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Impact of Learning Strategies and Motivation on Performance: A Study in Web. Based Instruction Siva R. Sankaran Tung Bui
Outline Instruction Research in Distance Education Hypotheses Method Results Additional Analysis Implications conclusion
Instruction This study is to investigate how learning strategies and motivation influence performance in web and lecture settings. Learning strategies: Deep Surface undirected
Research in Distance Education The major issues of distance education are : Effectiveness Student background Learning style Motivation Course design Instruction role Cost-benefits
Research in Distance Education-Effectiveness Kuramoto(1984) evaluated face to face, teleconferencing, and correspondence study were equally effective. Souder(1993) concluded that distance learner performed better than their classroom counterparts. Poter(1997) contends that distance education is at least as effective as that of traditional lectures.
Research in Distance Education. Learning strategy Refer to the activities by which learning is achieved. Two types of learning strategies(Hoekscma, 1995) Deep-understand the meaning of a task. Surface-memorize the facts and have reproducing orientation. In practice, using the surface strategy have been found to be successful. The undirected learning was a negative predictor of academic success.
Research in Distance Education-Motivation To be a successful learner, Schuemer points out that the student must have a high degree of motivation Students who choose distance education need a high level of motivation. The types of motivation: Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation
Hypotheses H 1 Students using deep learning strategy will perform better than using the surface strategy in web and lecture settings. H 2 Students using surface strategy will perform better than using undirected learning strategy in web and lecture settings. H 3 There is be no difference in performance among students who use the same learning strategy whether they are in web or lecture group.
Hypotheses(cont. ) H 4 The higher the motivation, the better the performance in both web and lecture settings. H 5 There will be no difference in performance among students who have similar motivational levels whether they are in the web or the lecture group.
Subjects Method the students enrolled in a 4 -week undergraduate business computer courses. Pre-test To measure their baseline knowledge of course content Learning strategy survey Motivation survey Performance suvey
Learning strategy survey Contained 14 items to determine whether the students employed deep, surface and undirected method. LSS(learning strategies score) <2. 3 -undirected strategy 2. 3 -3. 7 -surface 3. 7<-deep
Motivation survey Contained 14 items to determine the orientation of motivation MS(Motivation Score) <2. 3 -low motivation 2. 3 -3. 7 -moderate motivation 3. 7<-high motivation
Results 116 students in this sample, 46 chose to take the web course , 70 chose the lecture course H 1: influence of the deep and surface learning on performance Web Deep-45. 5 Surface-46. 1 Lecture Deep-46. 1 Surface-44. 6 Both difference were not significant Maybe deep learning is not often satisfied with university exams. Surface strategy is more effective in the course
Results(conts. ) H 2: influence of surface and undirected learning strategy on performance Web Surface-46. 1 Undirected-29. 6 Lecture Surface-44. 6 Undirected-34. 5 Both difference were significant Undirected strategy affected performance negatively
Results(conts. ) H 3: influence of similar learning strategies in web and lecture Deep-no difference significant Surface -no difference significant Undirected -no difference significant The explanation could be that the web with no direct verbal interaction
Results(conts. ) H 4: influence of motivation on performance High motivation-better in both web and lecture course Low motivation -no difference significant Students undergo many sacrifices to get an education and motivation is a driving factor that influences their performance
Results(conts. ) H 5: influence of similar motivation levels in web and lecture Each group did not differ significant in their scores between the lecture and web format
Additional Analysis The high correlation between MS and LSS corroborates that those who have high motivation tend to use deep learning strategy. Hispanics had the highest score on MS and LSS Whites had lower MS and LSS but had the highest on test score The causative factor: Whites had started off the course with the advantage
Implications Web course is well suited for students who use deep or surface strategy. Students with similar learning strategy and motivation performed equally well irrespective of web or lecture format. Students who are motivated the most also gained the most incremental learning.
Conclusion This study identified learning strategy and motivation as two variables and explained their impact on learning performance. It is important for educators to match technology with the background and needs of the learners if education is to be effective.