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Illinois 2007 Ethnic/Racial Diversity 2. 1 million students in Illinois 45% minority Growing Diversity Illinois 2007 Ethnic/Racial Diversity 2. 1 million students in Illinois 45% minority Growing Diversity in Illinois and the Nation Right now Illinois Public Students Population consists of: White, Non-Hispanic Total Minority Population 54% 45% LEP students statewide 190, 000

Unit 2 Diversity covers a wide range of differences among students. n Low Income Unit 2 Diversity covers a wide range of differences among students. n Low Income Students n Minority Students n Students with Disabilities n Gender and Sexuality n Limited English Proficiency Students

Reflect for a moment. Give your honest opinion. Do you support collective bargaining for Reflect for a moment. Give your honest opinion. Do you support collective bargaining for public employees?

Reflect for a moment. Give your honest opinion. Do you support teachers being unionized? Reflect for a moment. Give your honest opinion. Do you support teachers being unionized?

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) n Why did Oliver Brown sue on behalf Brown v. Board of Education (1954) n Why did Oliver Brown sue on behalf of his daughter Linda for admission to her neighborhood school if as a moderate state (Kansas) Topeka schools both Black and white students were equal in teachers’ salaries, curriculum, and the most basic facilities?

PARENTS OF STUDENTS EXCLUDED FROM SCHOOLS TRIED TO CLAIM THEIR RIGHTS In 1885 and PARENTS OF STUDENTS EXCLUDED FROM SCHOOLS TRIED TO CLAIM THEIR RIGHTS In 1885 and 1948 California Courts ruled that minority children cannot be barred from attending public schools n n 1885 Chinese Students The California Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny “a child of Chinese parents entrance to public schools” based on the 14 th Amendment, but it stays silent on “separate but equal”. San Francisco builds separate schools for Chinese students. 1948 Latino Students Mendez family sues regarding segregated schools. The court ruled that separate but equal violated the equal protection clauses of the 14 th amendment and orders California public schools to desegregate.

Practices of School Segregation Based on Ethnicity Tape v. Hurley (1885) See information sheet Practices of School Segregation Based on Ethnicity Tape v. Hurley (1885) See information sheet on EPS 201/202 Homepage for Summaries of Tape v. Hurley and Mendez v. Westminster n n n In 1884, Chinese immigrants try to enroll their seven year old daughter Mamie Tape at the Spring Valley School, a San Francisco public school. San Francisco Board of Education policy prohibited Chinese children from attending the city’s public schools. The California Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional to deny “a child of Chinese parents entrance to public schools”

Practices of School Segregation Based on Ethnicity Tape v. Hurley (1885) See information sheet Practices of School Segregation Based on Ethnicity Tape v. Hurley (1885) See information sheet on EPS 201/202 Homepage for Summaries of Tape v. Hurley and Mendez v. Westminster n n While the court affirms the right of Chinese children to a public education based on the 14 th Amendment, it stays silent on “separate but equal”. The San Francisco Board of Education in response builds a public Chinese school which Mamie Tape is forced to attend.

What is the significance of Mendez vs. Westminster (1948)? Segregation for Latino Students in What is the significance of Mendez vs. Westminster (1948)? Segregation for Latino Students in California See Court Case Information Sheet on our homepage n n n Mendez family in Westminster in Orange County California in the 1940’s. . Two schools in Westminster, Hoover Elementary is designated for Latinos and 17 th Street Elementary for Whites. California Federal court rules in favor of Mendez setting the precedent for the ruling in Brown v. Board nine years later.

What is the significance of Mendez vs. Westminster (1948)? Segregation for Latino Students in What is the significance of Mendez vs. Westminster (1948)? Segregation for Latino Students in California See Court Case Information Sheet on our homepage n n The court ruled that separate but equal violated the equal protection clauses of the 14 th amendment and order California public schools to desegregate. The ruling is limited only to California. Judge Mc. Cormick the presiding judge argues that social equality must be a paramount requisite of American education.

