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IMPLEMENTATION OF MAJOR INITIATIVES IN HIGHER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION IN THE XI PLAN Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Higher Education
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION n MISSION AND OBJECTIVES n STATUS AT THE END OF X PLAN AND AS ON DATE n EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF GDP n VISION & MAJOR INITIATIVES FOR XI PLAN n ISSUES UNDER CONSIDERATION
MISSION To provide access to relevant and good quality higher education in an equitable manner through rapid expansion aiming inclusiveness, removal of regional, social and gender disparities in education. OBJECTIVES n n n To increase GER in Higher Education by 5 percentage points by the end of the XI Five Year Plan along with removal of regional, social and gender disparities To ensure that nobody is denied professional education because he or she is poor. To ensure reservations for OBCs in admission to Central Educational Institutions without adversely affecting the number of general category seats. To ensure that minorities are not left out. To increase women’s participation in Education. 3
STATUS AT THE END OF X PLAN AND AS ON DATE 4
GROSS ENROLMENT RATIO (GER) GENDER PARITY INDEX (GPI) FOR HIGHER EDUCATION S. No. Category GER for 18 -24 Years Male Female Total GPI for Higher Education 1. Over-all 13. 5% 9. 4% 11. 6% 0. 70 2. SC 10. 1% 6. 4% 8. 4% 0. 63 3 ST 8. 6% 4. 7% 6. 6% 0. 55 Source: Selected Educational Statistics 2005 -06 (The above figures do not take into account the enrolment in Open & Distance Education System) 5
NUMBER OF UNIVERSITY LEVEL INSTITUTIONS AND COLLEGES At the end of X Plan Central Universities As on Date 19 24 State Universities 216 231 Deemed to be Universities 110 111 (including 20 NITs Private Universities 11 23 Institutions of National Importance (including NITs) 13 33 5 5 374 421 18, 064 20918 Institutions Established under State Legislations Total University Level Institutions Colleges 6
NUMBER OF AICTE APPROVED TECHNICAL INSTITUTIONS WITH INTAKE CAPACITY (for the academic year 2007 -08) PROGRAMME Degree Diploma No. Intake 2148 8, 21, 673 1414 3, 54, 466 949 59, 194 583 34, 591 88 5, 782 92 4, 890 116 4, 543 5 120 9 650 8 1, 010 Management 1405 1, 46, 305 - - MCA 1103 80, 663 - - Total 5818 11, 18, 810 2102 3, 95, 077 Engineering Pharmacy Hotel Management Architecture App. Arts & Crafts Source: AICTE GRAND TOTAL No. 7890 (Degree+Diploma) Intake 15, 13, 887 7
EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF GDP
PRESENT SCENARIO (2007 -08) Public Spending on Education as percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [at factor cost at current prices] TOTAL (CENTRE + STATE) = 3. 54% CENTRAL SHARE = 0. 79 % STATES SHARE = 2. 75 % Centre’s share in total spending on education is about 22% and that of States is about 78% at present.
EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF GDP DURING 1999 -2000 TO 2006 -07
EXPENDITURE ON HIGHER & TECHNICAL EDUCATION AS PERCENTAGE OF GDP Year Higher Education Technical Education Centre States Total 2005 -06 0. 16 0. 51 0. 67 0. 09 0. 18 0. 28 2006 -07 (RE) 0. 18 0. 53 0. 70 0. 09 0. 18 0. 28 2007 -08* (BE) 0. 18 0. 50 0. 68 0. 09 0. 19 0. 28 * For the year 2007 -08, Actual Expenditure of education department of Centre has been taken into account. For States and other departments of Centre, BE figure has been used.
STATES’ GSDP AND THEIR EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION n States of Maharashtra, UP, WB, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Gujrat, Rajasthan, Kerala, MP, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Bihar contribute about 78% of the total GDP of the country. n But most of these states expend a very little proportion of their GSDP on education.
