 FOURTH YEAR ACHIEVEMENT TEST SCORES ED 5. 13 2. 69 2. 5 3. 39 NMT 3. 77 2. 75 2. 54 2. 91 4. 36 2. 73 2. 53 MT 6 4. 31 5. 29 5 NMT 5. 6 4. 48 4. 72 Total 5. 77 4. 41 4. 67 MT 27. 22 27. 85 28. 14 27. 71 NMT 24. 1 26. 31 22. 76 24. 64 Total General Ability Total Turkish HOME MT Math CUST 25. 45 26. 91 24. 02 *p. . 05, **p <. 01 F values Environ. (2, 207) 5. 27** Training (1, 207) 0. 50 Environ. (2, 212) 5. 10 ** Training (1, 212) 0. 32 Environ. (2, 212) 1. 19 Training (1, 212) 3. 80*

FOURTH YEAR SCHOOL GRADES FOR 5 YEAR-OLD GROUP Age 5 Group EDU MT 4. FOURTH YEAR SCHOOL GRADES FOR 5 YEAR-OLD GROUP Age 5 Group EDU MT 4. 30 2. 53 3. 14 3. 22 Environ. Training 3. 83 2. 48 2. 00 2. 61 (2, 80) (1, 80) 4. 05 2. 50 2. 31 6. 19*** 4. 28* MT 4. 70 3. 40 3. 86 3. 91 Environ. Training NMT 3. 92 3. 04 3. 32 3. 33 (2, 80) (1, 80) Total 4. 27 3. 18 3. 46 14. 14**** 2. 82 C MT 13. 50 8. 87 10. 66 Environ. Training NMT 10. 75 8. 35 8. 87 (2, 80) (1, 80) Total GPA Total Math HOME NMT Turkish CUST F-values 12. 00 8. 50 8. 86 7. 8*** 4. 50* *p<. 05, ** p<. 01, *** p<. 005, ****p<. 0005 (C : p between. 05 and. 10) Grades in each course range from 1 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Report cards were checked in the homes. Overall in 29% of the cases the report card could not be found. The highest rate of missing data is in the NMT 5 -year-olds (35%) and the lowest rate is in the MT 5 -year-olds (20%). Both age groups had the same proportion of report cards available (72. 5%)

FIRST FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF TEEP 1992 - ADOLESCENTS (13 -15 years of age) Kağıtçıbaşı, FIRST FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF TEEP 1992 - ADOLESCENTS (13 -15 years of age) Kağıtçıbaşı, Sunar, Bekman(2001), Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 333 -361

MEAN SCORES PRIMARY SCHOOL GPA’S t= 3. 08, p<. 002, t= 3. 01, p<. MEAN SCORES PRIMARY SCHOOL GPA’S t= 3. 08, p<. 002, t= 3. 01, p<. 003, t=2. 82, p<. 005

MEAN SCORES STANDARDIZED WISC-R VOCABULARY SCORES F (2, 216) = 2. 16, p<. 032 MEAN SCORES STANDARDIZED WISC-R VOCABULARY SCORES F (2, 216) = 2. 16, p<. 032

PERCENTOF YES RESPONSES IS ADOLESCENT STILL IN SCHOOL? %86 X 2= 9. 57 P<. PERCENTOF YES RESPONSES IS ADOLESCENT STILL IN SCHOOL? %86 X 2= 9. 57 P<. 002 %67

MOTHER CHILD EDUCATION PROGRAM TARGET MOTHERS WITH 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN DURATION 25 WEEKS MOTHER CHILD EDUCATION PROGRAM TARGET MOTHERS WITH 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN DURATION 25 WEEKS FORM GROUP DISCUSSIONS By 2013, 700. 000 women + children reached. Extensions to Europe (Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany) and to Arab countries (Bahrain, Jordan, Saudi Arabia) TV adaptation on national and international Turkish Public Television

COMPONENTS OF THE PROGRAM MOTHER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM: To sensitize mothers on subjects like child COMPONENTS OF THE PROGRAM MOTHER ENRICHMENT PROGRAM: To sensitize mothers on subjects like child development, health, nutrition, care and also creative play activities, discipline, mother child interaction, communication, expressing feelings and needs of the mothers. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND FAMILY PLANNING: To sensitize mothers on issues like reproductive health of women, healthy and risky pregnancies, functions of reproductive health. COGNITIVE TRAINING PROGRAM: To foster the child’s cognitive and social development through activities related with eye-hand coordination, verbal development, preliteracy and prenumeracy skills, problem solving skills.