1948 Mendez v. Westminster 2011 Medal of Freedom n n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? 1948 Mendez v. Westminster 2011 Medal of Freedom n n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=e. Mo. AXggpj_0 Sylvia Mendez 2011 Recipient of Medal of Freedom

ANALYTIC FRAMEWORK (Tozer) PE & Ideology explains why, what, how. IDEOLOGY IDEAS (See Tozer, ANALYTIC FRAMEWORK (Tozer) PE & Ideology explains why, what, how. IDEOLOGY IDEAS (See Tozer, Chapter 1) Explain and Justify how things work, the social arrangements. POLITICAL ECONOMY Institutions and practices in daily life Shared beliefs Social (family, religion, organizations, ethnicity/race, customs, etc. ) Shared values Groups differ- dominant Economic Political (Laws, Local, State, Federal) Schools **Demographics SCHOOLS Policies Administration School Design Community Facilities Safety Curriculum Resources Extra-curricular School culture Funding Teacher Training

IDEOLOGY of 19 th & 20 th Centuries 1850 -1950 Shared beliefs and values IDEOLOGY of 19 th & 20 th Centuries 1850 -1950 Shared beliefs and values of the white majority n n n Genetic Inferiority Social Darwinism IQ Testing-Inherited Intelligence, Social Darwinism Traditions of Racism White Supremacy Separate but “equal” Meritocracy

14 th Amendment All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens 14 th Amendment All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Answer these questions on the handout. 2 minutes, collaborate n n n Why did the 14 th amendment fail to protect rights of African Americans prior to Brown? Is it legal for a school district to close its schools and deny students access to public education? Yes No If the public schools were closed, who do you think would be responsible for getting them reopened (list several responsible stakeholders)?

Why did the 14 th amendment fail to protect the rights of African Americans Why did the 14 th amendment fail to protect the rights of African Americans and other minorities? The 14 th Amendment interpreted by GOVERNMENT Congress, Federal Courts, States, and localities. States continued to set laws, and the Federal government did not interfere. The 14 th amendment was defined narrowly by the courts. Plessy virtually nullified the 14 th amendment. The law did not impact social customs. What role did courts play? Supported states until late 1930 s. Teachers’ pay, graduate schools (law, education)

After the Civil War 14 th Amendment and Reconstruction Would states continue protection of After the Civil War 14 th Amendment and Reconstruction Would states continue protection of freed Blacks after the end of Reconstruction? After Reconstruction ended, States curtailed the rights of free blacks. How did the Federal government act? Thomas Nast (1868) cartoon “This is a white man’s government”

Right after the end of the Civil War Former slave holding states instituted black Right after the end of the Civil War Former slave holding states instituted black codes Mississippi Black Codes: "Negroes must make annual contracts for their labor in writing; if they should run away from their tasks, they forfeited their wages for the year. Whenever it was required of them they must present licenses (in a town from the mayor; elsewhere from a member of the board of police of the beat) citing their places of residence and authorizing them to work. Fugitives from labor were to be arrested and carried back to their employers. Five dollars a head and mileage would be allowed such negro catchers. It was made a misdemeanor, punishable with fine or imprisonment, to persuade a freedman to leave his employer, or to feed the runaway. Minors were to be apprenticed, if males until they were twentyone, if females until eighteen years of age. Such corporal punishment as a father would administer to a child might be inflicted upon apprentices by their masters. Vagrants were to be fined heavily, and if they could not pay the sum, they were to be hired out to service until the claim was satisfied. Negroes might not carry knives or firearms unless they were licensed so to do. It was an offence, to be punished by a fine of $50 and imprisonment for thirty days, to give or sell intoxicating liquors to a negro. When negroes could not pay the fines and costs after legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to the lowest bidder. . "

Social History of Jim Crow Laws and customs of oppression. Anderson, p. 15 Social History of Jim Crow Laws and customs of oppression. Anderson, p. 15

Political Economy (Institutions and Practices) What forces most affected African Americans in daily life Political Economy (Institutions and Practices) What forces most affected African Americans in daily life 1865 -1954? n n n n n LEGAL CONSTITUTION ADVANCES EQUAL RIGHTS 13 th, 14 th, 15 th Amendments Anderson shows that equality of individuals was not protected by the Constitution prior to 14 th Amendment. LEGAL FEDERAL LAW FREE BLACKS TARGETED BY Reconstruction Act of 1867 BUT PROTECTION ended in 1877 withdrawal of Federal troops. LEGAL SUPREME COURT 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson “Separate and Unequal” ORGANIZATIONS KKK (fear) both in the North and South ACADEMY Science of Social Darwinism, IQ Testing Movement LEGAL STATE LAWS Jim Crow State and Local Governments (laws and regulations that limited rights, and voting [used literacy tests and poll taxes] for free Black males) SOCIAL PRACTICES Jim Crow Customs ECONOMY Limited Economic Power for Blacks Employment Structure: share cropping, low wage jobs, restrictions on work based on race CLASS High Levels of Poverty among former slaves SCHOOLS: Poorly funded, limited number of High Schools, 17 states plus D. C. had some form of forced legal segregation

