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Indirect Objects Ed Morrow ENG 588 Indirect Objects Ed Morrow ENG 588

Presentation Outline l l What is an indirect object? Syntactic Forms and Configurations Problems Presentation Outline l l What is an indirect object? Syntactic Forms and Configurations Problems for ESL/EFL students. Sample Lesson Plans.

What is an Indirect Object? What is an Indirect Object?

Definitions: ‘to whom’ ‘of whom’ l An indirect object is a second noun object Definitions: ‘to whom’ ‘of whom’ l An indirect object is a second noun object that tells us to whom or for whom the action of the verb is being carried out. l A sentence with an indirect object must have a direct object, the object NP that undergoes the action. What.

Definitions: Example 1 Joe gave a book to Sally. To who? Sally = indirect Definitions: Example 1 Joe gave a book to Sally. To who? Sally = indirect object What is given? A book = direct object

Definitions: Example 2 We gave John a present. To who? John = indirect object Definitions: Example 2 We gave John a present. To who? John = indirect object What was given? A present = direct object

Example 3 l We can also ask ‘for whom’ the action was done for. Example 3 l We can also ask ‘for whom’ the action was done for. I bought a present for John.

Definitions: ‘of whom’ l Our textbook also points out that indirect objects tell us Definitions: ‘of whom’ l Our textbook also points out that indirect objects tell us of whom the action expressed in the verb is being requested.

Definitions: Example 3 Joe asked a question of Sally. Of Whom? Sally = indirect Definitions: Example 3 Joe asked a question of Sally. Of Whom? Sally = indirect object Asked what? A question = direct object

Where they appear l Indirect objects appear with verbs that either require two NP Where they appear l Indirect objects appear with verbs that either require two NP objects to complete the meaning of the sentence or to provide supplemental information. (grammatical or optional) l The verb-indirect combinations depend on the inherent meaning of the verb in the sentence.

Characteristics of English Verbs that Take Indirect Objects l We can describe verbs that Characteristics of English Verbs that Take Indirect Objects l We can describe verbs that have indirect objects in the following ways: 1. Ditransitive Verbs Verb Types: Semantics of Verbs 2.

Ditransitive Verbs l We have reviewed earlier in the semester that verbs that take Ditransitive Verbs l We have reviewed earlier in the semester that verbs that take an indirect object and a direct object are called ditransitive verbs. l Verbs that take one object are called transitive verbs. l We will shortly see that a ‘give type’ verb will always function as a ditransitive verb, but there also many verbs that have dual functions.

Ditransitive and Transitive Verbs Indirect Object Ditransitive We baked Transitive David read David a Ditransitive and Transitive Verbs Indirect Object Ditransitive We baked Transitive David read David a cake. We baked Ditransitive Direct Object a cake. the children a story.

Inherent Meanings of Verbs l In order to fully understand what indirect objects represent Inherent Meanings of Verbs l In order to fully understand what indirect objects represent and how they function, we need to look for different ways to categorize the verbs based on their meanings. l Our textbook shows us several ways to categorize the verbs.

Semantics of Verbs The textbook refers us to Jacobson’s (1966) Three semantic groups: l Semantics of Verbs The textbook refers us to Jacobson’s (1966) Three semantic groups: l l l Dative = giving type verbs Benefactive = ‘make’ ‘bake’ Eliciting = ‘ask’ ‘request’

Dative Verbs – ‘Give’ l Dative verbs have an inherent meaning associated with giving. Dative Verbs – ‘Give’ l Dative verbs have an inherent meaning associated with giving. l In sentences with dative verbs, IOs in the post-prepositional position are preceded by the ‘to’ preposition.

Examples of Dative Verbs with ‘to’ Direct Object Indirect object Sally. I gave a Examples of Dative Verbs with ‘to’ Direct Object Indirect object Sally. I gave a book Mel handed a letter The girl lent her bicycle to Frank. Annie.