States Exp. on Edu as % of GSDP % Share in Total GDP Maharashtra (05 -06) 2. 93 13. 20 Uttar Pradesh (06 -07) 3. 76 8. 54 West Bengal (05 -06) 2. 44 7. 21 Andhra Pradesh( 06 -07) 3. 03 7. 21 Tamilnadu (06 -07) 3. 22 6. 82 Karnataka (05 -06) 3. 12 6. 61 Gujrat (05 -06) 2. 20 5. 21 Rajasthan (06 -07) 3. 57 3. 79 Kerla (06 -07) 4. 21 3. 63 Madhya Pradesh (06 -07) 3. 38 3. 55 Punjab (06 -07) 2. 23 3. 35 Haryana (06 -07) 2. 05 3. 25 Delhi (05 -06) 1. 57 3. 22 Bihar (06 -07) 5. 70 2. 43
ABSOLUTE EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION OF MAJOR STATES DURING 2004 -05 TO 2007 -08
ABSOLUTE EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION OF OTHER STATES DURING 2004 -05 TO 2007 -08
EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS % OF GSDP DURING 2004 -05 TO 2006 -07
EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION AS % OF GSDP DURING 2003 -04 TO 2005 -06 ( for the States whose GSDP (06 -07) is not available) For J&K and Nagaland, GSDP for the year 2005 -06 is not available
XI PLAN AND 6% GDP COMMITMENT n n n Substantial increase has been made in Central Plan Outlay for education by allocating Rs. 2, 69, 873 crore ( Rs. 1, 84, 930 crore for SE&L and Rs. 84, 943 crore for HE) during XI Plan. With this increased allocation, the expenditure on education by centre (excluding spending on education by other Departments) would reach a level of about 1. 2% of GDP by the end of XI Plan. After including 25% (as prevailing today) share by other Departments, the total expenditure on education by Centre will reflect about 1. 6% of GDP by the end of XI Plan.
XI PLAN AND 6% GDP COMMITMENT n n The present rate of sharing of the total public expenditure on education between centre and state is 22: 78. With increased Central plan allocation during XI Plan, this sharing would become 25: 75. Accordingly the State share of expenditure would reach about 4. 5% of GDP if the States increase their allocation on education by 2. 5 times of X Plan. Total Public Expenditure on Education is thus, estimated to be 6. 1% of GDP towards the end of XI Plan (on the assumption of GDP growing at 9% per year).
HIGHER EDUCATION VISION & MAJOR INITIATIVES FOR XI PLAN 20
27% OBC RESERVATIONS IN CENTRAL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS (CEIs) n n OBC Reservations implemented in all CEIs covered by the Act in a phased manner from the current academic session. Proposed to amend the CEI Act to provide for 3 years phasing, starting from year 2008. Rs. 2522 crore provided during the current year for expansion of capacity. States may consider enacting similar legislation to provide reservations in admission to OBC students.
CENTRAL HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTES AT THE END OF X PLAN AND PROPOSED IN XI PLAN S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Kind of Institution Central Universities IITs NITs IISERs IIMs SPAs Numbers Existing at the Additionally proposed to be end of the X established during XI Plan 19 30 7 20 4 2 6 1 8 10 20 3 7 2 22
REQUIREMENTS FOR ATTRACTING GOOD FACULTY n States apart from providing adequate land temporary campuses for the proposed new central institutes, should try to create following facilities/infrastructure for attracting good faculty: n n n Govt. housing facilities schooling facilities for children health facilities transport facilities sports /club facilities 23
SETTING UP OF 16 NEW CENTRAL UNIVERSITIES (CUs) - I 16 CUs: one in each of the States so far uncovered n n n 4 existing State Universities viz. Sagar University in Madhya Pradesh, Bilaspur University in Chhatisgarh, Garhwal University in Uttrakhand Goa University proposed to be upgraded as Central Universities. Remaining 12 new universities are to be set up in Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The State Governments have been requested to identify suitable sites for the construction of the buildings and other infrastructure. 24
SETTING UP OF 16 NEW CENTRAL UNIVERSITIES (CUs) - II n n n The State Governments of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana have identified land for setting up of the new Central Universities The Site Selection Committee formed will look into the suitability of the locations proposed by the State Governments. An allocation of Rs. 2725 crores has been provided in the XI Plan and Rs. 50 crore has been allocated for 2008 -09 under UGC grant. 25
