Скачать презентацию Impact of Fertilizer Prices on the Cow Calf Enterprise Скачать презентацию Impact of Fertilizer Prices on the Cow Calf Enterprise

1e26eb8020e641bf172e76c6475b4ed5.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 49

Impact of Fertilizer Prices on the Cow/Calf Enterprise Spring 2008 Bob Woods Area Extension Impact of Fertilizer Prices on the Cow/Calf Enterprise Spring 2008 Bob Woods Area Extension Agronomy Specialist

Fertilizer Prices 03/25/08 Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P 2 O 5) Potassium (K 2 O) Fertilizer Prices 03/25/08 Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P 2 O 5) Potassium (K 2 O) - 51¢ 51 89¢ 89 50¢ 50 11/12/07 44¢ 34¢ 25¢ 11/14/06 34¢ 22¢

Forage Requirement for a Spring Calving herd under 4 different management options OSU Publication Forage Requirement for a Spring Calving herd under 4 different management options OSU Publication E-926

Nitrogen Fertilizer needed by different Management Schemes Using Introduced Forages Forage needed A/Cow Unit Nitrogen Fertilizer needed by different Management Schemes Using Introduced Forages Forage needed A/Cow Unit Tons/A 10 – 14. 6 N req. Lbs/A 0 N req. Lbs/cow 0 5 1. 2 – 1. 6 30 – 50 150 – 250 4 1. 5 – 2 50 – 70 200 – 280 3 2 – 2. 7 70 – 105 210 – 315 2 3– 4 120 – 170 240 – 340 1. 5 4 – 5. 3 Reasonably Safe 170 - 235 255 - 353

Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 1. 2 4 N Req Lbs/A NPK Total $ / Cow Forage Expense Total $ / Cow Value of Gain per Acre less forage $ . 00 190 39 30 207 380 40 1. 5 50 207 353 57 3 2 70 264 389 64 3 2 2 Tons litter 240 355 76 2 3 120 227 323 130 N 51¢, P 89¢, K 50¢, $40 Hay/cow, $15 native rent, $25 introduced rent Litter $40/T

Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 2007 2008 Forage Expense Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 2007 2008 Forage Expense / Cow 147 190 10 . 6 5 1. 2 250 372 4 1. 5 244 347 3 2 249 379 2 3 223 317

Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow 10 Forage 2007 2008 T/A Value Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow 10 Forage 2007 2008 T/A Value of Gain per Acre. 6 37 39 5 1. 2 54 40 4 1. 5 70 57 3 2 91 64 2 3 149 130

Implication n Little difference in income potential between low input and high input intensive Implication n Little difference in income potential between low input and high input intensive grazing How many cows do you really need? Class I and II soils could be cropped.

Nutrients Removed By Forage Crops Species and Hay Yield Bermudagrass Tall Fescue Sorghum/Sudan 6 Nutrients Removed By Forage Crops Species and Hay Yield Bermudagrass Tall Fescue Sorghum/Sudan 6 tons 3. 5 tons 4 tons N 258 135 160 P 2 O 5 60 65 61 K 2 O 288 185 233 Southern Forages

Crude Protein Effect on Nitrogen Removal Crude protein/6. 24 = % nitrogen n 5% Crude Protein Effect on Nitrogen Removal Crude protein/6. 24 = % nitrogen n 5% C. P. =. 8% N = 16 lbs. /T n 10% C. P. = 1. 6% N = 32 lbs. /T n 15% C. P. = 2. 4% N = 48 lbs. /T n 20% C. P. = 3. 2% N = 64 lbs. /T n

Nutrients Removed per Ton of Bermudagrass Hay 2006 Crude Protein N $/T P and Nutrients Removed per Ton of Bermudagrass Hay 2006 Crude Protein N $/T P and K $/T Total NPK $/T 5% 3. 20 9. 90 13. 10 10% 6. 40 9. 90 16. 30 15% 9. 60 9. 90 19. 50

Nutrients Removed per Ton of Bermudagrass Hay 2008 Crude Protein N $/T P and Nutrients Removed per Ton of Bermudagrass Hay 2008 Crude Protein N $/T P and K $/T Total NPK $/T $/1200 lb. Rd. Bale 5% 8. 16 32. 10 40. 10 24. 06 10% 16. 32 32. 10 48. 42 29. 05 15% 24. 48 32. 10 56. 58 33. 95