SECOND FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF TEEP 2004 - YOUNG ADULTS (25 -27 years of age) SECOND FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF TEEP 2004 - YOUNG ADULTS (25 -27 years of age) (Kagitcibasi, C. , Sunar, D. , Bekman, S. , Baydar, N. & Cemalcilar, Z. , Applied Developmental Psychology, doi: 10. 1016/j. a, 2009)

Design of the Study Number of subjects in each group Educational day care Mother Design of the Study Number of subjects in each group Educational day care Mother training 13 (24) No mother training 21 (31) Unknown Total 1 st follow-up in parentheses 34 (55) Custodial day care 21 (37) 29 (50) Home care 13 (22) 35 (53) Total 47 (83) 85 (134) 50 (87) 1 49 (75) 1 133 (217)

School attainment of those who either had attended an educational child care center and/or School attainment of those who either had attended an educational child care center and/or their mothers had training (I) and those who had no early intervention (NI) School attainment 12 11. 21 11 10. 26 10 9 8 I [ANCOVA F(1, 127) =3. 218, p=. 07 ] NI

University attendance of those who either had attended an educational child care center and/or University attendance of those who either had attended an educational child care center and/or whose mothers had training. attending university percentage 50 44. 1 40 26. 6 30 20 10 0 I [X 2=4. 432, df=1, p=. 03 ] NI

Vocabulary test performance by home based education [ANCOVA F(1 , 98) =3. 362, p=. Vocabulary test performance by home based education [ANCOVA F(1 , 98) =3. 362, p=. 09]

Age of beginning gainful employment age of beginning gainful employment 19 18 17. 53 Age of beginning gainful employment age of beginning gainful employment 19 18 17. 53 17 16. 19 16 15 I F(1 , 121) =4. 708, p=. 03 NI

Occupational status occupational status 5 4 3. 94 3. 21 3 2 1 I Occupational status occupational status 5 4 3. 94 3. 21 3 2 1 I [F(1, 128) =4. 130, p=. 04] NI

Computer ownership owns a computer 50 44 percentage 40 30 24 20 10 0 Computer ownership owns a computer 50 44 percentage 40 30 24 20 10 0 I [X 2 =5. 981, df=1, p=. 014] NI

Credit card ownership has credit card percentagee 100 90 80 70 70 60 52 Credit card ownership has credit card percentagee 100 90 80 70 70 60 52 50 40 30 MT [X 2 =3. 955, df=1, p=. 047] NMT

CONCLUSIONS OF THE SECOND FOLLOW-UP • Home based education: A higher percentage of those CONCLUSIONS OF THE SECOND FOLLOW-UP • Home based education: A higher percentage of those whose mothers had training attended university, they were more successful in the vocabulary test and owned credit cards. • Center-based care center: Those who attended an educational care center had more schooling and had jobs of higher status. • A possible ‘delayed effect’: In the first follow up the effects of educational day care were not very clear. In the second follow up, however, they were distinctively apparent.

3. The essential ingredients of a successful intervention program: a) Whole child approach (supporting 3. The essential ingredients of a successful intervention program: a) Whole child approach (supporting the child's overall development, including cognitive, socioemotional. and life skills development); b) Contextual approach (supporting the child's human environment as well as the child); c) Multiple goals (serving both the child and the mother-family with Cognitive, health, nutrition, coping skills, etc. targets); d) Empowerment (rather than a compensation approach) to build on the existing strengths; e) Sharing goals (parents as partners rather than as recipients of services); f) Optimal timing (reaching parents when they are receptive to intervention); g) Cost effectiveness.

COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF ECE - TURKEY Mehmet Kaytaz (2004) COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF ECE - TURKEY Mehmet Kaytaz (2004)

Cost Benefit Studies in ECCE: International Examples • • • Benefits calculated on: School Cost Benefit Studies in ECCE: International Examples • • • Benefits calculated on: School preparation Years of schooling Academic success Productivity and income Economic growth Higher taxpaying Health gains Less crime Better citizens Selected cost –benefit ratios: • Bolivia: 1. 38 -2. 26 • Egypt: 1. 20 -5. 81 • Jordan : 1. 49 -3. 06 • Abecedarian: 4 • Perry Preschool: 7

Selected Cost Benefit Ratios for non-ECD Projects Project Ratio Hill Forest Development Project, Nepal Selected Cost Benefit Ratios for non-ECD Projects Project Ratio Hill Forest Development Project, Nepal 1. 18 Philippine Ilocos Irrigation Systems Improvement Project 1. 48 Large-Scale Alternative 1. 32 Livestock Development Project, Uruguay 1. 59 Livestock and Agricultural Development Project, Paraguay 1. 62 Cotton Processing and Marketing Project, Kenya 1. 80 Kunda Cement Factory, Estonia 2. 27

ECE Cost Benefit Ratio for Turkey (Discount Rate % 6) • Benefits calculated on ECE Cost Benefit Ratio for Turkey (Discount Rate % 6) • Benefits calculated on only one indicator increased productivitiy and income Scenario II Scenario 3 2. 18 3. 43 6. 01

Other Programs • Case Study : Mother Child Education Program Cost Benefit Ratio Scenario Other Programs • Case Study : Mother Child Education Program Cost Benefit Ratio Scenario II 4. 60 6. 63 Scenario III 10. 02