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Impact of Food Retail Investments Evidence from Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland Russia Liesbeth Dries Impact of Food Retail Investments Evidence from Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland Russia Liesbeth Dries – K. U. Leuven East. Agri 2005 Annual Meeting, Rome, 28 February 2005

Goal & methodology n n Goal: tot analyse the impact of food retail investments Goal & methodology n n Goal: tot analyse the impact of food retail investments on food systems in CEE countries Methodology: • Countries: Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland Russian Federation • Food chains: FFV & Dairy • Interviews with retail chains; wholesalers; processors & farm survey (Czech Republic)

Retail Transformation in CEE: Supermarket growth Retail Transformation in CEE: Supermarket growth

Retail Transformation in CEE: Supermarket growth Retail Transformation in CEE: Supermarket growth

Retail Transformation in CEE n n n Dramatic rise in market share of supermarkets Retail Transformation in CEE n n n Dramatic rise in market share of supermarkets and modern retail sector Multinationalization Concentration Inter-country as well as intra-country supermarket diffusion Important changes in procurement systems

Implications for supply chain: procurement system changes n n Initially: retailers buy from local Implications for supply chain: procurement system changes n n Initially: retailers buy from local wholesalers and importers Shift to centralised procurement systems: Build distribution centres

Change of procurement system n Shift toward cross-border systems: • Coordinate procurement over Distribution Change of procurement system n Shift toward cross-border systems: • Coordinate procurement over Distribution Centres in different countries of operation: n n Ahold Central Europe Tesco ‘International Purchasing Dept. ’ • To what extent? E. g. Tesco/Metro – CEE products for UK/German supermarkets

Change of procurement system n n Shift toward specialized/dedicated wholesalers (specialized in product category, Change of procurement system n n Shift toward specialized/dedicated wholesalers (specialized in product category, dedicated to supermarkets) Shift toward preferred supplier systems to select producers meeting quality and safety standards and lower transaction costs • Evidence survey Czech Republic: 30% suppliers WS & 60% suppliers SM have contracts (preferred suppliers)

Change of procurement system n Shift toward private safety and quality standards • E. Change of procurement system n Shift toward private safety and quality standards • E. g SISPO Czech Repblic • E. g. Eurep-gap (international chains – international standards)

Public versus private standards traceability Public versus private standards traceability

Private standards - quality Private standards - quality

Private standards - quality n n n Significant higher quality delivered to SM Growth Private standards - quality n n n Significant higher quality delivered to SM Growth in high quality production 20002003 for growers supplying SM since 2000 Decline in high quality production 20002003 for growers delivering to local market in 2000

So: n Increased demands on: • • • QUALITY (and safety) VOLUME And: COORDINATION So: n Increased demands on: • • • QUALITY (and safety) VOLUME And: COORDINATION

The development of producer marketing organisations: CZ n Developments in Food Retail sector are The development of producer marketing organisations: CZ n Developments in Food Retail sector are main driving force behind organisation of farmers: • 4 out of 5 interviewed Producer Marketing Organisations for FFV indicate as main reason for their establishment: to gather sufficient quantity and product varieties to satisfy the requirements of big supermarket chains

Potential benefits of PMO to growers n n Bargaining power Services Extension service (55%) Potential benefits of PMO to growers n n Bargaining power Services Extension service (55%) n Storage, sorting, packaging facilities (60%) n Access to information (73%) n Facilitated access to inputs through payment guarantee program with input suppliers n Preferred position to apply for bank loans (repayment certainty) n. . . n

Retailers & vertical coordination may be positive for key weaknesses n Key weaknesses of Retailers & vertical coordination may be positive for key weaknesses n Key weaknesses of farm sector : • • • n Shortage of finance for investments Quality Access to high value markets Retail investments and coordination with supply chains may assist farms in these areas

Retail assistance to farms ? n Direct effect: available evidence indicates that modern retailers Retail assistance to farms ? n Direct effect: available evidence indicates that modern retailers introduce assistance packages “if they have to” to secure quality supplies. E. g. • Berdegue et al (Central America) • Reardon et al (Croatia) • Dries & Reardon (Russia) n Indirect effect: Eg. Poland: Dairy companies focusing on high-quality markets (incl. EU export markets and the modern retail sector) are frontrunners in offering assistance to small farms; market channels targeted to informal markets and low quality sales copy programs later or not at all.