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Immigration, Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations in Israel Larissa Remennick, Ph. D. Schusterman Visiting Professor Immigration, Ethnicity and Ethnic Relations in Israel Larissa Remennick, Ph. D. Schusterman Visiting Professor of Israeli studies

Israel as Ultimate Immigrant Society 95% are 1 st, 2 nd or 3 rd Israel as Ultimate Immigrant Society 95% are 1 st, 2 nd or 3 rd generation immigrants 35% were born outside of Israel Major ethnic groups: Palestinians (20%), Ashkenazi Jews (30%), Sephardic/Mizrahi Jews (30%), Mixed Jewish Ethics (15%); non-Jews from FSU (4%), Black Ethiopian Jews (1%) Historic outline: late 19 -early 20 century Aliyah waves, pre-state immigrants of the

Israel as Ethnic Democracy The Law of Return (1950/1970) regulates immigration to Israel. 'Jew' Israel as Ethnic Democracy The Law of Return (1950/1970) regulates immigration to Israel. 'Jew' for the purposes of Aliyah& citizenship is defined broadly similarly to the Nazi anti-Jewish laws of the 1930 s The gap between a civic and Halachic definitions of Jewishness as source of discrimination of non-Jews Lack of separation between state and

Ethnic democracy (continued) Lack of Constitution and system of Basic Laws The Law of Ethnic democracy (continued) Lack of Constitution and system of Basic Laws The Law of Return does not include Arabs Minority rights – political representation, freedom of occupation, non-discrimination by sex, age, ethnicity or religion The problem of occupied territories and status of Palestinians beyond the Green Line (including East Jerusalem)

Jewish Israel: The lines of social stratification Ahkenasim, Spharadim & Mizrahim Old-timers vs. recent Jewish Israel: The lines of social stratification Ahkenasim, Spharadim & Mizrahim Old-timers vs. recent immigrants Social class and wealth Center vs periphery Political right-center-left-radical left Skin color, accents, dress & behavior codes

The pillars of Israeli identity Nation-building project on-going Militarism and 'security culture' Hebrew mono-lingualism The pillars of Israeli identity Nation-building project on-going Militarism and 'security culture' Hebrew mono-lingualism at the expense of diaspora languages Zionism or Post-Zionism? Familism and 'motherhood mandate' Immigration & Absorption

The Great Russian Aliyah of the 1990 s Driven by push factors – demise The Great Russian Aliyah of the 1990 s Driven by push factors – demise of the USSR Other destination countries closing their doors About 1, 000 immigrants between 1989 -2004, among them half just between 1990&1993 High on human capital but low on Jewish identity High % of mixed families and non-Jews Multiple integration challenges

Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel Arriving in two organized airlifts: 1984 & 1991 Many families Ethiopian Immigrants in Israel Arriving in two organized airlifts: 1984 & 1991 Many families split by Israel's migration decisions (Jews vs Falashim) Hard sacrifices and difficult road to Aliyah Low human capital and pre-modern society Problems of integration & racism

Emigration or Yerida? About 750, 000 Israelis live abroad more or less permanently (US, Emigration or Yerida? About 750, 000 Israelis live abroad more or less permanently (US, Canada, Europe, Australia) Shuttle movement to study and work Immigrants returning to origin countries: Russians 10% Americans 30% French 20% Keeping two homes