14 W 0 RLD CLASS UNIVERSITIES n Locations have been finalised as under 1. Maharashtra 2. West Bengal 3. Tamil Nadu 4. Karnataka 5. Andhra Pradesh 6. Gujarat 7. Rajasthan 8. Bihar 9. Madhya Pradesh 10. Kerala 11. Punjab 12. Orissa 13. Uttar Pradesh 14. North Eastern Region - Pune Kolkata Coimbatore Mysore Vishakapatanam Gandhinagar Jaipur Patna Bhopal Kochi Amritsar Bhubaneshwar Greater NOIDA Guwahati 26
14 W 0 RLD CLASS UNIVERSITIES n n n State Governments have been requested to identify suitable sites for the construction of the buildings and other infrastructure. Tamil Nadu has already offered the land. The UGC has set up a committee to develop a concept note for the World Class Central Universities. States are requested to give their inputs formulating the concept and modalities. An allocation of Rs. 4425 crores has been provided in the XI Plan and Rs. 60 crores for the year 200809 under UGC grant. 27
CUs & WCCUs
INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL TRIBAL UNIVERSITY n n n Being set up at Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh. Vice Chancellor appointed and has taken charge. Efforts are on to commence classes in some selected subjects during current academic session. The Tribal University will have Regional Centres as well as model Schools in different States having concentration of tribals. A provision of Rs. 4 crore has been made during 2008 -09 under UGC grant. 29
ESTABLISHMENT OF 373 NEW DEGREE COLLEGES - I n n 373 districts having GER lower than the national average, identified by the UGC, which include 88 districts having a high minority concentration. Out of 373 districts, 11 districts have lower than 3% GER, 79 districts have GER between 3. 1 to 6% and 143 districts have GER between 6. 1 to 9%. 140 districts have a GER above 9% but below the national average. 91 districts proposed to be covered on priority as they have less than 4 colleges per 1 lakh of student population. 30
ESTABLISHMENT OF 373 NEW DEGREE COLLEGES - II n One-third cost limited to Rs. 2. 67 Crore is proposed to be given as Central contribution. the balance being met by the State Government totally, or n along with the state through state encouraged notfor-profit private participation, n However, the private participation should be such, which will not reduce access by having high fee structure. n additional incentives proposed, for locating in minority concentration blocks or rural/backward areas. n 31
ESTABLISHMENT OF 373 NEW DEGREE COLLEGES - III n n State Governments have been requested to identify locations and convey their willingness to arrange for the balance of capital cost (non-recurring), to provide land free of cost and to meet the running and maintenance expenditure on these colleges. 8 States viz Bihar, Nagaland, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Haryana, Assam, Tripura have sent interim replies to HRM’s letter of 31. 10. 2007. UGC has prepared a Model DPR for such colleges. An allocation of Rs. 782 crores has been provided for XI Plan and Rs. 165 crore has been allocated for 2008 -09 under UGC grant. 32
INCENTIVISING STATE GOVERNMENTS FOR STARTING NEW UNIVERSITIES/ PROFESSIONAL INSTITUTIONS n A new Scheme is proposed for incentivising State Govts for expansion/upgradation of existing colleges or universities and starting of new universities/professional institutions. Ø Ø Ø n An amount of Rs. 6200 crore has been provided during XI Plan. GOI assistance will be limited to one third of the capital cost. Preference would be given for starting new universities, and institutions imparting employment oriented professional courses/ vocational programmes. State Governments are requested to offer suggestions for operationalising the scheme and commitment to meet States’ share as well as provision of land other infrastructural facilities. 33
MODALITIES OF GIVING ASSISTANCE TO STATES UNDER THE SCHEMES OF ‘INCENTIVISING’ AND ‘SETTING UP OF 373 COLLEGES’ n States to kindly indicate their preference from the following options to receive the assistance: n n from UGC to the State Universities for expansion/ setting up constituent colleges/professional institutions; or it should be given as Ø Ø n n Additional Central Assistance (ACA) through the Planning Commission; or Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) through MHRD for expansion/ setting up colleges/professional institutions. While in first option, no need to create additional staff, in the second option additional staff required at States as well as Central levels. However for incentivising the State Governments for starting new universities, assistance may have to be given either as ACA or CSS. 34
