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Improvements in Program Management Keith B. Adams U. S. Agency for International Development Office Improvements in Program Management Keith B. Adams U. S. Agency for International Development Office of Food For Peace April 16, 2008

What we will cover today • • Food for Peace Operating Environment New Prepositioning What we will cover today • • Food for Peace Operating Environment New Prepositioning Strategy Improved Allocation Tracking Tools Enhanced Program Monitoring

FFP’s Operating Environment – Many Stakeholders Food Processing Interests -Bagging, fortification, milling Also of FFP’s Operating Environment – Many Stakeholders Food Processing Interests -Bagging, fortification, milling Also of note: USDA/OMB FACG FAPC FAC WTO FFP United Nations -WFP, FAO Congress U. S. Agribusiness PVOs U. S. Shipping Industry

The Funding Process Congress/President Authorizes Program USDA/USAID Requests Funds Congress/President Appropriates OMB Apportions Approved The Funding Process Congress/President Authorizes Program USDA/USAID Requests Funds Congress/President Appropriates OMB Apportions Approved Funds to USDA Via Transfer Authorization, USAID provides funds for Freight, 202(e), Other USDA Obligates Funds Based On Call Forward Requests USDA/KCCO Issues Contracts and Pays for Commodities

Getting Food to the Hungry Getting Food to the Hungry

Procurement: Long Lead Time Required (Processed Commodities) Simplified Allocation, Procurement, and Transportation Timeline *Bulk Procurement: Long Lead Time Required (Processed Commodities) Simplified Allocation, Procurement, and Transportation Timeline *Bulk commodity timeline is faster

When is flexibility required? Situations requiring speed Response options • Rapid-onset natural disasters • When is flexibility required? Situations requiring speed Response options • Rapid-onset natural disasters • Shift within regional programs • Conflict and new displacement • Shift between country programs • Failure of rains in areas with two rainy seasons • Borrow from FFP-funded programs with FFP repaying the loan • Newly identified needs • Draw from FFP prepo sites • Unexpected program closures • • New biotech restrictions Use expedited procurement and shipment • New phytosanitary restrictions • Redirect commodities purchased but not yet loaded • Other donor actions • Divert ships • Borrow from government stocks or non-FFP programs with FFP commodities repaying the loan

Prepositioning Update Prepositioning Update

What’s new in PREPO? • DOMESTIC: – Jacinto. Port International (Houston, Texas) was awarded What’s new in PREPO? • DOMESTIC: – Jacinto. Port International (Houston, Texas) was awarded contract April 11, 2007 (Through April 2009 with 2 year options) • OVERSEAS: – BMMI in Djibouti began operation March 2007 (2 year base period and three years’ worth of option periods)

Old Strategy • Based on a staging approach q commodities ordered based on reported Old Strategy • Based on a staging approach q commodities ordered based on reported needs for pre-determined country programs q PREPO used as a secondary source to speed delivery of smaller amounts of commodities to prevent immediate pipeline breaks q Majority of commodities to come from regular procurement process Ø Disadvantages q Prevented allocations if circumstances in country/program changed q Difficult to switch commodities from one country/program to another q Less steady demand for PREPO q Fewer options for allocation kept stocks in inventory longer than desired

New Strategy • Based on a stockpiling approach q standard basket/level of commodities is New Strategy • Based on a stockpiling approach q standard basket/level of commodities is maintained in inventory q PREPO used as the primary source for commodities with remaining balances to be procured Ø Advantages to New Strategy q Keeps inventory moving by ensuring more steady demand for PREPO stocks q Standard inventory allows for more flexibility q Same inventory can be used across wider range of potential recipients q Greater predictability on availability of PREPO commodities

Enhancing Program Monitoring Enhancing Program Monitoring

Two New Tools to Monitor Price Increases • Monthly Tracking of Commodity and Freight Two New Tools to Monitor Price Increases • Monthly Tracking of Commodity and Freight Costs: Estimates vs. Actual – Following each monthly procurement process – Influence funds available for future calls forward • Food Price Increase (FPI) Working Group – Support FFP’s efforts to assess and address the impact of increasing commodity and freight costs – Maintain information on the impact of such increases on FFP -supported emergency and development programs

Emergency Food Aid Overview • $1. 175 bil in FY 07, 71 percent of Emergency Food Aid Overview • $1. 175 bil in FY 07, 71 percent of total emergency funding via WFP • Direct distribution and food for work • Prioritized based on magnitude, severity of needs • Many operations in high risk environments Funding by Region Ten Largest Emergency Programs Country/ Region FY 07 (USD mil) Sudan $356. 1 Southern Africa (primarily Zimbabwe) $198. 4 Ethiopia $181. 5 Kenya $80. 9 Afghanistan $60. 0 Uganda $44. 4 Congo (DRC) $37. 8 Chad (Eastern) $37. 7 Somalia $35. 3

Non Emergency Food Aid Timing of Major Requirements Challenge of funding uncertainty • • Non Emergency Food Aid Timing of Major Requirements Challenge of funding uncertainty • • Reliance on supplementals, Emerson Trust Continuing Resolutions Requires flexible cash flow approach • • • Predict inflows Phase funding based timing of peak needs and 3 -6 month lead time for procurement/delivery Predict and quickly react to changing needs via early warning systems (FEWS NET) Use supplementals for backfill Carry over funds due to Sept order, MARAD reimbursement and supplemental timing, short supply Set aside funds for potential commodity and transport price changes Country/regi on Peak Needs Horn of Africa pastoralist Dec-Feb hunger season areas Ethiopia Jan-Jun safety net Sudan/Chad Preposition before May rains Sahel May-Aug hunger season Central America and Caribbean Jun-Nov hurricane season Southern Africa Oct-Mar hunger season

Questions? Contact Information: Keith B. Adams Acting Chief, Program Operations Division Office of Food Questions? Contact Information: Keith B. Adams Acting Chief, Program Operations Division Office of Food for Peace 1300 Pennsylvania Ave NW Rm 7. 6 Washington Dc 20523 (202) 712 -5567 keadams@usaid. gov