Скачать презентацию Improving Behavior and Impacting Learning through Opportunities to Скачать презентацию Improving Behavior and Impacting Learning through Opportunities to

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Improving Behavior and Impacting Learning through Opportunities to Respond Melissa Jones, Ph. D Dept. Improving Behavior and Impacting Learning through Opportunities to Respond Melissa Jones, Ph. D Dept. of Special Education Eastern Illinois University mljones 2@eiu. edu

Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced, “We have a small block of Shortly after science class started, the teacher announced, “We have a small block of ice and the same sized block of butter. Tell your neighbor which one would melt first. ” A few seconds later the teacher said, “Please write down in one sentence, an explanation for your answer. ” A few minutes later, the teacher told students to share with their neighbor what they had written. Shortly thereafter, the teacher called on one student to tell the class her answer. The teacher then asked the class to raise their hand if they agreed with this answer. Then the teacher asked students to give a thumbs down if anyone disagreed, and so on. (Colvin, 2009, p. 48)

Opportunities To Respond (OTR) O The number of times the teacher provides academic requests Opportunities To Respond (OTR) O The number of times the teacher provides academic requests that require students to actively respond (Miller, 2009; Sprick, Knight, Reinke, & Mc. Kale, 2006) O A teacher behavior that prompts or solicits a student response (Simonsen et al. , 2008)) O Result in positive behavioral and academic outcomes O Allows teacher insight

Related to Behavior O Increases student engagement with instruction O Allows for high rates Related to Behavior O Increases student engagement with instruction O Allows for high rates of positive, specific feedback related to behavior O Limits time for engaging in inappropriate behavior O Results in more effective use of instructional time

Related to Academics O Can be used as a quick assessment to guide teaching/lesson Related to Academics O Can be used as a quick assessment to guide teaching/lesson direction O Provides teacher information on student understanding/thought process O Allows teacher to correct errors in knowledge/understanding O Evidence of gains in Reading and Math (e. g. mastery, rate, etc. )

Easy as ABC A Antecedent B Behavior C Consequence Teacher Provides: Question, Prompt, Cue Easy as ABC A Antecedent B Behavior C Consequence Teacher Provides: Question, Prompt, Cue Student Response or Behavior Teacher Provides Feedback (Specific & Positive)

Rate of OTR O New Material O 4 -6 Responses per minute O 80% Rate of OTR O New Material O 4 -6 Responses per minute O 80% accuracy O Practice O 9 -12 Student responses per minute O 90% accuracy

Types of OTR O Verbal--Involves vocal output vs. O Non-Verbal--Involves action (no verbalizations) O Types of OTR O Verbal--Involves vocal output vs. O Non-Verbal--Involves action (no verbalizations) O Individual—by oneself vs. O Group—with others or while others do it

OTR Verbal O Orally answering a question, sharing thoughts, summarizing, repeating, Non-Verbal O Writing OTR Verbal O Orally answering a question, sharing thoughts, summarizing, repeating, Non-Verbal O Writing O Performing an action O Moving about room

Verbal OTR O Individual Question/Response Pattern O Choral Responding Verbal OTR O Individual Question/Response Pattern O Choral Responding

Consider Effective Questioning Reason/Purpose O Level O Know O Understand O Do O Type Consider Effective Questioning Reason/Purpose O Level O Know O Understand O Do O Type O Right/Wrong O Opinion O Kind O Open or Closed

Wait Time O Typical: ? ? ? O Optimal: 3 -5 seconds O Rationale/Advantages Wait Time O Typical: ? ? ? O Optimal: 3 -5 seconds O Rationale/Advantages O “Think Time” is preferred

High Quality Feedback O Timely O Specific O Related to Response O Targeted O High Quality Feedback O Timely O Specific O Related to Response O Targeted O Informative

Non-Verbal OTR O Response Cards/Response Systems O Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part O Movement Activities/Signaling Non-Verbal OTR O Response Cards/Response Systems O Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part O Movement Activities/Signaling O Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners O Guided Notes O http: //rti 2. org/rti 2/guided_notes O http: //www. interventioncentral. org/index. php/study-org/221 -guided -notes O http: //montgomeryschoolsmd. org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_gu ides/Word_Guided_Notes. pdf O Computer Assisted Instruction