ONE TIME ASSISTANCE TO UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGES NOT GETTING UGC GRANT - I It is proposed to extend one time assistance to universities and colleges which do not get any financial assistance from UGC as they are not qualified to be eligible for being covered under Section 12 B of UGC Act. n Infrastructure to be strengthened to get eligibility for 12 B recognition under UGC Act. n An allocation of Rs. 7000 crore has been provided in the XI Plan. n A provision of Rs. 335 crore has been provided for 2008 -09 for this scheme alongwith 2 other schemes in UGC grant. n 35
ONE TIME ASSISTANCE TO UNIVERSITY AND COLLEGES NOT GETTING UGC GRANT - II n n Centre & States to equally share the cost of development. Ø In the case of private State funded colleges, 20% of the total cost to be provided by the private trust/society and 30% by the State Govt. Ø However, in rural and tribal areas, private trusts to contribute only 10 % and 5 % respectively and the states to contribute remaining 40% and 45% respectively. Ø It is proposed to have a limit of Rs. 1 crore for a college and Rs. 5 crore for a university. The concerned universities or colleges and their affiliating Universities and State Governments are being requested to finalize their requirement of funds within the next 2 months. 36
IITs - I n XI Plan envisages 8 New IITs n 6 new IITs – Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Orissa, Punjab, and Gujarat – will commence their academic Session from 2008. n Other 2 IITs (in Indore, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh) to commence Session from 2009. n Also proposed to upgrade Institute of Technology, BHU into an IIT. An allocation of Rs. 2000 crore has been provided in the XI Plan and Rs. 50 crore has been allocated for 2008 -09. n 37
IITs - II n Concerned State Government has been requested to propose 2 - 3 alternative locations of 500 to 600 acres of land free of cost with good air, rail and road connectivity. Ø Sites for IITs in Andhra Pradesh and Bihar have already been identified (Medak and Bihta). Ø Rajasthan Government requested to offer alternative locations having good air, rail & road connectivity as ‘Kota’ is not acceptable. Ø State Governments of Gujarat, Punjab, Orissa , Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh have identified sites for the new IITs. Ø The Site Selection Committee will inspect these sites and give its recommendations. 38
IITs - III n New IITs to be started initially from the temporary campuses and existing IITs to act as mentor institutions for new IITs. n Andhra Pradesh n Bihar n Rajasthan n Orissa n Punjab n Gujarat n n IIT Madras IIT Guwahati IIT Kanpur IIT Khargpur IIT Delhi IIT Mumbai In the past also IITs were started through having them in temporary campuses. In the present case, we have the advantage of existing IITs, for mentoring of the new IITs. 39
IITs - IV n n n IITs in Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat are starting their academic session in July/August 2008, in identified temporary campuses. Remaining 3 IITs of Orissa, Punjab and Rajasthan will commence their sessions in the premises of their respective mentoring IITs. The Director of the Mentor IIT, will act as Director of the new IIT till Director is appointed for the new IIT. Chairman of the Bo. G of the mentoring IIT, will also act as the Chairman of the new mentored IIT. The Director of the mentoring IIT is also being nominated as a member of the Bo. G of the new mentored IIT. An allocation of Rs. 2000 crore has been provided in the XI Plan and Rs. 50 crore has been allocated for 2008 -09. 40
IITs: Existing & New
IIMs n n n n XI Plan envisages 7 new IIMs IIM, Shillong – First Batch admitted in 2008. Remaining 6 IIMs proposed in the States of Tamil Nadu, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Haryana. State Governments have been requested to allot 200 acres of land having good air, rail and road connectivity, free of cost. Haryana has suggested land in Rohtak. State Govt. of Chhatisgarh also identified the site near Raipur. Tamil Nadu has also proposed three alternative sites at Tiruchirapally. 42
IIMs: Existing & New
New IITs, IIMs, CUs & WCCUs
IISERs - I n IISERs, Pune and Kolkata, became functional in 2006 -07 and IISER, Mohali, in 2007 -08. n Construction of permanent campuses for the first two IISERs – to begin shortly as possession of land already taken. n Suitable land already made available Government of Punjab to IISER, Mohali. n IISERs, Thiruvananthapuram, and Bhopal will start their classes in August, 2008 through temporary campuses. by the 45
