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Indigenous Intercultural Program of Education Elementary Teacher Undergraduate Certification Maria do Carmo Santos Domite General Coordinator Universidade de São Paulo & Secretaria de Educação do
Who are the indigenous teachers? 82 indigenous teachers from five different ethnic groups: Guarani – 43 Tupi-Guarani – 15 Kaingang – 07 Terena – 14 Krenak - 03
Who are the educators? -Coordination: 1 linguist 2 anthropologists 1 pedagogue 1 (ethno)matemathics educator -Faculty: Professors holding master’s and doctorate degrees from many fields of knowledge
Brazilian context in terms of indigenous people(s)
Paulista context in terms of indigenous peoples
Background of the course - National Education Guidelines and Basis, aiming at plurality and diversity (1988). (Organized by the Brazilian Ministry of Education) - University of São Paulo Indigenous Education Program – for 60 indigenous teachers- high school level/2002 -2003.
Motivation. . . . pre-occupation and pre-disposition from both groups - indigenous and non-indigenous - towards the preservation and comprehension of culture within the scope of cross-cultural and school education.
Objective -Providing a college level education to the indigenous teachers in the State of São Paulo. -Strengthening the indigenous school as a culturalsituated space. -Making it possible for the school to become intercultural and bilingual.
Objective Granting to the Indigenous language a fulllanguage status from a linguistic point of view, contributing for the development of its speakers' positive linguistic attitudes.
Objective “To contribute so that the optimism and the hope may overcome the loss of values, the pessimism, the diffidence and the hopelessness that predominate in the world of today and that hit with special hardness the peoples of our continent” (Menchú Tum, 1997).
Course Load: 3470 hours n 1408 hours - class activities n 192 hours - seminars/video-conferencing n 320 hours – guided learning; n 400 hours - preparation of the Course´s Final Paper and guided learning report. n 1150 hours - assignments in different courses including the preparation of textbooks.
Duration of the course Duration: 36 months n 8 modules with 6 courses each.
Where? At University of São Paulo, Faculty of Educatiuon and…
Where? Sometimes the classes (at USP) are at the Ethnology Archeology Museum and…
Where? and, at Indigenous villages (The village cooperative work)
This course aims at: n preparing indigenous education professionals, through a theoretical and practical formation in a relationship with indigenous teaching practice. n qualifying professionals who will act as teachers in elementary education, as well as professionals who will manage, coordinate and provide pedagogical support for the indigenous schools.
Underlying assumptions To take into account the cultural standards of knowledge, behavior and beliefs in the sense of recognizing that: a) the knowledge of the indigenous has its origins in the traditions, costumes and cultural history of each group and, b) the learning processes are the result of transformations generated in processes of alterity.
The non-indigenous educators’ search (ethnomathematical educators) The non-indigenous educator will be seeking an understanding of the issues that have been raised by the indigenous teachers, since they have become responsible for the (mathematical) education of their people, in order to understand how their development - as mathematics educator - can be further sheltered by the external educators to their culture.
1 st Module May/05 to August/05 ED - 118 - Didatics I EE – 128 – Indigenous school law EI – 138 - Cultural history of man and science – (Prof. Ubiratan D’Ambrosio) EC – 148 - Portuguese language: oral, reading and writing activities in different styles EC – 158 - Mathematical knowledge: indigenous and non-indigenous– (Profs. M. C. Domite and R. Ferreira) EE – 160 - Ethnic language: oral, reading and writing activities
2 nd Module September/05 to December/05 ED – 218 - Didatics ll: curricula and programs EC – 228 - Psychology of education EC – 238 - History of education EE – 240 - Ethnic language: oral, reading and writing activities ED – 258 - Coordination of school work EO – 268 - Elective
3 rd Module January/06 to May/06 ED – 318 - Practical activities I – guided learning and projects ED – 328 - Child education EC – 338 - Methodology of teaching mathematics I EC – 348 - Methodology of teaching portuguese: literacy and spelling EE – 358 - Bilinguism: in the community and in the School EE – 310 - Oral tradition: the speech/discourse of the elderly indigenous
4 th Module June/06 to September/06 ED – 418 - Practical activities I – apprenticeship and projects ED – 428 - Sociology of education EC – 438 - Methodology of teaching mathematics II EC – 448 - Methodology of teaching portuguese EE – 410 - Oral tradition: the speech/discourse of the elderly indigenous EO – 458 - Elective
5 th Module October/06 to February/07 EC – 518 - Anthropology and pedagogy EI – 528 - Politics and organization of elementary education EC – 538 - Children and teenager’s literature: from different cultures EC – 548 - Methodology of teaching arts, movement and culture EC – 558 - Methodology of teaching history and geography EE – 510 - Oral tradition: the speech/discourse of the elderly indigenous
6 th Module March/07 to June/07 EC – 618 - Philosophy of education EC – 628 - Economic foundation of education EE – 610 - Oral tradition: the speech/discourse of the elderly indigenous EO – 638 - Elective EO – 648 - Elective EO – 658 - Elective
7 th Module July/07 to October/07 EC – 718 - Methodology of teaching science EC – 728 - Methodology of teaching arts and corporal movement EC – 738 - Emerging technologies communication and information of EC – 748 - School education of young adults and adults EC – 758 - Culture and education: discourses and socio-cultural practices EE – 710 - Oral tradition: the speech/discourse of the elderly indigenous
8 th Module November/07 to March/08 EO – 818 - Elective EO – 828 - Elective EO – 838 - Elective EO – 848 - Elective EO – 858 - Elective EO – 868 –Elective
The "what" and the "how" in the disciplines around mathematical education (Domite & Ferreira) A great effort of the non-indigenous educators: - addressing their pedagogical ethnomathematics; action for - looking for a discussion in terms of matheracy.
The work in MATHEMATICAL EDUCATION has been directed in a articulation between: - what can be collected from the knowing-doing of the indigenous, referring to the quantitative and spatial relation, and - the mathematical contents that belong to the non-indigenous school context.
On one hand, the non-indigenous teacher is worried about revealing/bringing indigenous ways and solutions for daily situations, inherent to "how much", "how many times", measures, relations of order among others.
For example, the non-indigenous teacher is try to evidence situations like, among others: a) the correspondence of the measure of area of the Guarani house that takes as metric unit a part of the Guarani human body (a meter corresponds to the distance from the navel to the ground);
For example, the non-indigenous teacher is try to evidence situations like, among others: b) the relation, recognized by some indigenous groups, between the seeds of corn that were planted and the seeds that sprouted: “for each 3 seeds of corn that were planted just 2 seeds sprouted”, told us Antonio Guarani.
For example, the non-indigenous teacher is try to evidence situations like, among others: c) “This manner writing in straw tracings of ‘taguara’ is present in almost all the Guarani artifacts, this stimulates the notion of numbers, odd numbers, even numbers, that is, from an early age the Guarani children already have notions of quantity. " Joel Karai Mirim.
On the other hand, the academic mathematical contents discussed will be, in general, those taught in nonindigenous school such as basic: - arithmetic and geometry; - financial mathematics; - measurements; - statistics.
Generally speaking, the mathematical education faculty is in search of understanding the issues that have been formulated by the indigenous teachers, in order to understand how their development - as mathematical educators - can be better supported by external educators to their culture. (Barton, 2004)