Examples of Dative Verbs give, hand, lend, paid, sell, send, throw……. l l I Examples of Dative Verbs give, hand, lend, paid, sell, send, throw……. l l I gave a book to Sally. *I gave a book. Mel handed a letter to Frank. *Mel handed a letter. For the verbs ‘gave’ and ‘handed’ they will need an indirect object to complete the meaning and structure of their sentences. Dative verbs compose the largest category that uses indirect objects.

Benefactive Verbs ‘Make’ l Benefactive verbs have something to do with making or an Benefactive Verbs ‘Make’ l Benefactive verbs have something to do with making or an action where someone benefits. l Indirect objects in the post-prepositional position are preceded by the preposition ‘for’.

Examples of Benefactive Verbs with ‘for’ Direct Object Indirect object I bought a book Examples of Benefactive Verbs with ‘for’ Direct Object Indirect object I bought a book Sally. She found a seat you. He ordered some desert for Angela.

Examples of Benefactive Verbs bake, build, buy, cook, do, make…. . I baked a Examples of Benefactive Verbs bake, build, buy, cook, do, make…. . I baked a cake for Sam. I cooked dinner for the family.

Quick Note: The Ambiguity of ‘for’ Phrases Consider the following sentence: My mom bought Quick Note: The Ambiguity of ‘for’ Phrases Consider the following sentence: My mom bought it for me. What does this mean?

Questions that come to mind: Did my mother act on my behalf because I Questions that come to mind: Did my mother act on my behalf because I couldn’t for whatever reason? Or did she buy it as a gift?

Eliciting Verbs l Eliciting verbs have to do with an action related to ‘ask’ Eliciting Verbs l Eliciting verbs have to do with an action related to ‘ask’ and ‘require’. l They make up the smallest category of verbs using indirect objects. l In the post-prepositional position, indirect objects are preceded by the preposition ‘of’.

Examples of Eliciting Verbs Joe asked a question of Sally. They require an explanation Examples of Eliciting Verbs Joe asked a question of Sally. They require an explanation of your Majesty. Notably these sentences sound too archaic or old fashioned, thus we do not see them in common speech.

A Problem with Semantic Grouping l Our textbook does point out that this semantic A Problem with Semantic Grouping l Our textbook does point out that this semantic categorization will not work in all cases. For example consider the verb ‘get’. I’ll get this to him. I’ll get this for him. Which one is in the dative? Benefactive?

I’ll get this to him. (dative = “deliver”) I’ll get this for him. (benefactive I’ll get this to him. (dative = “deliver”) I’ll get this for him. (benefactive = “fetch, obtain”) The distinction is in preposition ‘to’ and ‘for’.

Other examples: l l l Bring the money to me. I have brought your Other examples: l l l Bring the money to me. I have brought your luggage for you. I will drive the car to you. I will drive the car for you. He left a pretty fortune to his wife. (? ) I left some cookies for you.

Let’s look at other subcategories. l Other linguists have identified eight semantic categories for Let’s look at other subcategories. l Other linguists have identified eight semantic categories for verbs followed by indirect objects. l In ESL instruction, we can refer to such subcategories when we teach the meaning of the different verb-indirect combinations.

Subcategories 1. Verbs of transfer: throw, buy, send, lend, sell, give, hand, pass. He Subcategories 1. Verbs of transfer: throw, buy, send, lend, sell, give, hand, pass. He threw Chloe the ball. I passed Steve the salt. Jane sent her daughter a present.

2. Verbs that speak of the recipient’s future possession or nonpossession of something: promise, 2. Verbs that speak of the recipient’s future possession or nonpossession of something: promise, offer, allow, allot, refuse, deny. Bill promised Sue a watch. Jack offered Jim a raise. I refused Mike a drink.

3. Verbs of making or creating: bake, knit, carve, make, fix, draw, write. Jack 3. Verbs of making or creating: bake, knit, carve, make, fix, draw, write. Jack baked a cake for Suzie. She drew a picture for Jim. I fixed the car for my wife.

4. Verbs of preparing something for use: fry, roast, grill, iron, butter, peel. I 4. Verbs of preparing something for use: fry, roast, grill, iron, butter, peel. I grilled the kids some hot dogs. She peeled Bill an apple. I fried Jessie some fish sticks.