IISERs - II n Societies registered and Bo. G constituted. n Directors of IISER, Thiruvananthapuram and Bhopal have taken charge. n IISERs to be declared as Institutes of national importance, by amending the NIT Act. 46
IIITs-I n 4 IIITs (Indian Institute of Information Technology) at present at Allahabad, Jabalpur, Gwalior and Kanchipuram. n IIIT at Kanchipuram has started functioning from its temporary campus at IIT Madras since 2007. n XI Plan envisages 20 new IIITs - as far as possible in the PPP mode. n A model DPR has been submitted by NASSCOM. 47
IIITs-II n Proposed model § § Remaining capital cost [about Rs. 80 Cr. ] – to be raised by way of loan. § interest subsidy to be equally shared between the 3 parties, for the initial 10 years and thereafter by the institutions. § n Centre, State and Industry to contribute Rs. 15 Cr. each. Recurring expenses to be met out of fees and internal accruals. State Governments’ inputs are solicited on the above proposal. 48
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOGY - I n There are 20 National Institutes of Technology (NITs), fully funded by the Central Government. n NIT Act 2007, which came into effect from 15. 8. 2007, has declared these NITs as Institutes of National Importance. n In the XIth Plan period, 10 new NITs are proposed to be established. n Probable location of these NITs will be in States/UTs which at present don’t have an NIT.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF TECHNOLOGY - II n n n MHRD will consider establishing NITs in Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Uttrakhand Goa NIT may also cater to the needs of Daman & Diu, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Lakshadweep. Pudducherry or Andaman & Nicobar may have one NIT to cater to the needs of both. Sikkim or Arunanchal Pradesh may have one NIT to cater to the needs of both. For establishing new NITs, States/UTs are required to provide 300 acres of land , at a place having road, rail and air connectivity
SCHOOLS OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE n XI Plan envisages 2 new SPAs at Bhopal and Vijayawada. n The land offered by State Governments at Bhopal and Vijayawada were not found to be suitable by the Expert Committee. n The State Governments have been asked to offer alternative suitable sites. n Proposed to start the academic session in both the new SPAs through temporary campuses from academic session of 2008. 51
POLYTECHNICS - I n Ratio of Diploma to Degree level seats in India – roughly 1: 2, while it should be 3: 1 or even higher. n Unlike Engineering Colleges, only about 15% of Polytechnics are in Private Sector. Setting up of 1000 polytechnics (300 in Government Sectors, 300 through PPP mode and 400 private polytechnics). For 212 districts not having any Govt. Polytechnic, a central contribution of upto Rs. 12. 30 cr. is proposed to be provided for capital expenditure. Proposed to encourage some women polytechnics in districts, having a low availability of seats per lakh of population. n n n 52
POLYTECHNICS - II n n n Strengthening of existing 500 polytechnics. Construction of women’s hostel in 500 polytechnics. Revamping of the Community Polytechnics scheme and increasing their number from 669 to 1000. The ceiling of annual recurring expenditure proposed to be doubled to Rs. 14 lakhs. For new community polytechnics an initial nonrecurring grant of Rs. 17 lakhs proposed. Introduction of evening shifts proposed in polytechnics/ engineering institutions to optimally use the existing infrastructure and to augment intake capacity. 53
OPEN & DISTANCE LEARNING - I National Education Mission through ICT n n n Network each department of about 400 university level institutions and each of 20000 colleges through broadband connectivity. 100 premier institutions working as Knowledge hubs, to be connected with 1 Gbps bandwidth and rest being connected with 10 to 25 Mbps bandwidth. Make available high quality e-books, e-journals and econtent in different languages from UG to PG, free of cost to genuine learners. 54
OPEN & DISTANCE LEARNING – II n n n Enlistment of support and cooperation of states, institutions and individual experts, would be an integral part of the Mission. Private institutions would be supported through National Mission on Education through ICT for 5 years and thereafter, would have to bear the entire expenditure on maintaining the assets and service levels created under the Mission. States to encourage all institutions under them to subscribe to INFLIBNET/INDEST e-journals, eresearch paper etc. 55