IDEOLOGY of 19 th & 20 th Centuries 1850 -1950 Shared beliefs and values IDEOLOGY of 19 th & 20 th Centuries 1850 -1950 Shared beliefs and values of the white majority n n n Genetic Inferiority Social Darwinism IQ Testing-Inherited Intelligence, Social Darwinism Traditions of Racism White Supremacy Separate but “equal” Meritocracy

NATIONAL PROBLEM LEGAL SCHOOL SEGREGATION in 1950 Prohibited (light mix, dots) No legislation (white) NATIONAL PROBLEM LEGAL SCHOOL SEGREGATION in 1950 Prohibited (light mix, dots) No legislation (white) Required (dark) Local option (dark mix, slants)

CONSTITUTIONAL EQUALITY Equal access to schools today is based on the 14 th Amendment. CONSTITUTIONAL EQUALITY Equal access to schools today is based on the 14 th Amendment. But why did it fail to protect people prior to Brown? 14 th Amendment passed in 1868 Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. WHY?

Question: Why did the 14 th amendment fail to protect the rights of African Question: Why did the 14 th amendment fail to protect the rights of African Americans and other minorities? How was the 14 th Amendment interpreted by states and localities? States continued to set laws, and the Federal government did not interfere. The 14 th amendment was defined narrowly by the courts. Plessy v. Ferguson virtually nullified the 14 th amendment. Examples of court cases and laws that affirm it was weak. The law did not impact social customs. How did the court play a role? Supported states until the 1940 s.

Supreme Court Plessy v. Ferguson Anderson, p. 22 n 1896 Plessy boarded a train Supreme Court Plessy v. Ferguson Anderson, p. 22 n 1896 Plessy boarded a train and sat the in car designated for whites only. The court found that as long as he could ride the train, the state had the right to tell him where to sit, even though accommodations for African American passengers were inferior to the cars for white passengers. The picture is a caricature of African Americans, but not a likeness of Plessy, who was 1/8 African American and light skinned. SUPREME COURT DECISION (5 TO 4) NULLIFIED THE EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE of the 14 th Amendment ALLOWED SEPARATE AND UNEQUAL

What were the consequences of Plessy for schools? 1898 STATE COURT OF GEORGIA COMPLICIT What were the consequences of Plessy for schools? 1898 STATE COURT OF GEORGIA COMPLICIT in discrimination (Anderson, p. 26) EDUCATIONAL REGRESS Cumming v. Richmond (1899) Separate and Unequal n In 1898, Richmond County closed its only Courts would not uphold High School in the state for Black equal schools students, and used the funds for elementary schools n SUPPORTED HIGH SCHOOLS FOR WHITE STUDENTS Court ruled the closing was not discrimination, but based on trying to best serve the African American community. 1945 first public high school funded in this county in Georgia for African American students since 1898.

The legacy of Plessy v. Ferguson touches several generations of African Americans who do The legacy of Plessy v. Ferguson touches several generations of African Americans who do not have access to a high school education. In 1916, Mississippi, South Carolina, Louisiana, and North Carolina had no public high schools for African Americans. True or False? 1945 in the South, 77% African Americans of high school age were not enrolled in high school.

 EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES WERE LIMITED, CONTROLLED BY THE STATES (See Anderson pp. 23, 26, EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES WERE LIMITED, CONTROLLED BY THE STATES (See Anderson pp. 23, 26, 28 -29) In Mississippi: n n n 1890 s To prevent Blacks from voting--poll taxes and literacy tests for voting POLITICAL 1890 35% state school funds spent on black students who represented 60% of the school aged population 1940 REDUCED TO 13% state funds spent on black students who represented 57% of the school aged population 1940 half of the public schools for black children met in privately owned structures (double taxation) ECONOMIC 1960 80% of Mississippi’s black population had completed less than 9 years of school (Anderson)

WORLD EVENTS THAT MOVE AMERICAN SOCIETY TOWARD CHANGE JUST PRIOR TO BROWN V. BOARD WORLD EVENTS THAT MOVE AMERICAN SOCIETY TOWARD CHANGE JUST PRIOR TO BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION World War II A segregated Army After the War, Truman Desegregated Armed Forces. n Black veterans’ held high expectations of freedom after fighting to defend freedom in the world. Integration in Major League Baseball 1947 Cold War with Soviet Union—accused US of hypocrisy

What effect did World War II have on the attitude of the country and What effect did World War II have on the attitude of the country and the world about US practices of segregation? 1 million African Americans served in World War II. Over 500, 000 of these served overseas in a segregated armed forces. Medgar Evers World War II Veteran Returned to Mississippi and wanted to Vote.

