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IMMIGRATION, URBANIZATION, AND EVERYDAY LIFE, 1860– 1900 IMMIGRATION, URBANIZATION, AND EVERYDAY LIFE, 1860– 1900

The New American City By 1900 – 40% of pop. lived in cities NYC The New American City By 1900 – 40% of pop. lived in cities NYC pop. of 3. 4 mil = total U. S. urban pop. 1850 Growth from migration and immigration 11 million immigrants 1870 -1890 Immigrants & native-born compete Rapid growth sparked manufacturing & production but strained city services led to housing & sanitation problems Underscored class differences Reformers sought to improve cities & Americanize immigrants

Migrants and Immigrants Pull factors – good wages & broad range of jobs Migration Migrants and Immigrants Pull factors – good wages & broad range of jobs Migration from countryside & overseas Rising # of farmwomen came to cities Competing for jobs with immigrants, blacks, urban women “Old” & “New” Immigrants Old = Northern & Western Europe New = Southern & Eastern Both periods also saw growing numbers of Asians 1890 – 4 out of 5 in NYC foreign-born or children of foreign-born parents

Asian and European Immigrants Living in the Western Hemisphere and Hawaii in 1900 Asian and European Immigrants Living in the Western Hemisphere and Hawaii in 1900

Percent of Foreign-born Whites and Native Whites of Foreign or Mixed Parentage in Total Percent of Foreign-born Whites and Native Whites of Foreign or Mixed Parentage in Total Population, by Countries, 1910 Source: D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America—A Geographical Perspective of 500 Years of History. Yale University Press. Volume 3.

Migrants and Immigrants Push factors include overpopulation, crop failure & famine, religious persecution, violence, Migrants and Immigrants Push factors include overpopulation, crop failure & famine, religious persecution, violence, or economic hardships Many Italians & Chinese returned to their homelands after becoming successful in U. S. With no long-term residency plans, they frequently made little effort to assimilate Family members often waited in old country for family “breadwinner” to get a job & save $ to pay for passage of others Traveled to U. S. by ship Cramped, poor food, often poor sanitation Immigrants arrived tired, fearful, and often sick

Ellis Island - 1892 Customs officials inspected newcomers’ health Those with contagious diseases refused Ellis Island - 1892 Customs officials inspected newcomers’ health Those with contagious diseases refused admittance Difficult names frequently Anglicized Ellis Island built to accommodate huge #’s entering Angel Island performed same function on West Coast Immigrants with money travel to other destinations in U. S. Poor immigrants remained in eastern cities (Boston, NYC, etc. )

NYC – Lower East Side of Manhattan NYC – Lower East Side of Manhattan

Adjusting to Urban Society Chain Migration and Culture Shock Often settled by nationality & Adjusting to Urban Society Chain Migration and Culture Shock Often settled by nationality & even by village or region Called “Ghettos” and “Ethnic Islands” Speaking English provided an advantage Ethnic groups that formed a high percentage of a city’s pop. (e. g. . Irish in Boston) also had advantage Dominance of politics & churches helped in upward mobility Nativism was strong at start of 20 th Century

“Machine Politics” Urban politics controlled by the boss of an unofficial political organization designed “Machine Politics” Urban politics controlled by the boss of an unofficial political organization designed to keep a particular party or faction in office.

Working-Class Politics and Reform Political Bosses and Machine Politics Major influence over politics & Working-Class Politics and Reform Political Bosses and Machine Politics Major influence over politics & city government Boss Tweed & Tammany Hall political machine – NYC Machines controlled taxes, licenses, contracts, etc. Wide-spread corruption – great efforts made to stop them Press & Reformers attack machine politics (Thomas Nast)

Working-Class Politics and Reform Battling Poverty Some focused on improving conditions Others focused on Working-Class Politics and Reform Battling Poverty Some focused on improving conditions Others focused on moral reform – YMCA &YWCA New Approaches to Social Reform Salvation Army – offer food & shelter along with preaching The Moral-Purity Campaign – Anthony Comstock Fighting “vice” incl. obscenity, gambling, prostitution

Reform The Social Gospel Washington Gladden – true Christianity means fighting social injustice Walter Reform The Social Gospel Washington Gladden – true Christianity means fighting social injustice Walter Rauschenbusch – churches should unite to combat poverty & exploitation

The Settlement-House Movement Hull House – Jane Addams Provide various social services for immigrants The Settlement-House Movement Hull House – Jane Addams Provide various social services for immigrants Schooling medical care recreation (sports and art projects/plays) day nursery for children of working mothers Encouraged legislators to enforce sanitation regulations and pass laws protecting the urban poor S. H. workers lived in neighborhoods in which they worked

Working-Class Leisure in the Immigrant City Working classes needed diversions Neighborhood streets were a Working-Class Leisure in the Immigrant City Working classes needed diversions Neighborhood streets were a gathering place Saloons were a place for men to escape factory life by gathering to drink, socialize , discuss politics Usually saloons reinforce ethnic identities The Rise of Professional Sports Rules of modern baseball developed – major league formed – profitable franchises in big cities Large fan followings – first sports pages in papers Boxing enjoyed a strong working-class following

Entertainment Provides Escape Vaudeville • drew the largest audiences in the late-19 th century Entertainment Provides Escape Vaudeville • drew the largest audiences in the late-19 th century Amusement Parks Coney Island Dance Halls Ragtime Displayed fresh originality started with black musicians in saloons & brothels Complex rhythms Widely popular with working class but eventually a national sensation Scott Joplin - a major composer Entertaining music provides a challenge to Victorian propriety