OTHER INITIATIVES PROPOSED n n n Rs. 1150 crore spent out of Rs. 1500 crore under TEQIP I World Bank appraised the implementation of this project and rated it as excellent. Rs. 2430 crore being proposed under TEQIP Phase II covering about 206 Technical Institutions. 50 Centres for training and research in frontier areas n n Bio-Technology, Bio-informatics, Nano-technology, Nano-materials, high-performance computing Proposed to expose and inspire the bright students through intensive interaction for over a week with Nobel Laureates and other distinguished professors on the lines of Lindau Meet in Germany
TECHNICAL EDUCATION QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME (TEQIP) PHASE II n n n On successful near completion of TEQIP Phase I of Rs. 1500 crore, TEQIP Phase II proposed at a total outlay of Rs. 2430 crore. World Bank, Central Government and State Governments to contribute Rs. 1400 crore, Rs. 500, and Rs. 530 crore, respectively. Lead institutions (60) / networking institutions (146) to get Rs. 15 crore and Rs. 10 crore, respectively. Selection of institutions / norms will be decided in consultation with stakeholders and World Bank. Focus on Capacity Building of Staff and Faculty (18%), Research Fellowships (18%) and Research Infrastructure Development and equipment (64%). Only States willing to accept educational reforms will be eligible for World Bank Aid.
PUBLIC-PRIVATE-PARTNERSHIP (PPP) n n Arrangement between a Government and private sector (not-for-profit) in which partially or traditionally public activities are performed by the private sector. Provides an opportunity for private sector participation in n financing n designing n construction and n operation & maintenance of public and social sector programmes. n To forge a greater interface between the public and the private sector in a wide range of activities in the country.
PUBLIC-PRIVATE-PARTNERSHIP (PPP) Many government schemes being implemented in social sector are in the nature of public funded with private service delivery and private management. n Now it is necessary to attract private funding as well. n Involves a long term relationship. n Partnership is in the form of ‘contract’ binding on both parties. n
PPP IN HIGHER & TECHNICAL EDUCATION n It is proposed to encourage PPP for n Setting up of new n n n n Colleges in low GER districts; Polytechnics; IIITs; Upgrading existing institutions to make them eligible under 12 B of UGC Act. Arranging broadband connectivity and providing computer infrastructure under National Mission on Education through ICT. Expansion of institutions ; and Creation of facilities such as hostels. 60
DEEMED UNIVERSITIES-I n. Based on the recommendations of UGC, an institutions can be declared as a deemed university if it (i) has over 10 years of existence, (ii) has a good infrastructure (iii) has at least five PG departments and (iv) has a strong Research Track record n. In some very special cases, institutions wanting to start innovative courses in emerging areas, could be accorded denovo deemed university status even without ten years of existence. 61
DEEMED UNIVERSITIES-II n n n State universities to also encourage affiliation and starting of programmes in new emerging frontier areas by their affiliated/constituent units. UGC invariably consults States in all cases about their views. However, in most of the cases, no response is received from State Governments. Desirable that States formulate transparent guidelines for recommending/not recommending such applications. States are expected to give reasons for not recommending the applications. 62
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION Interventions proposed n n n Increased UGC support to institutions located in border, hilly, remote, small towns & educationally backward areas. Increased support to institutions with large percentage of students population of SCs, STs, OBCs, Girls and Minorities – through Diversity Index. Provision of assistance for creation of hostel facilities as well as remedial coaching to SCs, STs and Minorities, coaching for admission to professional courses and for preparation for NET/SLET examination and for competitive examinations for Central Services. 63