After returning home from World War II, veteran Medgar Evers decided to vote in After returning home from World War II, veteran Medgar Evers decided to vote in a Mississippi election. n n n But when he and some other black ex-servicemen attempted to vote, a white mob stopped them. "All we wanted to be was ordinary citizens, “ Evers later related. "We fought during the war for America, Mississippi included. Now, after the Germans and Japanese hadn't killed us, it looked as though the white Mississippians would. . "

 Professor Anderson regards Brown as a WATERSHED moment. The Supreme Court committed to Professor Anderson regards Brown as a WATERSHED moment. The Supreme Court committed to equality. But he also addresses other failures of the Brown decision. Eyes on the Prize Awakenings in 1954 -1956 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=2 sy 2 r 3 q 7 Zf. E 8: 40 minutes

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) n Why did Oliver Brown sue on behalf Brown v. Board of Education (1954) n Why did Oliver Brown sue on behalf of his daughter Linda for admission to her neighborhood school if as a moderate state (Kansas) Topeka schools were equal in teachers’ salaries, curriculum, and the most basic facilities?

BROWN CASE Organized by NAACP Oliver Brown filed suit on behalf of his daughter BROWN CASE Organized by NAACP Oliver Brown filed suit on behalf of his daughter Linda (3 rd Grade) What did segregation mean? Forced busing, forced separation Who were the plaintiffs? Linda Brown and 12 others in Topeka, and similar cases in Delaware, Virginia, South Carolina, Kansas, and District of Columbia. http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=TTGHLdr-iak 5 minutes PBS

How did the Cold War rhetoric impact the Federal perspective about urging a positive How did the Cold War rhetoric impact the Federal perspective about urging a positive decision in the Brown Case? n Discuss and come up with some ideas to share.

CHANGE World War II raised concerns about race relations in US, the meaning of CHANGE World War II raised concerns about race relations in US, the meaning of freedom and equality. During the Cold War, USSR points to our hypocrisy—what does freedom mean in a country that segregates by law?

BROWN CASE n n n KANSAS WAS A MODERATE STATE Topeka schools were equal BROWN CASE n n n KANSAS WAS A MODERATE STATE Topeka schools were equal in teachers’ salaries, curriculum, and the most basic facilities. OTHER STATES Poorly funded schools in Delaware, Virginia, South Carolina, Kansas, and District of Columbia. NOT SEEKING JUST EQULAIZATION, STRIKE DOWN FORCED SEGREGATION Linda Brown

1954 Education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. “ 1954 Education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. “ —Chief Justice Earl Warren, May 1954 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=TTGHLdr-iak 5 minutes PBS What is the ESSENCE OF THE BROWN DECISION? “We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. ” Separation is a mark of inferiority

NAACP and Families INTENT was TO END “JIM CROW” custom and laws of segregation NAACP and Families INTENT was TO END “JIM CROW” custom and laws of segregation and discrimination. Brown overturned Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal” law of 1896 Brown ended segregation laws in 17 states and established CONSTITUTIONAL EQUALITY

“AWE and RESPECT” High hopes Write for 1 minute. Assess the meaning of this “AWE and RESPECT” High hopes Write for 1 minute. Assess the meaning of this picture. How was Brown viewed in this Chicago Defender political cartoon in 1954?

Those who opposed Brown advocated Gradualism Claim is: The court is moving too fast. Those who opposed Brown advocated Gradualism Claim is: The court is moving too fast. SO: “No job for a race horse” BUT: Had there been steady progress in race relations?

 1860 --? Jim Crow Laws and customs of second class citizenship Plessy v. 1860 --? Jim Crow Laws and customs of second class citizenship Plessy v. Ferguson Separate and “equal” 1896 until 1954 Brown 1954 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 LKlv. W 2 LD 3 s Edith Gee 2004 Massive Resistance 1957 – 1970 s Today Resegregation & Achievement and Opportunity Gaps Improved Graduation Rates But Still Disparities

“No good old days. ” “No good old days. ”

Forced Busing Forced Separation n n Linda Brown, 3 rd grade, was refused admission Forced Busing Forced Separation n n Linda Brown, 3 rd grade, was refused admission to a school 6 blocks from her home. She makes the walk to the bus stop to attend the segregated Monroe school.

