- Количество слайдов: 44
Independence Movements In Asia and Africa
The World Mood in the Post War Era • While the Superpowers engaged in the Cold War former colonies of Imperialistic nations embarked on a program of National Self. Determination. • Former “subjects” began to consider the goal of independence many with an eye to democratic states.
India • 1885 saw the establishment of the Indian National Congress whose goal was to increase rights for Indians under colonial rule. • 1906 witnessed the creation of the Muslim League to protect Muslim adherents rights
The Amritsar Massacre--1919 • 319 Indians (Hindu and Muslim) were killed during a peaceful demonstration in a park by British General Dyer. • The massacre was unprovoked • In the immediate aftermath millions joined the “self rule” campaign.
Mohandas Gandi • The movements spokesman was Gandhi who organized huge protests. • He proclaimed a program of Passive Resistance or civil disobedience • Program consisted of demonstrations and work stoppages and boycotts • This non-violence program was quite successful • Dr. King in America copied this strategy of civil disobedience in the US civil rights movement.
• Gandi began call for Indian unity which was to supercede religious differences. • Most famous gesture was the “Walk to the Sea” where he collected salt which was prohibited by British law. • Was a British educated lawyer who dressed as a commoner, fasted and attracted large crowds.
• The Muslim League demanded creation of a Muslim state to be called Pakistan • After WWII Britain granted Indian independence • Immediately radical Hindus and Muslims began massive killings of each other.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah • Main goal was to create a separate Muslim state. • When India was freed by Britain in 1947 it was divided into thirds. India in the south Pakistan in the northwest East Pakistan, now Bangladesh, in the east
• Millions now moved to the area of their choice, or were forced to flee to avoid religious persecution • 500, 000 people were killed • Gandhi was assassinated by a Hindu who disagreed with his political aspirations. • The two nations are still fighting. • Note: Both nations are now nuclear powers
• After the war France was determined to retain her colonies of Algeria and Vietnam. • French determination set off revolts in both areas. • The 1954 revolt in Algeria was marked by bloody reprisals on both sides. • Algeria gained independence in 1962 but bitterness caused many pro-French sympathizers to flee to France---thus developing a Islamic community in France with lingering problems today. • Pan African movements began in the late 50 s and were started by Kwame Nkrumah and Jomo Kenyatta--but African movements primarily were concerned with individual colonies.
• African movements began north of the Sahara where nations had long standing Islamic ties.
Egyptian Independence • Gamal Nasser, general, overthrew the king and established a republic. • He nationalized industries • Seized the Suez Canal • Served as model for others in Africa
Africa -- South of the Sahara • Most nations had few trained professionals (doctors, diplomats, businessmen, scientists). • They had no trained people to run or rule a new nation • In most colonies there were multiple languages since colonies were made along imperialist lines not African traditions. • Most colonies had differing histories, customs and loyalties.
Rwanda • This area faced ethnic upheaval based on genocide, human rights violations and tribal strife between two tribes, the Tutsi (15% of pop. ) Hutu (85% of pop. )
• • 1962 brought independence and revolt Hutu revolted against Tutsi leadership 10, 000 plus people were murdered. Fighting continued until 1972 when a military coup by Juvenal Habyarimana created a one party republic in 1981. • When Habyarimana died in plane crash in 1994 civil war broke out again.
• 3 months of fighting resulted in genocide which left 800, 000 Tutsi dead. • The following year 2, 000 Tutsi fled to nearby Zaire • This is largest incident of genocide in recent history resulting in lost of 1/3 of entire national population.
SOUTH AFRICA In 1910 the Union of South Africa was established. British and Dutch colonists were given power, land rights while blacks were entire excluded from the political arena
• 1923 saw the introduction and enforcement of complete residential segregation. • 1926 saw blacks legally banned from work in many skilled occupations. • 1948 saw the establishment of APARTHEID (separation of races). • This removed 80% of the population from the political process. • In the 1950’s the “homelands” were established. 15% of land (the nation’s worst) were allocated for blacks.
Nelson Mandela • In the mid 1950 s Nelson Mandela became the leader of the African National Congress, an organization whose goal was to abolish Apartheid.
• Mandela followed Gandhi’s plan of passive resistance in the beginning • 1960 Sharpeville Massacre saw the murder of 67 protesters. (protest was against requirement to carry passes to travel in cities) • Mandela now supported guerrilla warfare • Mandela was arrested in 1964 and sentenced to life in prison. • He was released in 1990 • After the government failed, Mandela was elected president in the first free election in 1994.
THE MIDDLE EAST • At end of WWI the are was controlled by the League of Nations. • France managed Syria and Lebanon • Britain oversaw Palestine, Jordan, Iraq and Persia (Iran) • Arabia became the kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Israel • Jewish refugees convinced Arthur Balfour that a Jewish homeland was necessary. • In 1917 the Balfour Declaration was issued which proclaimed the right for the creation of Israel
• The Declaration required that Jews and Palestinians were to divide land that both claimed to be traditionally theirs. • The 1930’s saw a surge of Jews to the region to escape Hitler. By 1940 nearly a half million had arrived. • At this point the Palestinians had the numbers but the Jews and money and world sympathy. • After WWII, 1948, the United Nations created 2 Palestines--one for Jews and one for Muslims. • Note: remember Germany, India? ? ?