MINORITY EDUCATION - I n n 88 minority concentration districts will be covered under scheme for providing central assistance for opening 373 new degree colleges in districts with GER less than National Average. With the new Polytechnics proposed to be opened with central assistance, all the minority concentration districts also will have a polytechnic as well as a community polytechnic. UGC/AICTE have advised all the institutions under their control, to include a minority community member in the recruitment /selection committees. Increased funding for higher diversity index institutions would ensure increased grants for institutions having higher % age of minorities. 64
MINORITY EDUCATION - II n n NCMEI Act was modified to give powers to the Commission to adjudicate issues relating to non-grant of Minority Status to any educational institutes. Scheme of appointment of language teachers including Urdu teachers is being continued through Department of School Education and Literacy Special Academies started in MAANU, AMU, Jamia Milia for the training of Urdu medium teachers of modern subjects. Aligarh Muslim University, Maulana Azad National Urdu University will be given suitable assistance for their expansion. 65
WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION - I A. n n n UGC: Overall GER of women is roughly 40% but only about 20% in professional courses. There is a need to bring gender parity. UGC supports following: n n n n Development of Women Study centres in Universities/ Colleges. Provision of adequate basic infrastructural facilities for Women in Universities. Scholarships for Women in Professional Programmes. Post Doctoral Fellowship to Women Candidates. Scheme for Construction of Women's Hostels. Part-time Research Associateship for Women. Indira Gandhi scholarships for single girl child for pursuing postgraduate education. 66
WOMEN’S PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION - II AICTE has relaxed the conditions for establishment of technical institutions exclusively for women: B. n n Land requirements relaxed by 50% in rural category, 20% in Metro & State Capital and 10% in Mega cities. 20% relaxation in joint FDR amount requirement and processing fee. For the new institutions 5 courses have been allowed with total intake of 300, with each course intake not exceeding 90. Single window system for processing above proposals. 67
BOUQUET OF MEASURES FOR FACULTY DEVELOPMENT - I n n n Academic staff colleges are being revamped by UGC. Summer schools to train teachers. Superannuation age of teachers raised from 62 years to 65 years. In special meritorious cases, contractual appointments permitted even upto the age of 70 years, where suitable faculty is not otherwise available. Even those who have retired but have excellent domain knowledge & experience, could be employed on contract basis upto the age of 70 years. Contract appointments also allowed visiting faculty. especially foreign
BOUQUET OF MEASURES FOR FACULTY DEVELOPMENT - II n n n Adjunct/Guest Faculty being employed to meet the shortfall in faculty. For taking care of immediate shortage of faculty, Ph. Ds and M. Phils are being allowed to teach at Post Graduate and Under Graduate levels respectively without NET qualifications. Students doing Ph. Ds also to be used to share the load of the faculty in tutorials and laboratory demonstrations etc. Consultancy charges allowed to be shared by the faculty. Rates of Junior and Senior Research Fellowships increased by about 50%. Pay Revision Committee of UGC constituted to go into faculty salary structure and give its recommendations.
BOUQUET OF MEASURES FOR FACULTY DEVELOPMENT - III n n n Strengthening of science based education and research in Universities. (M. M. Sharma Committee recommendations). Grants being given for presentation of Research Papers in international fora/conferences. Research grants of Universities to be increased to encourage research. Ramanujan Fellowship to attract distinguished Indian faculty working in foreign Universities. Bose Fellowship to encourage distinguished faculty serving in India having strong Research background
BOUQUET OF MEASURES FOR FACULTY DEVELOPMENT - IV n n n National Mission on Education through ICT to provide broad band connectivity which will further facilitate access to knowledge and information and facilitate dissemination of e-learning material. INDEST/INFLIBINET schemes for supply of copyrighted e-Journals and other important research material to Universities/colleges. NPTEL e-courses as developed by IITs /IISc, being made available to all colleges.