Topeka, Kansas was a moderate state in the 1950 s n n Forced segregation Topeka, Kansas was a moderate state in the 1950 s n n Forced segregation in elementary schools, local option in upper grades. FIRST TIME In local court, a social psychologist argued that forced separation implies Linda and Cheryl inferiority of the segregated Brown 1953 group, this can impact ego identity and motivation to learn.

Did school segregation cause black children to prefer a white doll over a black Did school segregation cause black children to prefer a white doll over a black doll? Interview with Kenneth Clark 1988 WGBH http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=64 r. Sgf 0 i. Oh. Q&play next=1&list=PL 43 D 9 C 89 B 6 A 0 A 3 A 61 “

Urban Academy, New York A student made film. “Black Like Me” by high school Urban Academy, New York A student made film. “Black Like Me” by high school student Kiri Davis Reproduces the doll study used in Brown v. Board of Education with kids today. n http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=rjy 9 q 8 Vekm. E n 15 out of 21

http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=rjy 9 q 8 Vekm. E 3: 20 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=rjy 9 q 8 Vekm. E 3: 20

n ANOTHER HEADLINE New York Times headline on May 18, 1954: n ANOTHER HEADLINE New York Times headline on May 18, 1954: "A Sociological Decision: Court Founded Its Segregation Ruling On Hearts and Minds Rather Than Laws. " James Reston commented that "the Court's opinion reads more like an expert paper on sociology. " n Expert witness Kenneth Clarke presented evidence of a doll experiment to showed that Black children thought White dolls more preferable than Black dolls. Court ruled separation harms the hearts and minds of the separated group. (Video resource)

Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. " —Chief Justice Earl Warren, May 1954 Chief Justice Earl Warren, who justified the significance of education in the Brown decision as being "the very foundation of good citizenship. " n “… for the policy of separating the races is usually interpreted as denoting the inferiority of the negro group. A sense of inferiority affects the motivation of a child to learn. Segregation with the sanction of law, therefore, has a tendency to [retard] the educational and mental development of negro children and to deprive them of some of the benefits they would receive in a racial[ly] integrated school system. n We conclude that, in the field of public education, the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. ”

ANOTHER REACTION TO BROWN 1954 Thomas Brady, a Mississippi congressman called for the end ANOTHER REACTION TO BROWN 1954 Thomas Brady, a Mississippi congressman called for the end of public schools. RESISTANCE TOOK MANY FORMS “MASSIVE RESISTANCE”

The court added with…. Brown II 1955 The court added with…. Brown II 1955

DO NOTHING OR MASSIVE RESISTANCE DO NOTHING OR MASSIVE RESISTANCE

1957 -1958 Massive Resistance State vs. Federal troops http: //www. smithsonianglobalsound. org/trackdetail. aspx? itemid=5541 1957 -1958 Massive Resistance State vs. Federal troops http: //www. smithsonianglobalsound. org/trackdetail. aspx? itemid=5541

OUTCOME of BROWN: Some schools desegregated, but the school climate was frequently hostile. Some OUTCOME of BROWN: Some schools desegregated, but the school climate was frequently hostile. Some communities resist ---Massive Resistance http: //www. smithsonianglobalsound. org/trackdetail. aspx? itemid=5541 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=HH-e. C 4 Lg. ZT 4 1957 Little Rock Nine With protection of Federal Troops, the students attended school in 1957 -58.

n STATE OF ARKANSAS My name is Terry Roberts, From Little Rock I come. n STATE OF ARKANSAS My name is Terry Roberts, From Little Rock I come. I went down to the schoolhouse, The place they kept me from. I went down to that schoolhouse, And this is what I saw. . . State troopers with steel helmets In the State of Arkansas. I went up to the troopers And said, "Please let me in. " And all their guns were pointed At the color of my skin. They kept me from that schoolhouse Where I'd be by law. And that's what they call justice In the State of Arkansas. Words: Dave Arkin; Music: State of Arkansas n Now his name is Orval Faubus, The governor of the state, He sent his army charging down, Nine kids at the gate. Three hundred National Guard were there Dressed up to fight a war, And that is why I'm late for school In the State of Arkansas. Oh listen, Mr. Governor, And Mr. President, too. Give me that constitution That's what you've got to do. Give me that constitution I ask for nothing more. Yes, that's what I want to study In the State of Arkansas. I've traveled this wide world over, Some ups and downs I've saw, But I never knew what misery was Til I hit old Arkansas.