• When David Ben-Gurion announced the creation of Israel Muslims from six nations immediately attacked. • Israel shocked the world by defeating the Muslims • Israel seized the Palestine and the Palestinians no longer had a homeland. • Jews from across the world flocked to the new nation.
The Six Day War • War broke out again the 1967. • It was a total victory for Israel who then took: The West Bank from Jordan Golan Heights from Syria Gaza Strip and the Sinai from Egypt In 1977 MP Begin and President Sadat of Egypt signed the Camp David Accords in which Israel returned the Sinai and Egypt (a Muslim nation) recognized Israel’s right to exist. • Muslims Immediately assassinated Sadat
• Since 1977 Israel and Palestinians have fought over the land • The PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) was created and dedicated to reclaiming the land establishing a Palestinian state. • Regular Intifada’s (uprisings) have been used along with terrorism against Israeli citizens to aid in the destruction of the Jewish state • New Hostilities began in 2000. Israel elected Ariel Sharon as PM and he built a wall between Palestine and Israel for protection. • When PLO leader Yassir Arafat died in 2004 the new president signed a armistice with Israel ending the Intifada.
Reza Shah Pahlavi • After WWII and the departure of the allies the Shah began a program of Westernization. • Land reform in the form of ownership increased • Education improved • Women’s received the rights of voting, higher education, professionalism, and western dress.
• The reforms upset Islamic fundamentalists who thought that the Qu’ran should be the law of the kingdom (theocracy). • After President Carter visited to congratulate the Shah on his progress revolution ensued. • The Shah was deposed in 1979 and Iran became a theocracy led by the Ayatollah Khomeini. • Westernization ended--women wore traditional clothing and national law was based on the Qu’ran
4 Views of Traditional Iran
• Iran was invaded by Iraq in 1980 • Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein was supported by the US • The war between the two nations lasted nearly 8 years with neither side gaining anything. • The Ayatollah’s death in 1989 created a power struggle between fundamentalist and a small minority of reform minded pro Westernizers.
An Economy Based on Oil
OPEC ORGANIZATION OF PETROLEUM EXPORTING COUNTRIES • By 1960 the Middle Eastern states realized the power their oil gave them on the global market and they formed OPEC (Venezuela also joined). • OPEC set the world price for oil and controlled the amount available. • In 1970 they cut supply and prices skyrocketed. • Since the 1980 s OPEC has largely failed to keep its members in line and lost some of its power. • Some OPEC nations have used oil revenue to build national infrastructure while others have let the money go into the hands of a small minority.
The Gulf War • In 1990 Iraq, lead by Hussein, invaded Kuwait to gain control of the oil fields. • Success would have given Iraq control of nearly 20% of the world oil reserves. • The United Nations sent forces to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. • The UN then placed restrictions of Iraq • Hussein remained in power for 10 more years while ignoring the clauses of the peace treaty. • In 2003 a coalition (US and GB) invaded Iraq to remove Hussein. A new government is still being formed.
More Unrest in Arab States • In the 1980 s the USSR sent troops to Afghanistan at the request of the Afgan Marxist leader Nur Muhammad Taraki • Most Afgans opposed the plan • Resistors called “holy warriors” attacked Soviet forces. • As Soviet problems at home grew the troops withdrew.
• After 14 years of fighting and 2 million deaths the victorious power was the Taliban an Islamic fundamentalist group. • The regime imposed strict Islamic law and restrictions of women. • It also provided protection for the terrorist groups Al Qaeda lead by Saudi Osama bin Laden. • Al Qaeda has intense dislike for the USA, Israel and Saudi Arabia
• Al Qaeda resents the presence of infidels (westerners) in Saudi Arabia since it is the home of many Islamic holy sites • Al Qaeda particularly resents the USA because: The US supports Israel which AQ wanted destroyed The US has troops in Saudi Arabia The US supports globalization which AQ believes weakens Islamic values and beliefs.
To support their cause AQ destroyed the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001.
Nationalism in Latin America
MEXICO • At the beginning of the 20 th century Mexico was ruled by Porfiro Diaz a general. • The Revolution of 1910 was started by the elites that were not in favor with Diaz. • By 1911 the peasants had joined lead by men such as Zapata and Pancho Villa
• A democratic constitution was created in 1917 • Every president was assassinated during his term until Lazaro Cardenas took over in 1934 • The country was stable until the 1990 s when some democracy began to appear.
Brazil • Nation was run by the elites (coffee and rubber exporters) • Created a gap between rich and poor. • Getulio Vargas took over in 1930 and created an authoritarian regime
ARGENTINA • Argentina was represented by landowners (cattle and sheep) • Military revolts were common until Juan Peron, supported by the Nazis took over in 1943