5. Verbs related to entertaining: read, sing, tell, play. I read her a story. 5. Verbs related to entertaining: read, sing, tell, play. I read her a story. She sang Jim a song.

6. Verbs relating to some form of communication: phone, wire, fax, tell. John wired 6. Verbs relating to some form of communication: phone, wire, fax, tell. John wired his daughter some money. I’ll fax you the copy.

7. Verbs related to teaching someone to do something: teach, show, tell. I taught 7. Verbs related to teaching someone to do something: teach, show, tell. I taught Fido a trick. He showed me the solution.

8. Verbs of showing something so someone can see it: show Tim showed Sam 8. Verbs of showing something so someone can see it: show Tim showed Sam a picture. Note: a verb form can belong to more than one category. Tell → entertaining, communicating, or teaching. I told him a story. She told me the news. John taught his son math.

Verbs with Indirect Objects l There are many ways to categorize verbs that function Verbs with Indirect Objects l There are many ways to categorize verbs that function with the indirect object. l The common terminology, however, we will come across with is the term dative verbs. l This term is often referred to when we discuss indirect objects occurring in the post-prepositional position and postverbal position. (Dative Movement)

Summary to this point We have seen the following to this point: l The Summary to this point We have seen the following to this point: l The indirect object is a 2 nd noun object. l It can be described as the recipient, benefactor, or elicitor of an action. l The function of an indirect object really depends on the function or the inherent meaning of the main verb.

What is not an Indirect Object l Look at the following sentences: The kids What is not an Indirect Object l Look at the following sentences: The kids made John a birthday cake. IO DO The kids made a birthday cake for John. DO IO

l What about this? The outcome made John a happy man. Is there an l What about this? The outcome made John a happy man. Is there an indirect object? An object?

l This sentence is different since ‘ a happy man’ is an object complement. l This sentence is different since ‘ a happy man’ is an object complement. l We can test it two ways:

l Post-prepositional position test *The outcome made a happy man to/for John. l Post-prepositional position test *The outcome made a happy man to/for John.

l Is the phrase ‘a happy man’ connected to John? l In this sentence l Is the phrase ‘a happy man’ connected to John? l In this sentence the object complement is the same person. John = a happy man l In an indirect object + direct object sentence, they are never the same person or object. The kids made John a birthday cake. John ≠ a birthday cake

Wrap Up l It is important to understand the meaning of indirect objects l Wrap Up l It is important to understand the meaning of indirect objects l It is also important to know how it is used with verbs l Verbs have different semantic meanings

Indirect Objects in Different Syntactic Configurations and Forms l In this next part of Indirect Objects in Different Syntactic Configurations and Forms l In this next part of the presentation lets look at how indirect objects alternate and how they appear or are implied (invisible) at the sentence level.

Seeking Explanations for Alternations and Forms We commonly see two patterns: l l S Seeking Explanations for Alternations and Forms We commonly see two patterns: l l S V DO {to, for, of} IO S V IO DO

Function of Indirect Object Alternation l Concept of dominance basically looks at what the Function of Indirect Object Alternation l Concept of dominance basically looks at what the speaker wants to highlight and to draw the listener’s attention. V NP 1 {to/for/of} NP 2. In this the dominant noun phrase is NP 2. Please pass the salt to me. In this sentence it’s all about me.

l If you want to give prominence to the direct object, then the alternate l If you want to give prominence to the direct object, then the alternate pattern is available. Pass me the salt please.

Dative Verbs and Indirect Object Alternations l In sentences with dative verbs, indirect objects Dative Verbs and Indirect Object Alternations l In sentences with dative verbs, indirect objects occur in either a postverbal or postprepositional positions. Mike gave the car to Sara. Mike gave Sara the car.

+ alternations l Sample of verbs that allow for this alternation: hand, tell, pass, + alternations l Sample of verbs that allow for this alternation: hand, tell, pass, sell, send, get, give, show, throw, lend, teach, offer, fax, and wire. l These verbs allow both postverbal and postprepositional positions for indirect objects.

