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Illustration: The Meshing of Words With Images Keep it as simple as possible, yet no simpler. Albert Einstein X-ray photograph of DNA [Rosalind Franklin, 1952]

Two types of illustrations exist: tables and figures Table 1. Reactor power levels in Chernobyl accident [Wolfson, 1991]. Pressurizer Date Time Power Level 4/25 1: 00 am 3200 MW 4/25 2: 00 pm 1600 MW 4/25 11: 10 pm 1600 MW 4/26 1: 00 am 30 MW 4/26 1: 19 am 200 MW 4/26 1: 23 am 2, 000 MW Coolant Loss Reactor Vessel Steam Generator Core Figure 1. Simplified diagram of nuclear reactor [Wolfson, 1991].

Tables can present words as well as numbers Table 2. Sequence of events in the Chernobyl accident [Wolfson, 1991]. Date Time Power Level Event April 25 1: 00 a. m. 3200 MW Operators begin power descent April 25 2: 00 p. m. 1600 MW Power descent delayed for 9 hours Emergency core-cooling system disconnected April 25 11: 10 p. m. 1600 MW Operators switch off automatic control Power descent resumed April 26 1: 00 a. m. 30 MW April 26 1: 19 a. m. 200 MW April 26 1: 23 a. m. 2, 000 MW Power minimum reached Operators pull rods beyond allowable limits Operators start two additional coolant pumps Operators violate coolant flow limits Power surges by factor of 10, 000 in 5 seconds

When presenting numerical data, you choose between tables and graphs Table 2. Blood glucose levels [Carlson, 1982]. Time (hour) Normal (mg/dl*) Diabetic (mg/dl) midnight 2: 00 4: 00 6: 00 8: 00 10: 00 noon 2: 00 4: 00 6: 00 8: 00 100. 3 93. 6 88. 2 100. 5 138. 6 102. 4 93. 8 132. 3 103. 8 93. 6 127. 8 109. 2 175. 8 165. 7 159. 4 72. 1 271. 0 224. 6 161. 8 242. 7 219. 4 152. 6 227. 1 221. 3 * decaliters/milligram 300 Breakfast Lunch Dinner 250 Diabetic Blood 200 Glucose Level 150 (mg/dl) 100 Normal 50 0 12: 00 6: 00 am 12: 00 6: 00 pm Hour Figure 11. Blood glucose levels for normal individual and diabetic [Carlson, 1982]. 12: 00

Line graphs are common in engineering and science 2000 1500 Temperature (K) 1000 Experiment Simulation 500 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Distance From Burner (mm) Figure 3. Computational and experimental temperatures for laminar diffusion flames [Sandia, 1987].

Bar graphs compare wholes 30 Normal range 20 7 -10 Cells% 10 112– 175 211– 366 Flight Duration (Days) Figure 4. Response of T-cells in cosmonauts after short-term and long-term flights [Konstantinova, 1991].

Gantt charts are a type of bar charts Task 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 Construction Test and Evaluation Power Production Figure 5. Schedule for the construction, evaluation, and production phases of the Solar One Power Plant. 1989

Pie graphs compare parts of a whole Medical and research wastes (16%) Industrial wastes (28%) Power Reactor Industrial Medical Government wastes (2%) Power reactor wastes (64%) Figure 5. Volume of low-level nuclear wastes from various sources [League, 1985].

Graphs come in many forms 85 mrem 70 mrem Average dose: 160 mrem Natural Sources Medical Sources { Fallout: < 3 mrem Occupational: < 1 mrem Nuclear power: < 1 mrem Figure 6. Estimated annual dose of radiation in the United States [GPU Nuclear, 1985].

When presenting images, you choose between photographs, drawings, and diagrams 4 1 Combustor 2 Compressor 3 Turbine

The main advantage of photographs is realism 60 seconds 59. 5 seconds 59 seconds Figure 2. Space Shuttle Challenger, from about 59 seconds to 60 seconds into launch (January 28, 1986). On the right rocket, flame first becomes visible and then impinges on tank.

One advantage of drawings is control of detail Combustor Simulator Turbine Vanes Secondary Flow Primary Flow Secondary Flow Dilution Jet Film-Cooling Holes Figure 5. Wind tunnel experiment at Virginia Tech for evaluating film-cooling designs for the blades of gas turbine engines [Thole and others, 2000].

The main advantage of a diagram is the ability to show flow of a variable through a system Figure 8. Schematic of test stand for evaluating components of an air conditioner design.

Scientists and engineers often use illustrations that are too complex for the text The thermal storage system stores heat in a huge, steelwalled tank. Steam from the solar receiver passes through heat exchangers to heat thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. A schematic of this system is shown in Figure 5. RECEIVER DSPH TSU TSH FLASH TANK FT DEARATOR TURBINE HP HTR Figure 5. Schematic of thermal storage system. HOT WELL T S S G

The precision of the illustrations should reflect the precision of the text The thermal storage system, shown in Figure 6, stores heat in a huge, steel-walled tank. Steam from the solar receiver heats a thermal oil, which is pumped into the tank. The tank then provides energy to run a steam generator to produce electricity. 650°F 580°F Thermal Tank Heat Exchanger solar receiver 435°F 575°F 425°F 530°F Heat Exchanger 425°F Figure 6. Schematic of thermal storage system for the solar power plant. steam generator 250°F

For clarity, you should introduce and explain illustrations in the text . . . , as shown in Figure 7. Title of figure. Some formats allow you extra sentences to explain unusual details.

Inconsistencies between text and images disrupt fluidity The testing hardware of the rocket shown in Figure 8 has five main components: camera, digitizer, computer, I/O interface, and mechanical interface. Commands are generated by the computer, then passed through the I/O interface to the mechanized interface where the keyboard of the ICU is operated. The display of the ICU is read with a television camera and then digitized. This information is then manipulated by the computer to direct the next command. CONTROL TERMINAL PRINTER CAMERA DIGITIZER ROCKET COMPUTER ELECTROMECHANICAL INTERFACE Figure 8. Testing hardware.

Illustration is the meshing of words with images Our system for testing the launch controls of the rocket consists of four main parts: computer, electro-mechanical interface, camera, and digitizer. In this system (shown in Figure 9), the computer generates test commands to the rocket through the electromechanical interface. The test results are read with a television camera, and then digitized. The computer receives the information from the digitizer, and then directs the next test command. 1 Computer 4 Digitizer 2 Electro. Mechanical Interface 3 Camera Figure 9. System to test launch controls for rocket. Rocket