n n Melba Pattillo Beals 1957 One of the Little Rock Nine Warriors Don’t n n Melba Pattillo Beals 1957 One of the Little Rock Nine Warriors Don’t Cry (1994)

Hostility and views of inferiority stand in the way in diverse schools What is Hostility and views of inferiority stand in the way in diverse schools What is the difference between a desegregated and integrated school? DESEGREGATED Students go to school together, but minority students are not comfortable, not treated as equal, nor given the same educational opportunities in the curriculum. What is SECOND GENERATION SEGREGATION? (Spring Ch. 3) INTEGRATED A mix of minority and white students and equal treatment and similar success for all students.

1958 -1959 Massive Resistance Little Rock HS The next year…. . “This school is 1958 -1959 Massive Resistance Little Rock HS The next year…. . “This school is closed by order of the Federal Government” What is wrong with the message on this sign?

MASSIVE RESISTANCE IN VIRGINIA In Prince Edward County schools for Black students were severely MASSIVE RESISTANCE IN VIRGINIA In Prince Edward County schools for Black students were severely under funded. In 1958 schools were ordered to desegregate. Anderson, 32

MASSIVE RESISTANCE IN VIRGINIA In Prince Edward County schools for Black students were severely MASSIVE RESISTANCE IN VIRGINIA In Prince Edward County schools for Black students were severely under funded. In 1958 schools were ordered to desegregate Anderson, 31 -32 n n n Is it legal for a school district to close its schools and deny students access to public education? If the public schools were closed, who do you think would be responsible for getting them reopened? Schools were closed in Prince Edward County, Virginia to avoid desegregation. How many years were schools closed?

Griffen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County n n n n 1959 Griffen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County n n n n 1959 Prince Edward County shuts down schools NAACP sues Virginia passes a law closing all schools that desegregate n Law struck down in the courts Prince Edward County Board votes to close schools n Opens private academy, gives white students vouchers paid for with state and local public funds Court strikes down vouchers, but declines to rule on school closings, so system continues. Virginia Court rules counties are authorized, but not required to provide schools, so system continues. 1964 Supreme Court strikes down the use of vouchers for only a few students, but it also declines to rule on school closings. Virginia desegregates schools.

What were the consequences for Black students? Griffen v. County School Board of Prince What were the consequences for Black students? Griffen v. County School Board of Prince Edward County n In 1964 the Supreme Court holds that closing the public schools and appropriating public money to support private, segregated education violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

“Lost generation” February 2003 200 received honorary diplomas (Anderson, 32) Virginia State of Virginia, “Lost generation” February 2003 200 received honorary diplomas (Anderson, 32) Virginia State of Virginia, Issues regret “…. . severely affected the education of African American students, wounding the human spirit, and ultimately contributing to job and home losses, family displacements and separation, and a deep sense of despair within the African American community. ” n n Awarded “honorary” diplomas Scholarship fund for GED or to support college attendance today. EDITH GEE

Professor James Anderson “A Tale of Two Browns” and “The Historical Context for Understanding Professor James Anderson “A Tale of Two Browns” and “The Historical Context for Understanding the Test Score Gap” The most famous court case in US schooling BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION Outcome? Two ways of viewing this case. There is “A Tale of Two Browns” “AWE AND RESPECT” and “A TROUBLED LEGACY” Derrick Bell asks “How could a decision that promised so much and, by its terms, accomplished so little? ” (Anderson, 14 -15)

n First Tale: A Landmark in Democracy In a nation deeply conflicted about equality n First Tale: A Landmark in Democracy In a nation deeply conflicted about equality (see the history of the battle over voting in D. C. , backlash against equal rights--Sumner’s lost campaign for naturalized citizenship, Sumner’s lost campaign on 1875 Civil Rights act, Supreme Court decisions 1873, 1896 narrows 14 th Amendment. n LANDMARK Overturn Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 (Separate and unequal) constitutional rights for students with disabilities, girls, limited English proficiency, minority students n LANDMARK After 1954 impact felt beyond education— in civil rights, housing, employment, social rights.