Using Optional Indirect Objects in the Post-Prepositional Position l We know that with dative Using Optional Indirect Objects in the Post-Prepositional Position l We know that with dative verbs, indirect objects are required for the sentence to be grammatical. (for both meaning and structure) l However in other cases, indirect objects are optional and can appear in the post-prepositional or post verbal position. Bob built a cabin. → Bob built a cabin for Katie. I cook dinner. → I cook dinner for my family.

Indirect Objects Limited to the Postprepositional Position l Then there are verbs that can Indirect Objects Limited to the Postprepositional Position l Then there are verbs that can only take the indirect object in the post-prepositional position. * I explained Mary the problem. I explained the problem to Mary.

+ post-prepositional position only l Verbs that behave like explain: donate, announce, recommend, reveal, + post-prepositional position only l Verbs that behave like explain: donate, announce, recommend, reveal, confess, introduce, narrate, describe, transmit, refuse, and deny. l With these verbs, the indirect objects can only occur in the post-prepositional position.

+ postverbal position only l There are few verbs that only occur in the + postverbal position only l There are few verbs that only occur in the immediate postverbal position and allow no indirect object in the post-prepositional position. The book cost me $10. * The cost $10 to me. l A couple of verbs that appear to behave like cost: bill, charge, and overcharge.

Optional Indirect Objects in Postverbal Position l In casual speech there are times when Optional Indirect Objects in Postverbal Position l In casual speech there are times when the speaker may omit the indirect object in the postverbal position. Go find (me, him, her) some socks. Get (me, him, her) a towel.

Indirect Objects that can not occur in the immediate postverbal position. l When telling Indirect Objects that can not occur in the immediate postverbal position. l When telling a message: announced them the news. She announced the news to them *She l Entertaining: magician performed the boys a trick. The magician performed a trick for the boys. *The l Preparing for use: * He decorated her the room. He decorated the room for her. Also our book mentions that with many of these verbs, the indirect object is not required.

Semantics Governing Postverbal Position for Indirect Objects l The restriction here is that the Semantics Governing Postverbal Position for Indirect Objects l The restriction here is that the indirect object in the postverbal position is limited semantically to animate object. At the same time it is a ‘projected possessor’ of the direct object. So based on this we can say: Joe sent a letter to Sue. Joe sent Sue a letter. Here Sue is the animate and the projected possessor of the letter. But look what happens in the following: Joe sent a letter to Cincinnati. *Joe sent Cincinnati a letter. Since Cincinnati is a location of the letter, we find this sentence ungrammatical.

The Surface Form: Is it grammatical? Grammar of Verbs with Indirect Object l We The Surface Form: Is it grammatical? Grammar of Verbs with Indirect Object l We saw that with dative give type verbs, an indirect object is required to complete the meaning of the sentence. For example: *I gave a book. To who? *She handed the letter. To who? *She put the knife. Where?

l But under other circumstances, although an indirect object is not required, the meaning l But under other circumstances, although an indirect object is not required, the meaning of the sentence may differ whether it is used or not. Homer found a job. Homer found {a job for me}. {me a job}.

Verbs with Implied Indirect Objects l With verbs such as ‘sell’ and ‘ask’ the Verbs with Implied Indirect Objects l With verbs such as ‘sell’ and ‘ask’ the indirect object may not always appear on the surface. Instead it is implied in the context. Marge sold the house. (to someone) Jimmy asked a question. (of someone)

Obligatory Versus Deletable Direct Objects l At times we have to consider the role Obligatory Versus Deletable Direct Objects l At times we have to consider the role of the direct object in sentences that contain both direct and indirect object. l There are cases where we cannot delete the direct object. For example: ? Peter gave to Alice. Does this mean he donated money to Alice? Or did he give her something? *Peter gave Alice. Peter gave the house to Alice. Peter gave Alice the house.

l Then there are cases where the direct object can be omitted, but only l Then there are cases where the direct object can be omitted, but only if the indirect object comes after the verb and before the understood direct object. I paid the money to Sam. I paid Sam. (the money) l But when you omit the direct object with the verb ‘paid’ you cannot keep the preposition ‘to’. *I paid to Sam. Question: What about ‘I paid for Sam’? Difference between dative versus benefactive use?

l There also cases where the direct object can be deleted but the preposition l There also cases where the direct object can be deleted but the preposition preceding the indirect object must be retained. Sara cooks (dinner) for the family. ? Sara cooks the family. In this case the direct object is strongly implied in the and the indirect object is not closely linked to the meaning of the verb.