Implication Hay prices should go up Hay supply goes down if fewer growers fertilize Implication Hay prices should go up Hay supply goes down if fewer growers fertilize n n

Poultry Litter and Fertilizer Value 03/25/08 Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P 2 O 5) Potassium Poultry Litter and Fertilizer Value 03/25/08 Nitrogen (N) Phosphorus (P 2 O 5) Potassium (K 2 O) - 51¢ 51 89¢ 89 50¢ 50 11/12/07 44¢ 34¢ 25¢ 11/14/06 34¢ 22¢

Average Litter Composition and Value lbs 1480 520 $ Total N NO 3 -N Average Litter Composition and Value lbs 1480 520 $ Total N NO 3 -N NH 4 -N 62 1. 2 8. 7 31. 62 22. 13 P 2 O 5 63 51. 66 K 2 O 54 26. 46 Dry Matter Water Total 100. 25

Litter Composition and Value Average lbs 1480 520 $ Total N NO 3 -N Litter Composition and Value Average lbs 1480 520 $ Total N NO 3 -N NH 4 -N 62 1. 2 8. 7 22. 13 P 2 O 5 63 51. 66 K 2 O 54 26. 46 Dry Matter Water Total Need Based $22. 13 N and P 100. 25 N only $73. 79 N and K $46. 59

With Adequate P and K A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 1. 2 With Adequate P and K A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 1. 2 4 N Req Lbs/A N Total $ / Cow Forage Expense Total $ / Cow Value of Gain per Acre less forage $ . 00 190 39 30 72 242 68 1. 5 50 96 242 85 3 2 70 101 202 126 3 2 2 Tons litter 42 157 141 Litter $7/T at the house

Implications Demand for litter increases n At current prices paid at the house, there Implications Demand for litter increases n At current prices paid at the house, there is little incentive for the poultry grower to sell litter n Price paid to poultry grower should increase n

Improving Forage Efficiency Improving Forage Efficiency

Stocking Rates n n n Start by determining a stocking rate without fertilizer About Stocking Rates n n n Start by determining a stocking rate without fertilizer About 1 cow/10 to 12 acres Can the additional cow(s) pay the additional expense?

Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 1. 2 4 N Req Lbs/A NPK Total $ / Cow Forage Expense Total $ / Cow Value of Gain per Acre less forage $ . 00 190 39 30 207 380 40 1. 5 50 207 353 57 3 2 70 264 389 64 3 2 2 Tons litter 240 355 76 2 3 120 227 323 130 N 51¢, P 89¢, K 50¢, $40 Hay/cow, $15 native rent, $25 introduced rent Litter $40/T

Stocking Rate n n n Forage for 1 cow per 10 cost $190 Fertilizer Stocking Rate n n n Forage for 1 cow per 10 cost $190 Fertilizer for each additional cow on the 10 acres will cost $325 to $380 325/6 Tons = $54 forage cost per ton. Alternative is to buy feed for the next cow(s) Round bale has to cost less than $32 How many cows do you really need? ?

Northeast Oklahoma is now predominantly Introduced Forages Introduced to compliment Native Range Northeast Oklahoma is now predominantly Introduced Forages Introduced to compliment Native Range

You can double your stocking rate with 10% of your acreage in introduced forages You can double your stocking rate with 10% of your acreage in introduced forages – Dr. Wilfred Mc. Murphy n n n 9 acres native range with a harvestable yield of 1500 pounds per acre = 13, 500 pounds 1 acre bermudagrass/fescue fertilized with 250 pounds of N per acre = 10, 000 pounds Total production 23, 500 pounds

Forage Requirement for a Spring Calving herd under 4 different management options OSU Publication Forage Requirement for a Spring Calving herd under 4 different management options OSU Publication E-926

Soil Test before Fertilizer n n STP > 40 no phosphorus this year STK Soil Test before Fertilizer n n STP > 40 no phosphorus this year STK > 200 no potassium this year Multiple year history of following a soil test consistently – Skip P and K this year Retest every 3 years or less

Improve Fertilizer Use n n Fertilize only the best soil Fertilize for optimum yields Improve Fertilizer Use n n Fertilize only the best soil Fertilize for optimum yields (3 T/A fescue and 4 or 5 T/A bermudagrass Fertilizer only what is required to reach forage goal Do not fertilize native range