Conclusions: Brown brought a reinterpretation of the 14 th Amendment. Laws could not separate Conclusions: Brown brought a reinterpretation of the 14 th Amendment. Laws could not separate citizens or be used to provide separate and unequal treatment. Brown decision led to greater constitutional equality n n Institutions and daily life: schooling, housing, busing, employment, etc. Anderson, p. 15, 22 BROWN was a bridge to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 n The 1964 Civil Rights Act made racial discrimination in public places, such as theaters, restaurants and hotels, illegal. It also required employers to provide equal employment opportunities. Projects involving federal funds could now be cut off if there was evidence of discriminated based on color, race or national origin. (See Spring, Chapter 3 for description)

 “AWE AND RESPECT” for Brown: CONSTITUTIONAL EQUALITY LONGTERM IMPACT FOR SCHOOLING -- ADVANCED “AWE AND RESPECT” for Brown: CONSTITUTIONAL EQUALITY LONGTERM IMPACT FOR SCHOOLING -- ADVANCED EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS For ALL STUDENTS Girls and women, students with disabilities, limited English speaking students, and in the 1990 s gay, lesbian and transgendered students. BUT Educational rights were not automatic: INDIVIDUAL (S) had to SUE and go to COURT—after success in court THEN FEDERAL LEGISLATION followed.

n Second Tale: A Doubled-Edged Sword after Brown…. n n n Resistance (Prince Edward n Second Tale: A Doubled-Edged Sword after Brown…. n n n Resistance (Prince Edward County Virginia) School districting used as a strategy to nullify desegregation efforts (Milliken v. Bradley 1974) Loss of teaching and administrative jobs for Blacks n Those Black teachers who were retained? n n n http: //www. pbs. org/onlyateacher/about 3. html Brown and 100 Progress in high school attendance and graduation rates Opportunity/Achievement GAP today due to educational inequalities* see Stanford Chart on Inequalities in US

The history of schooling includes a major struggle for equal education by many different The history of schooling includes a major struggle for equal education by many different groups of students. Democracy is a work in progress CONTEXT POLITICAL ECONOMY BACKED BY IDEOLOGY n n n + 1868 14 th Amendment Should have made all persons equal under the law + - 1885 California affirms public schools for all, but School Board creates separate schools for Chinese students - 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson --Court ruled in favor of legal segregation - 1899 Cumming Case showed that education did not have to be equal even if separate + 1945 Mendez Case in California struck down segregation for Mexican American/Latino students + 1954 Brown Jubilation -- will effect practices beyond schools, housing, transportation, public accommodations. + 1955 Brown II “All deliberate speed” - 1955 -1970 DO NOTHING or MASSIVE RESISTANCE -Prince Edward county closes all schools rather than desegregate, Virginia funds private schools for white students. + 1964 Griffen v. School Board of Prince Edward County + 1964 Civil Rights Act, prohibited discrimination based on race, ethnicity, and nationality could withdraw Federal funds. - 1960 s-1980 s Loss of jobs for Black principals and teachers (Anderson, 29 -31)

Negative Effect of Desegregation on Black Teachers and Principles: Unintended Consequences of Brown Anderson, Negative Effect of Desegregation on Black Teachers and Principles: Unintended Consequences of Brown Anderson, 29 -31 n n n Closing of black schools, the loss of black schools as important social and cultural institutions, a source of community pride. 38, 000 black teachers lost their jobs in southern and border states between 1954 -1964, another 21, 515 teachers lost their jobs between 1984 -1989. The number of Black Principals also declined dramatically.

Re-segregation of Today’s Schools http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 LKlv. W 2 LD 3 Re-segregation of Today’s Schools http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 LKlv. W 2 LD 3 s May 17, 2009 55 th Anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education West Charlotte High School, North Carolina 2009

Why does this separation of students occur today? Work together for 2 minutes and Why does this separation of students occur today? Work together for 2 minutes and develop a list of reasons why.

n SUMMARY OF DESEGREGATION AS A RESULT OF BROWN n n n 1950 -1960 n SUMMARY OF DESEGREGATION AS A RESULT OF BROWN n n n 1950 -1960 s Little change 1970 s-1980 s Desegregated schools increase in number, and reach a peak in the mid-1980 s 1990 s Schools become more segregated