Other Restrictions, Conditions, and Forms Other Restrictions, Conditions, and Forms

1. Postverbal Restriction On IO: Nouns and Pronouns l The indirect object can not 1. Postverbal Restriction On IO: Nouns and Pronouns l The indirect object can not be postverbal if the direct object is a pronoun and the indirect object is a noun. We sent it to John. *We sent John it. Give it to Sam. *Give Sam it.

l On the other hand, if the indirect object is a pronoun and the l On the other hand, if the indirect object is a pronoun and the direct object is a noun, we can still use the alternation pattern. We sent a package to him. We sent him a package.

l We can use a pronoun in the DO NP such as ‘one’ or l We can use a pronoun in the DO NP such as ‘one’ or ‘some’ in place of an NP with an indefinite article: We gave him { a book} {some books}. We gave him {one} {some}.

l Using a demonstrative pronoun in the DO NP Fred gave her {this/that book}. l Using a demonstrative pronoun in the DO NP Fred gave her {this/that book}. Fred gave her {this/that}.

2. Complexity Condition l If the direct object is a long complex NP, a 2. Complexity Condition l If the direct object is a long complex NP, a postverbal indirect object is recommended in order to avoid confusion and awkwardness. ? /* Jean gave hotdogs [that had been grilled over an open hickory fire] to the kids. Jean gave the kids hotdogs [that had been grilled over an open hickory fire]. l Also our textbook points out that clausal direct objects move to the dominant position.

l However if the indirect object is heavily modified, postverbal position is less likely. l However if the indirect object is heavily modified, postverbal position is less likely. ? /* I bought my little niece, the daughter of my eldest brother, a present. I bought a present for my little niece, the daughter of my eldest brother.

3. Constraints on Indirect Objects in Conjoined Sentences l If the verb is omitted 3. Constraints on Indirect Objects in Conjoined Sentences l If the verb is omitted after the conjunction, both sentences must keep their indirect objects in the same position. IO DO I gave John a book, and Bill a bicycle. IO DO DO IO I gave John a book, and a bicycle to Bill. DO IO IO DO I gave a book to John, and Bill a bicycle.

l However if the verb is retained in both sentences, this constraint does not l However if the verb is retained in both sentences, this constraint does not hold. IO DO DO IO I gave John a book, and gave a bicycle to Bill. DO IO IO DO I gave a book to John, and gave Bill a bicycle. Note: In order to avoid confusing your ESL student, you can just keep it simple. I gave a book to John and a bicycle to Bill.

4. Sentences with Indirect Objects in the Passive Voice l Direct objects become subjects 4. Sentences with Indirect Objects in the Passive Voice l Direct objects become subjects in the passive voice. S IO DO Active: [Alice] gave [John] [the book]. S/DO IO Passive 1: [The book] was given to [John]. (by Alice) l The other passive option allows for the indirect object to become the subject. S/IO DO Passive 2: [John] was given [the book]. (by Alice)

Problems For ESL/EFL Students l They need to learn the semantics of verbs. l Problems For ESL/EFL Students l They need to learn the semantics of verbs. l If they start by learning dative verbs they will need to know the proper prepositional form or pattern for sentences with indirect objects.

Common Problems for Korean Students l Omitting a required preposition *Technical journal and proceedings Common Problems for Korean Students l Omitting a required preposition *Technical journal and proceedings of symposia and conferences are cited to review previous works and to [give a hint readers] about New York. l Inserting a preposition in the wrong place *This article [gives to us] the information. (Cowan, 2008, p. 342)

Other Errors l They may not know the proper alternation forms and restriction rules. Other Errors l They may not know the proper alternation forms and restriction rules. French or Spanish speaker may say: * John opened me the door. John opened the door for me. l There may be some confusion between two verbs with similar meanings. Example: Tell versus say He told me the answer. *He said me the answer. (Murcia & Freeman, 1999, p. 362)

Suggestions for Teaching Indirect Objects l l l We can teach students the semantics Suggestions for Teaching Indirect Objects l l l We can teach students the semantics of verbs. Then we can show which verbs permit postprepositional and postverbal positions for indirect objects. But what will this approach be effective?