In this example – failure to fertilize with P and K as recommended makes In this example – failure to fertilize with P and K as recommended makes 51¢ N cost $1. 04 per pound. . 75 X. 65 =. 49 200 lbs N = 1. 9 T without the required P and K

Mayes County Fairgrounds Lawn Bermudagrass/Fertilizer Demo. 1997 Fertilized May 12, Harvested August 5 Mayes County Fairgrounds Lawn Bermudagrass/Fertilizer Demo. 1997 Fertilized May 12, Harvested August 5

Litter might be a good deal if it is available and you need all Litter might be a good deal if it is available and you need all the nutrients n n n Hard to get due to Competition. Volume that needs to move has not changed. Who will get it? Established relationships Close to the source Large Quantities Flexible Easy to get along with Pays quickly and reliably Patient

Improve Grazing Management Waste Less Healthier Pasture Less Herbicides Improve Grazing Management Waste Less Healthier Pasture Less Herbicides

Effect of year-round continuous vs. rotational (12 paddocks with cattle rotated every two days) Effect of year-round continuous vs. rotational (12 paddocks with cattle rotated every two days) stocking of endophytefree tall fescue and common bermudagrass mixed grass pastures in the Piedmont of Georgia, three-year average. Continuous Rotational % Change Stocking rate, cow-calf units/A . 50 . 69 +38 Calf weaning weight, lb 490 486 0 Total calf gain/A, lb 243 334 +37 Cow pregnancy rate, % 93 95 0 2, 430 1, 680 -31 Hay fed/cow, lb

Implication n n 100 pounds of N per acre for 2 T per acre Implication n n 100 pounds of N per acre for 2 T per acre Fertilize 3 acres to get 6 tons per year per cow Improve grazing days by 30% Now 70 pounds of N is adequate Or 100 pounds on 2 acres or 200 pounds on 1 acre.

Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 Forage Expense in Relation to S. R. A/Cow Forage T/A 10 . 6 5 1. 2 4 N Req Lbs/A NPK Total $ / Cow Forage Expense Total $ / Cow Value of Gain per Acre less forage $ . 00 190 39 30 207 380 40 1. 5 50 207 353 57 3 2 70 264 389 64 3 2 2 Tons litter 240 355 76 2 3 120 227 323 130 N 51¢, P 89¢, K 50¢, $40 Hay/cow, $15 native rent, $25 introduced rent Litter $40/T

Improved Grazing – Less Herbicide n n n Spray every year on 100 Acres Improved Grazing – Less Herbicide n n n Spray every year on 100 Acres ($2100 in 3 years) How much fence could that build? How many goats or sheep could that add? Forbs become an asset rather than a liability.

Managing for Legumes Managing for Legumes

No P and K Legumes will require fertilizer! No P and K Legumes will require fertilizer!

Managing Legumes n n n Require residue management Short in the fall or winter Managing Legumes n n n Require residue management Short in the fall or winter A part of the system but not on all of the acreage Rotational stocking is a must P, K, and lime as recommended by a soil test Can substitute for 100 to 150 pounds of N per acre.

Introduced intensive Scenario n n n A cow to 3 acres requiring 150 pounds Introduced intensive Scenario n n n A cow to 3 acres requiring 150 pounds of N per acre or cow Save 30% with grazing – now need 100 pounds of N/cow Legumes on 1/3 - now 70 pounds of N per cow.

Less Intensive Scenario n n 8 acres at 1500 per acre = 12, 000 Less Intensive Scenario n n 8 acres at 1500 per acre = 12, 000 pounds or 1 cow 1 acre bermudagrass/fescue fertilized for 5 tons per acre = 10, 000 pounds 1 acre legumes at 3 tons per acre = 6, 000 Total production 28, 000 on 10 acres

Forage Requirement for a Spring Calving herd under 4 different management options OSU Publication Forage Requirement for a Spring Calving herd under 4 different management options OSU Publication E-926

Native versus Introduced n n n Without fertilizer, native grasses are the most productive Native versus Introduced n n n Without fertilizer, native grasses are the most productive and economical. Multiple income opportunities on native range Recreational leasing (hunting, photography, fishing, camping), Cattle, Small Ruminants Without fertilizer Introduced Forages will need to be stocked as Native.

Summary n n n Do you really want to run that extra cow? If Summary n n n Do you really want to run that extra cow? If decision is to Fertilize fewer acres higher yield goal best soils Improve the grazing system