Steps for Response Cards 1. Question 2. Think 3. Decide answer 4. Wait 5. Steps for Response Cards 1. Question 2. Think 3. Decide answer 4. Wait 5. Cue to show 6. Hold up card 7. Put down card 8. Prepare for next question

Examples www. reallygoodstuff. com Examples www. reallygoodstuff. com

Non-Verbal OTR O Response Cards/Response Systems O Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part O Movement Activities/Signaling Non-Verbal OTR O Response Cards/Response Systems O Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part O Movement Activities/Signaling O Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners O Guided Notes O http: //rti 2. org/rti 2/guided_notes O http: //www. interventioncentral. org/index. php/study-org/221 -guided -notes O http: //montgomeryschoolsmd. org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_gu ides/Word_Guided_Notes. pdf O Computer Assisted Instruction

Non-Verbal OTR O Response Cards/Response Systems O Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part O Movement Activities/Signaling Non-Verbal OTR O Response Cards/Response Systems O Pre-printed, Write-on, Cover part O Movement Activities/Signaling O Sit/Stand, Thumbs Up/Down, Other Action, 4 Corners O Guided Notes O http: //rti 2. org/rti 2/guided_notes O http: //www. interventioncentral. org/index. php/study-org/221 -guided -notes O http: //montgomeryschoolsmd. org/departments/hiat/tech_quick_gu ides/Word_Guided_Notes. pdf O Computer Assisted Instruction

Individual vs. Group OTR Individual O Allows teacher to know what EACH student thinks; Individual vs. Group OTR Individual O Allows teacher to know what EACH student thinks; targeted Group O Provides ALL students the opportunity to answer without “risk”; engages everyone

Other Practices that INCREASE OTR O Cooperative Learning O Explicit/Direct Instruction O Track Who Other Practices that INCREASE OTR O Cooperative Learning O Explicit/Direct Instruction O Track Who is Called On O Know Your Students O Vary Your Approach/Promote Generalization

Cooperative Learning (Kagan) O http: //w 4. nkcsd. k 12. mo. us/~kcofer/social_ cooperative_structures. htm Cooperative Learning (Kagan) O http: //w 4. nkcsd. k 12. mo. us/~kcofer/social_ cooperative_structures. htm O http: //www. mainesupportnetwork. org/pdfs/ Singapore%20 -%20 Handout%20%20 Cooperative%20 Learning%20%20 Structures. pdf O http: //www. ntlf. com/html/lib/faq/clutenn. htm

Explicit Instruction (Sequence) “I do, We do, You do” 1. Model 2. Check for Explicit Instruction (Sequence) “I do, We do, You do” 1. Model 2. Check for Understanding 3. Practice (with faded support) 4. Feedback throughout

Track who is called on… O Seating chart O Draw names from a jar Track who is called on… O Seating chart O Draw names from a jar O Popsicle Sticks O Answer coins O PLAN IT!

Other Practices that INCREASE OTR O Cooperative Learning O Explicit/Direct Instruction O Track Who Other Practices that INCREASE OTR O Cooperative Learning O Explicit/Direct Instruction O Track Who is Called On O Know Your Students O Vary Your Approach/Promote Generalization

For Monday… O Think about what you have heard today. Is there anything that For Monday… O Think about what you have heard today. Is there anything that you can use? O What can be (easily) implemented into your own classroom/setting? O How will you use/do this? O What do you wish would have been included in the presentation or what do you wish there would have been more about?

References Blackwell, A. J. & Mclaughlin, T. F. (2005). Using guided notes, choral responding, References Blackwell, A. J. & Mclaughlin, T. F. (2005). Using guided notes, choral responding, and response cards to increase student performance. The International Journal of Special Education, 20, 1 -5. Conroy, M. A. , Sutherland, K. S. , Snyder, A. L. , & Marsh, S. (2008). Classwide interventions: Effective instruction makes a difference. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40, 24 -30. Haydon, T. , Borders, C. , Embury, D. , & Clarke, L. (2009). Using effective instructional delivery as a classwide management tool. Beyond Behavior, 18, 12 -17. Haydon, T. , Mancil, G. R. , & Van Loan, C. (2009). Using opportunities to respond in a general education classroom: A case study. Education and Treatment of Children, 32, 267 -278. Missouri Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (n. d. ) Effective classroom practice: Active engagement of students: Multiple opportunities to respond. Retrieved from http: //pbismissouri. org/class. html