Traditional Approach l Focus on the high frequency of the ‘to’ and the ‘for’ Traditional Approach l Focus on the high frequency of the ‘to’ and the ‘for’ dative verbs, how they appear in the prepositional and alternation patterns. l A study done by Carroll and Swain (1993) shows that students do better when just focusing on the dative movement pattern. l This approach is used in most ESL textbooks.

A Lesson for Beginner Level Students l Objective: Students will recognize the practical use A Lesson for Beginner Level Students l Objective: Students will recognize the practical use of indirect objects with ‘to’ and ‘for’ dative verbs. l Motivation: Many students may be motivated with communicative exercises because they will need to learn some practical grammar for everyday interaction with other people. l Materials: Books and objects in the classroom. The instructor will also have an outline of prewritten scenarios to use in class. l Activity: This is a communicative based activity in which the instructor will elicit a response from a student. The students will need to develop a response using ‘to’ and ‘for’ dative verbs and indirect objects. l Key points: l Assessment: A review followed by a quick oral quiz with some sample dialogues. Correct usage of dative verbs with ‘to’ and ‘for’ preposition. Alternation with dative verbs.

Example: Instructor: Here is a book. I am going to give this book to Example: Instructor: Here is a book. I am going to give this book to Sue. What am I going to do, Elena? Elena: You’re going to give the book to Sue. Instructor: Ok. [Walks over to another student with the book and starts showing it him] What am I doing now Sue? Sue: You’re showing the book to Ken. Instructor: [Drops the book and has Ken pick it up. The instructor receives the book from Ken. ] Elena, what did Ken do? Elena: He picked up the book for you. Note: The instructor can also ask the student an alternative way of responding, in other words, trying to elicit a dative movement response.

A Lesson for Intermediate Level Students l Objective: To develop the students’ ability to A Lesson for Intermediate Level Students l Objective: To develop the students’ ability to recognize correct and incorrect sentence forms with indirect objects. They will need to recall specific rules that apply to indirect objects in different environments. l Motivation: Learning recognize correct grammatical forms. l Materials: Handouts will be used for this exercise. l Activity: The students will each read sample sentences and determine which form is correct and which form is incorrect based on the rules of indirect objects discussed in class. l Assessment Procedure: Assigning homework similar to class activity followed by a review and a quiz.

Example: Suzie sent an email to her teacher. Suzie sent her teacher an email. Example: Suzie sent an email to her teacher. Suzie sent her teacher an email. Fed. Ex delivered a package for Stan. Fed. Ex delivered Stan a package. Matt described her teacher the movie. Matt described the movie to her teacher. Note: Some pairs will have grammatical sentences. (distracters) This will be pointed out to the students.

Another recognition exercise. The Birthday Present Mr. Jones wanted to give his wife a Another recognition exercise. The Birthday Present Mr. Jones wanted to give his wife a birthday present early because he was going to be away on a business trip. The week before his trip, Mr. Jones went to Harrods looking for a nice present. The sales lady suggested him a nice platinum necklace. Mr. Jones bought his wife the necklace and had it wrapped for delivery. The next day, a Fed. Ex driver delivered Mrs. Jones the present.

References Carroll, S. , & Swain, M. (1993). Explicit and implicit negative feedback: An References Carroll, S. , & Swain, M. (1993). Explicit and implicit negative feedback: An empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 15, 357 -386 Celce-Murcia, M. & Larson-Freeman, D. (1999). The Grammar Book. An ESL/EFL Teacher’s Course, (2 nd Edition). Boston: Heinle, Cencage Learning. Cowan, R. (2008). The Teacher's Grammar of English. A Course Book and Reference Guide. New York: Cambridge University Press. .