DISAPPOINTMENT What are the key educational issues of the troubled legacy of Brown? 1. DISAPPOINTMENT What are the key educational issues of the troubled legacy of Brown? 1. Ethnic/racial disparities in academic achievement then and still today Concern today about the OPPORTUNITY GAP See Oakes and Lipton reading Unit 1, Chapter 1 “The American Schooling Dilemma” 15 -25) 2. Resegregation of public schools, improved in 1980 s, decline in 1990 s. 3. Wide disparities in public school funding

Anderson “The Historic Context for Test Score Gap” (pages 10 -21) What progress has Anderson “The Historic Context for Test Score Gap” (pages 10 -21) What progress has been made? “The High School Completion Gap” SOME EDUCATION GAPS HAVE BEEN ELIMINATED FOR MINORITY STUDENTS n ACCESS TO HIGH SCHOOL (Still struggle with differences in QUALITY of high schools between suburban, urban and rural districts) SUBSTANTIVE PROGRESS HAS BEEN MADE IN GRADUATION RATES n HIGHER NATIONAL GRADUATION RATES (Some schools still have VERY high dropout rates)

Anderson, “The Historic Context for Test Score Gap” Recognize some progress. Especially dramatic in Anderson, “The Historic Context for Test Score Gap” Recognize some progress. Especially dramatic in the South-HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION Advances in high school graduation among African American students especially in the SOUTH which resisted providing high school access (Anderson, Tale of Two Browns, 29; Anderson “Historical Context” 10 -14) n 1960 most African Americans obtained at most an eighth grade education n 1970 25 and older, 31% high school graduates n 1997 25 -29 year olds 86% high school graduates

HOW SHOULD WE READ THE TEST SCORE GAP? What’s are the problems? Lack of HOW SHOULD WE READ THE TEST SCORE GAP? What’s are the problems? Lack of Increase in National Test Scores (NAEP)

NAEP Trends National samples of students Black/ White test score gap n NAEP Trends National samples of students Black/ White test score gap n

What conclusions does Anderson draw regarding the emphasis on the achievement gap? n Achievement What conclusions does Anderson draw regarding the emphasis on the achievement gap? n Achievement Gap part of a larger issue of limited increases by all students (white and black) on standardized tests. What do the scores reveal about minority students? n Minority students decreased the test score gap in the 1980 s, even though most were served more poorly funded schools. n n Black and Latino students made gains in closing the achievement gap over the past 30 years. Younger minority students have decreased the achievement score gap more than older students. More research needed as to why these gains are not maintained.

What conclusions does Anderson draw regarding the emphasis on the achievement gap, what is What conclusions does Anderson draw regarding the emphasis on the achievement gap, what is missing in the analysis? Lessons of history n n n Recognition of the progress that was made in the history of education by minority students. Recognition of the capacity of minority students to achieve with opportunities to learn. Recognition of the need to draw on the strength of minority communities to help develop successful school reforms. Attend to QUALITY EDUCATION especially opportunities to learn in schools and needed investments in education. ANOTHER COMPLICATION IN TEST CIRCUMTANCES Recognition of how test scores and school experiences can be effected by negative stereotypes. STEREOTYPE THREAT

Recent research by Stanford Professor Claude Steele (see Anderson, 2004, 20) Recognition of how Recent research by Stanford Professor Claude Steele (see Anderson, 2004, 20) Recognition of how test scores and school experiences can be effected by negative stereotypes. STEREOTYPE THREAT Even among the brightest most talented students. Negative stereotypes can impact the testing conditions and test strategies of even gifted students. Stereotyped threat-social psychology http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=n. GEUVM 6 Qu. Mg&feature=related

Offered some solutions: Low interest loans for STEM teacher education, forgive if teach in Offered some solutions: Low interest loans for STEM teacher education, forgive if teach in needy schools Provide incentives to teach in needy schools Reduce emphasis on testing Smaller class size for struggling students Stabilize the teaching force, reduce teacher attrition by improved working conditions, support, and > pay.

 1860 --? Jim Crow Laws and customs of second class citizenship Plessy v. 1860 --? Jim Crow Laws and customs of second class citizenship Plessy v. Ferguson Separate and “equal” 1896 until 1954 Brown 1954 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 LKlv. W 2 LD 3 s Exam 2, be ready to Analyze the legacy of Brown v. Board Edith Gee 2004 Massive Resistance 1957 – 1970 s Today Resegregation & Achievement and Opportunity Gaps Improved Graduation Rates But Still Disparities