BOUQUET OF MEASURES FOR FACULTY DEVELOPMENT - V n n n The State Governments may consider raising the age of superannuation of teachers. States may enthusiastically depute the teachers for the free summer trainings/refresher courses being organized by AICTE & UGC. The States may also consider introducing other measures for Faculty Development on the lines indicated in the presentation. 72
FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO STUDENTS n n Merit scholarships proposed covering 2% of students in higher education JRF amount of Fellowships increased by 50%. Interest Subsidy proposed on student loans as per means criteria for professional courses. The GATE qualified M. Tech. Scholarship enhanced from Rs. 5000 to Rs. 8000 per month. 73
QUALITY: PROPOSED REFORMS - I n A Committee has been set up and started functioning under the chairmanship of Prof. Yash Pal, former UGC Chairman, to review the role and functioning of UGC and AICTE. n UGC has assigned the task of preparing a Curriculum framework to Prof. Yashpal. 74
QUALITY: PROPOSED REFORMS - II n UGC has advised all Universities on 5. 2. 2008 • • Examination Reforms including introduction of semester system, grading, credit transfer etc. Continuous internal assessment and evaluation. Streamlining of admission procedure for Ph. D. admissions. Effective mechanism for regular updating of curricula/syllabi. n Reforms in teaching methods and improving quality of teachers through Refresher Courses/Training programmes. n Introduction of credit system to allow for flexibility – both spatial and temporal.
QUALITY: PROPOSED REFORMS - III n n Expansion of Research Programmes/Projects (some portion of development assistance of UGC is proposed to earmark specifically for research) through funded research. Introduction of mandatory accreditation n for institutions aspiring for UGC grant. n for institutions seeking public financial assistance/ deemed university status. n NBA accreditation system being reformed so as to get the full membership of Washington Accord in the June 2009 meeting in Japan.
THE MENACE OF RAGGING n n n Ragging to be eliminated. As per the directions of the Supreme Court, Government has taken a number of steps including publicity campaigns, quick and effective penal action against erring students by the institutions. States may consider taking suitable effective steps in this regard. 77
FAKE UNIVERSITIES - I n n n According to Section 22 of the UGC Act, 1956, right to confer or grant degree, is vested only in a University/institution established under a Central or State Act or an institution deemed to be University under Section 3 of the UGC Act. Under Section 23 of the UGC Act, no institution, other than a University is entitled to have the word ‘‘University’’ associated with its name in any manner. Any educational institution which is in existence in contravention of the UGC Act is “fake”. 78
FAKE UNIVERSITIES - II n n n Courts have consistently upheld that education can not be commercialized. HRM has issued an appeal to the parents and students to check whether the institution in which they desire admission, has necessary authorisation of UGC/AICTE or DEC etc. HRM has requested CMs to arrange to take immediate action against ‘fake’ universities and dubious institutions under the Indian Penal Code. 79
FAKE UNIVERSITIES - III n n n States requested to instruct Registrars of Societies to consult UGC, whenever an application is received under the title of “University” or its regional synonyms. State Governments are requested to similarly create public awareness against fake and dubious institutions. State Governments to accord priority in ensuring closure of these institutions that are defrauding gullible students and bringing the entire system into disrepute. 80
ISSUES UNDER CONSIDERATION - I n Mode of operationalizing the scheme of 373 degree colleges, n assistance to universities and colleges which are not covered under section 12 B of UGC Act. n incentivizing the state governments for setting up of new institutions n Filling up of vacant faculty positions in the state universities and colleges and taking up other steps for faculty development. n Providing land facilities/other infrastructure for new central institutions to be set up. n
ISSUES UNDER CONSIDERATION - II n n n Increasing the expenditure on education by states with a view to increase the share of the State Governments in achieving the target of expenditure on education as 6% of GDP. States to contribute Rs. 530 crore and agree for the Education Reforms to be eligible for World Bank’s TEQUIP II loan of Rs. 1400 crore. Modalities for public-private partnership. Timely supply of Statistical Data in respect of Higher and Technical Education. Advance preparation for implementing new schemes.